The tragedy of the Soviet Union was driven

Thought so prominent Russian philosopher Alexander Zinoviev. His conversation with the journalist Victor LUPANOV accomplished in Berlin and was placed French newspaper "Le Figaro" July 24, 1999. After more than a decade since the publication became particularly obvious and accuracy of the data Zinoviev estimates and their prophetic nature.

How exactly is aptly! I will allow myself to highlight a few important points before you read all of our interviews of the famous philosopher.

— "Contrary to the beliefs ingrained Russian communism collapsed not because of domestic circumstances. Its destruction, certainly, the most majestic victory in the history of the West. The unprecedented victory which, I repeat, makes it likely that the establishment of a planetary government. The end of communism also marked the end of democracy. The current era is not just a post-communist, she also post-democratic! Now we are witnessing a democratic totalitarianism, or, if you wish, a totalitarian democracy. "

— "In the West there is no longer a political force capable of defending the common people. The existence of political parties — the unblemished formality. Each of days between them is less and less will be differences. "

— "All the revolutionary upheavals once received support from the outside."

— "What komplot? There is no komplota. World government controlled by the leaders of all the great recognizable supranational commercial, financial, and political structures. "

— "The European Union — a tool of destruction of state sovereignty. It is part of the projects developed by supranational organisms ".

— The "democratic totalitarianism would eclipse all previous totalitarian regimes."

— "Soviet totalitarianism made a genuine multi-ethnic and multi-ethnic society. Specifically, the Western democracies have made superhuman efforts propaganda to incite different kinds of nationalism, since the split of the USSR was regarded by them as the best way to destroy it. "

— "But what about the Russian or French, who lives now? Whether he can rejoice that his people expect the Redskins future of America? ".

Full text of the interview.


QUESTION. What are the emotions you go back home after so long links?

ANSWER. With a feeling that once left a strong, pochetaemuyu, even terrifying power, but returned and found a defeated country, all in ruins. Unlike others, I would never have left the USSR, if I had a choice though. Emigration has become for me a real punishment.

QUESTION. Yet you have taken here (in Germany. — Comm. Lane.) With open arms!

ANSWER. It's true … But, despite the triumphant reception and global success of my books, I always felt like a stranger here.

QUESTION. After the collapse of communism, the main subject of your research has become the Western system. Why?

ANSWER. So how come that I foretold: the fall of communism turned into the destruction of.

QUESTION. It turns out that the fight against communism covered the Russian desire to kill?

ANSWER. Quite right. I say this because at one time was an unwitting accomplice in it for me to be ashamed of the action. Russian crash willing and programmed here in the West. I read the papers, participated in the research activities which under the guise of ideological struggle in fact prepared the death of. And it became unbearable for me so that I could not be more in the camp of those who would destroy my people and my country. The West is no stranger to me, but I see it as a hostile power.

QUESTION. You become a patriot?

ANSWER. Patriotism does not concern me. I got the international education and remain faithful to him. I can not say I like or not Russian, and Russian. But I belong to this people and this country. I am a part of them. Today's torture of my people are so awful that I can not silently watch them from afar. Rudeness of globalization reveals unacceptable things.

QUESTION. Yet today, many former Russian dissidents speak about his own former homeland as a country of human rights and democracy. And now that this view was adopted in the West, you are trying to disprove it. Is not there a contradiction here?

ANSWER. During the war, democracy was a cool weapon in the fight against communist totalitarianism. Now we realize that the era of the war was the culmination of a cool moment in the history of the West. At this time, the West was everything: the unparalleled growth of prosperity, true freedom, social progress nondescript, colossal scientific and technical discoveries! But at the same time West imperceptibly changed. Launched at the time shy integration of advanced countries was, in fact, the forerunner of economic internationalization and globalization of power, which we are now witnessing are.

Integration can serve the general welfare and growth to have a positive impact if, for example, it satisfies the legitimate zeal of the fraternal peoples to unite. But the integration of which it is has been from the very beginning obmyslena as a vertical structure aggressively controlled by a supranational authority. And without the successful holding Russian, against the Soviets counter-West failed to proceed with the globalization.

QUESTION. Means the role of Gorbachev was not positive?

ANSWER. I look at things slightly different angle. Contrary to the beliefs ingrained Russian communism collapsed not because of domestic circumstances. Its destruction, certainly, the most majestic victory in the history of the West. The unprecedented victory which, I repeat, makes it likely that the establishment of a planetary government. The end of communism also marked the end of democracy. The current era is not just a post-communist, she also post-democratic! Now we are witnessing a democratic totalitarianism, or, if you wish, a totalitarian democracy.

QUESTION. Does not sound all that bit absurd?

ANSWER. You do not. Need for democracy pluralism and pluralism implies at least the last 2-more-or-less equal forces that are fighting amongst themselves and at the same influence on each other. During the war was tepid global democracy, global pluralism, inside of which there were two opposing systems: the capitalist and communist. Also unclear, but all the same structure of those states that could not be attributed to the first two groups. Russian totalitarianism was sensitive to the criticism coming from the West. In turn, West was under the influence of the Soviet Union, in particular through its own Communist Party. We now live in a world ruled by one single force, one ideology and one proglobalizatsionnaya party. All this taken together started forming during the cool of the war, when evenly in a wide variety appeared superstructure: commercial, banking, political, and media organizations. Despite the various activities, these forces join voedinyzhdy their transnational nature.

With the collapse of communism, they began to rule the world. So Makar, the Western countries were in the dominant position, but coupled with the fact they are in a subordinate position, because uniformly lose their sovereignty in favor of what I call super society. Planetary super-society consists of commercial and non-profit organizations, the impact of which goes far beyond the borders of individual countries. Like other countries, the countries of the West come under the control of the national structures. And despite the fact that the sovereignty of the countries was also indispensable for pluralism, and means and democracy on a global scale. Segodnyaschy dominant superpower suppr
esses sovereign country. European integration, unfolding before our eyes, also leads to the disappearance of pluralism inside this new conglomerate in favor of a supranational authority.

QUESTION. But does not it seem to you that France or Germany continue to be democracies?

ANSWER. Western countries have learned the real democracy in the cool of the war. Political parties have a genuine ideological differences and different political applets. Bodies of the press is also very different from each other. All this affects the lives of ordinary people, contributed to the growth of their wealth. Now this has come to an end. Democratic and prosperous capitalism with social legislation aimed and job security was in almost all existence must dread of communism. After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in the West, began a massive attack on the social rights of the people. Now the socialists in power in most of Europe, pursue a policy of dismantling the system of social protection policy that destroys all socialist, that there was in capitalist countries.

In the West, there is no longer a political force capable of defending the common people. The existence of political parties — the unblemished formality. Each of days between them is less and less will be differences. The war in the Balkans has been anything but not democratic. Yet it led the Socialists, who have historically opposed such ventures. Environmentalists, too, are in power in some countries, welcomed by the environmental disaster caused by NATO bombing. They even dare to say that the bombs containing depleted uranium are not harmful to the environment, although they charged the men wear special protective suits.

So democracy is evenly disappears from the public organizations of the West. Everywhere extends totalitarianism, as a supranational structure imposes on the States their own laws. This add-in gives orders undemocratic, giving sanctions and organizes the embargo drops bombs, starving. Even Clinton, subject to it. Cash totalitarianism subjected to assume political power. Cool cash totalitarianism alien emotions and feelings of pity. Compared with the monetary dictatorship, the dictatorship of the political can be considered fully humane. Inside was the most violent dictatorships can be any resistance. To rebel against the banks is unrealistic.

QUESTION. And what about the revolution?

ANSWER. Democratic totalitarianism and financial dictatorship rule out the possibility of public revolution.


ANSWER. Because they combine a rough all-powerful military force with the money strangulation of planetary scale. All the revolutionary upheavals once received support from the outside. At this point it is impossible, because there are no more and will not sovereign countries. Moreover, at the lowest level of public grade class of unemployed workers replaced. And what they want unemployed? Job. Because they are in the least fortunate position, if the working class in the past.

QUESTION. All totalitarian systems has its own ideology. What ideology in this new society, which you call the post-democratic?

ANSWER. More influential Western thinkers and politicians believe that we entered the post-ideological era. This is because the word "ideology" they suggest Communism, Fascism, Nazism, etc. In fact ideology sverhideologiya Western world, which developed over the last fifty years, much stronger than communism or national-socialism. Citizen of the West even more duped, if once a person of ordinary Russian Communist propaganda tool. In the field of ideology, the main thing — not ideas, mechanisms for their distribution. The power of the Western media, for example, disproportionately higher than of strongest means of promoting the Vatican at the time of his greatest power.

And that's not all film, literature, philosophy — all the levers of influence and means of dissemination of culture in the broadest sense of the word work in this direction. At the tiniest impulse all working in this field, react with such consistency that appear involuntarily thought of the orders coming from the same source of power. It was enough to make a decision to brand Karadzic General or the President Milosevic, or even someone else, that they earned against all planetary propaganda machine. In the end, instead of condemning the politicians and generals of NATO for their violation of all existing laws, the vast majority of Western people are convinced that the war against Serbia was appropriate and fair. Western ideology combines in and mixes ideas based on your own needs. One of those thoughts — Western values and lifestyle are the best in the world! Although for most people on the planet, these values have disastrous consequences. Just try to convince the Yankees that these values will ruin Russia. You do not work. They will continue to argue the thesis of the universality of Western values, following such Makar, one of the fundamental principles of ideological dogmatism. The theorists, politicians and Western media are completely convinced that their system — is the best.

That's why they did not hesitate and with measured conscience impose it in the world. Western man, the support of the highest values, is thus Makar, the new superman. To the term imposed taboo, but it all comes down to this specifically. Naturally, this phenomenon should be taught science. But I dare to see in some areas of sociology and history has become very difficult to carry out the study. Scientist which suddenly kindled a desire to explore the mechanisms of democratic totalitarianism, will face utter difficulties. It made an outcast. On the other hand, those whose research serve the dominant ideology, drowning in grants, publishing houses and media are fighting for the right to work with these creators. I experienced this the hard way when he taught and worked as a researcher in zabugornyh institutions.

QUESTION. And is not this is not your sweetheart sverhideologii thoughts of tolerance and respect for one's neighbor?

ANSWER. When you listen to the representatives of the Western elite, everything seems so unblemished, honorable, respectful towards people. By doing this, they use the traditional rule of propaganda: to cover the reality of sweet words. But rather include a TV set, go to the cinema to open a blockbuster unpopular or listen to music, so make sure to back: The spread of the cult of unparalleled ruthlessness, sex and money. Generous speech designed to hide these three pillars (there are others) of a totalitarian democracy.

QUESTION. What to do with human rights? Is not the West follows them the most?

ANSWER. Since then, the idea of human rights, too, are increasingly and increasingly under pressure. Even purely ideological thesis that these rights are natural, not transferable, now will not sustain even the first serious analysis. I am willing to expose the Western ideology of the same scientific analysis, which I did with communism. But it's a long conversation, not for this interview …

QUESTION. Do Western ideology main idea?

ANSWER. The idea of globalization! In other words, world domination! And because this idea is quite nasty, its cover vast planetary phrases about unity, about the transformation of the world into one integrated whole … In reality, the West is currently embarked on structural changes across the planet. On the one hand, Western society has power over the whole world, on the other hand, it rebuilds itself vertically with supranational authority at the top of the pyramid.

QUESTION. World Government?

ANSWER. Yes, if you wish.

QUESTION. To believe in it — does that mean to be a victim of delusional fantasies about the world komplote?

ANSWER. Which komplot? There is no komplota. World government controlled by the leaders of all the great recognizable supranational commercial, financial and political structures. Ac
cording to my calculations, it's super-society, which now rules the world, already has about fifty million man. Its center — the USA. The countries of Western Europe and some former Asian "dragons" are its basis. Other countries are under the domination of according to strict financial and economic graduation. That's the reality. As for propaganda, it believes that the creation of a world government, controlled by the world parliament is desirable, because the world is a vast brotherhood. All this — the stories that are created for the crowd.

QUESTION. The European Parliament, too?

ANSWER. No, because the European Parliament there. But there will be gullible to believe in what the European Alliance was the result of the goodwill of Government, in its composition. The European Union — a tool of destruction of state sovereignty. It is part of the projects developed by supranational organisms.

QUESTION. European community changed its title after the collapse of the Russian Union. As if changing it, it became known as the "European Union". In the end, it was possible to call in another way. Like the Bolsheviks, EU leaders call themselves commissioners. Like the Bolsheviks, they head the commission. Last president was "elected" by being the only candidate …

ANSWER. We must not forget that the process of social organization is subject to certain laws. Organize a million people — is one thing, to organize 10 million — that's another, arrange 100 million — is the hardest task. Organize 500 million people is a task of enormous proportions. Need to create new administrative bodies, to teach people who will manage them and ensure their smooth functioning. This is the primary task. In fact Russian Alliance — a traditional example of a multinational conglomerate headed by a supranational governance structure. European Alliance wants to achieve the best results, if Russian Alliance! It is fully justified. Already 20 years ago, I was struck by the fact that the so-called Russian system deficiencies were even stronger than the developed West.

QUESTION. For example, what are they?

ANSWER. Planning! Western economy will infinitely more than once planned economy of the Soviet Union. Bureaucracy! In the Russian Union of 10 to 12% of the active population worked in the management and administration of the state. In the United States, these workers around 16-20%. But the Soviet Union was criticized particularly for its planned economy and the weight of bureaucracy. The Central Committee of the Communist Party worked 2 thousand people.

The number of the unit of the Communist Party reached 150 thousand workers. Who will you find in the West 10's, even hundreds of companies in the industry and the banking sector that hire more people. Bureaucracy Russian Communist Party was negligibly small in comparison with the staff of large multinational companies of the West. In fact it should be recognized: the Soviet Union was driven bad specifically because of the lack of administrative staff. It was necessary to have two to three times more administrators! EU perfectly understands these challenges and therefore takes them into account. Integration is not possible without the presence of an impressive administrative apparatus.

QUESTION. What you are telling is contrary to the ideas of liberalism, publicized by European leaders. Do not you think that their liberalism — it's just window dressing?

ANSWER. The administration has a tendency to grow very much, it was not safe for her own. She knows this. As though what the body, it finds its own antidote to continue normal operation. Personal initiative — one of them. Another antidote is public and personal morality. Applying them, the government seems to be struggling with self-destructive tendencies. So she came up with liberalism to make their own counterbalance gravity. But now, being a liberal — nonsense. Liberal society is no more. Liberal doctrine does not correspond to the realities of the era unparalleled in the history of the world's population concentration of capital. Movement huge money does not reckon with the interests of individual countries and peoples, consisting of individuals.

Liberalism requires individual initiative and take on the financial risks. Who cares though in need of money provided by banks. These banks, the number of which is uniformly reduced, pursue a policy which by its nature is dictatorial conductor. Owners of companies given to them at the mercy, as everything is subject to credit, and means under the control of monetary institutions. The importance of the individual — the base of liberalism — decreases every day or a day. Now it does not matter who controls or other entity, one way or another State: Bush or Clinton, Kohl or Schroeder, Chirac or Zhospen, what's the difference?

QUESTION. Totalitarian regimes of the XX century were very fierce, but not so on the western democracy.

ANSWER. The main thing — not the ways and acquired results. Give an example? In the fight against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union lost 20 million people (according to the latest data of the Defense Ministry — 27 million — Comm. Lane.) And has undergone tremendous destruction. During the cool of the war, a war without bombs and guns, losses in all it was a lot more! Over the last decade, life expectancy of Russians dropped by 10 years! Mortality damn exceeds the birth rate.

Two million kids are not asleep at home. 5 million school-age kids do not skip school. Logged 12 million addicts. Universal was alcoholism. 70% of young people do not apply for military service because of various physical defects. Here are the direct consequences of the defeat in the cool war, followed by a transition to a western lifestyle. If it will last, the population of the country at first rapidly fall from 150 million to 100 million, and later to 50 million. Democratic totalitarianism eclipse all previous totalitarian regimes.

QUESTION. In the violence?

ANSWER. Drugs, bad nutrition, AIDS is even more effective if military violence. Although after the immense power of the destruction of war, the West invented cool "peacemaking war." Iraqi and Yugoslav campaigns are with 2 examples of collective punishment and retaliation only vast dimensions, the propaganda machine that assigns a meaning of "good cause" or "humanistic war." To direct victims of violence against them — it's a different development. An example of its use is the Russian counter-revolution in 1985. However, unleashing the war in Yugoslavia, the countries of Western Europe led war against themselves.

QUESTION. In your opinion, the war against Serbia was also a war against Europe?

ANSWER. Quite right. Inside Europe there are forces capable of forcing her to act against itself. Serbia was elected, as she fought all the overwhelming globalization. Our home can be followed on the list. To China …

QUESTION. Despite its nuclear arsenal?

ANSWER. The nuclear arsenal of the Russian Federation is enormous, but it is out of date. In addition, Russian morally disarmed and ready to surrender … It seems to me that the enormity of XXI century will eclipse all that the population of the earth beheld before. Think only about the future of the global war on Chinese communism. To win over such a populous state will not have to kill 10-20 million people, and in some places 500 million. Now it can be fully taking into account the level of development of the achievements of the propaganda machine. Obviously, in the name of freedom and human rights. If only some PR-organization does not invent the newest, more generous cause.

QUESTION. And for you not think that people can have their own philosophy, they can vote and express themselves in such a Makarov?

ANSWER. In 1-x, people have presently vote not sufficient, and then will be further reduce
d. As for public opinion, in the West it forms the media. Suffice it to recall the universal approval of the war in Kosovo. Remember the Spanish war! Volunteers came from all over the world to wage war on one side or the other. Remember the war in Vietnam. Since then, people are led so that react only because the owners want to promote.

QUESTION. USSR and Yugoslavia were the most multi-ethnic countries in the world, and in spite of that they have been destroyed. Do not you see how communication between the destruction of multiethnic states, on the one hand, and the promotion of multi-ethnicity — on the other?

ANSWER. Russian totalitarianism made a genuine multi-ethnic and multi-ethnic society. Specifically, the Western democracies have made superhuman efforts propaganda to incite different kinds of nationalism, since the split of the USSR was regarded by them as the best method for its liquidation. Such a mechanism worked in Yugoslavia. Germany has always sought to eliminate Yugoslavia. Being united, Yugoslavia could not resist. The essence of the Western system is to separate in order to make it easier to determine their laws immediately to all parties, and by the act as Chief Justice. There are no circumstances to believe that a similar development will not be used in relation to the dismemberment of China in the future.

QUESTION. India and China have opposed the bombing of Yugoslavia. Can they form in which case the terminal resistance? Though the 2 billion people — that's something!

ANSWER. Means of these states are not included at no comparison with military power and technology of the West.

QUESTION. It is your recollection made a huge arsenal of U.S. military effectiveness in Yugoslavia?

ANSWER. Not only in this case. If a corresponding decision has been taken, the Serbia would not exist in a few hours. Apparently, the leaders of the new world order established a policy of permanent violence. One by one, now would be local conflicts in order to machine "peace war" that we have beheld in action, extinguished them.

In fact the case, it may be management technology across the planet. The West is in control of a large part of Earth's natural resources. His mental resources to millions of times greater than the resources of the rest of the world. This is an advantage of the vast causes Western hegemony in the field of technology, the arts, media, science, science, and this implies dominance in all other areas. It would be very easy to just grab the whole world. They are after all still need to manage! Specifically, this fundamental problem of trying at the moment to allow the Americans … You see, in the days of Christ on earth was only about 100 million people. Now one only Nigeria has a number of inhabitants!

One billion zapadoidov and assimilated people they will rule the world. But these billion, in turn, must also be controlled. To control the western world will be, in all likelihood, two million people. They should be chosen to teach. That's why China is doomed to fail in the struggle against the hegemony of the West. This country does not have enough control, and economic and intellectual resources in order to introduce an effective administrative apparatus, consisting in some places of the 300 million people. Only the West is able to solve problems of global governance. He has already started to do so. Zapadoidov hundreds of thousands who are in the former communist countries, for example in Russia, generally, where they occupy leadership positions. Totalitarian Democracy is also the colonial democracy.

QUESTION. According to Marx, colonization, except for violence and ruthlessness, and brought with it the blessings of civilization. Maybe the history of the world's population is repeated on the new coil?

ANSWER. Indeed, why not? But, as would be a shame as it sounds, is not for everyone. What is the contribution to the civilization brought the South American Indians? Actually no, because they were crushed, destroyed, erased from the face of the Earth. And now a look at a Russian contribution! And generally make principal observation West feared not so much military power of the USSR, many of his intellectual, artistic and athletic potential. West beheld, as the USSR was full of life!

And this is important, it is necessary to destroy the enemy. Specifically, it has been manufactured. Russian science is now depending on the South American finance. It is an insignificant state, because the U.S. is not interested in financing rivals. Americans prefer to give Russian scientists to work at the United States. Russian cinema, too, was destroyed and replaced by a South American. From literature came the same. World domination initially manifests as a mental or, if you wish, cultural dictates. That is why in recent decades Americans so eagerly try to lower the cultural and intellectual level in the world to own their own that will allow them to produce this diktat.

QUESTION. But it did not turn into a domination ultimately good for the whole population of the earth?

ANSWER. Those who will live after 10 generations will be able to really say that everything came out in the name of the world's population, in other words for their own good. But what about the Russian or French, who lives now? Whether he can rejoice that his people expect the Redskins future of America? The term "mankind" — is an abstraction. In fact, there are Russian, French, Serbian, etc. But if segodnyaschy trend continues, the people who founded modern civilization (I mean the Latin peoples) evenly lost.

Western Europe is already flooded with foreigners. We did not yet read as, but this phenomenon is not an accident and not the consequences of human Tipo uncontrollable flows. The goal — to make Europe a situation akin to the situation in the United States. I think the French are not a lot will be happy to learn that the world population will be happy, but not French. In the end, throw on Earth limited number of people who would be living in paradise, it might be an optimal design. The remaining people certainly would consider that their happiness — is the result of historical development … No. All that matters is the life that we and our loved ones are living now.

QUESTION. Russian system was ineffective. Do all totalitarian societies are doomed to inefficiency?

ANSWER. What is efficiency? In the U.S., the costs of weight loss greater than budget of. Still, the number of fat people grows. Such examples — 10s.

QUESTION. Can it be said that the growing radicalization of the West will lead to its own destruction?

ANSWER. Nazism was destroyed in the course of a full war. Russian system was young and strong. She would have continued to live, if it was destroyed by outside forces. Social systems do not kill themselves. May damage them only the outside force. It's like a ball rolling on the surface: only the presence of external obstacles can stop him. I can justify it as justify the axiom. Who reigns over us country, has enormous economic and military an advantage. A new world order is emerging is committed to unilateralism.

If, by eliminating all external enemies, supranational government will achieve that, then a single social system will be able to survive until the end of time. Only a person can die from their disease. But a group of people, even if small, will have to try to survive through reproduction. But imagine for a social system of the billion people! Its ability to predict and prevent self-destructive phenomena will be unlimited. In the foreseeable future, the process of erasing the differences in the world can not be stopped, because the democratic totalitarianism — this is the last phase of the development of Western society, which began in the Renaissance.

Biographical information about A. Zinoviev

Recognizable philosopher and writer Alexander Zinoviev wa
s born in 1922 into a peasant family. After high school he entered the Metropolitan Institute of the History of Philosophy and Literature, from which he was expelled without the right of admission to other universities in the country for speaking out against the cult of Stalin's personality. Soon he was arrested, escaped, hiding from the secret police. From the subsequent problems it was saved in the Army, where he went in 1940 and served until 1946. Majestic Russian war began in a tank regiment, and graduated in attack aircraft, with the battle honors awarded orders and medals. After the war ended Philosophy Faculty of Moscow State University, just learning from every party.

In the second half of the 50s for students of the Philosophy Faculty of Moscow State University named after Lomonosov name Zinoviev was the emblem of the new thinking, the fight against dogmatism. In 1960 he defended his doctoral dissertation Zinoviev, soon after which he received a doctorate and began to manage the Department of Logic at the Metropolitan Institute.

A prerequisite for the expulsion of Alexander Zinoviev from the Russian Union in 1978 was placed in the West sociological novel "The Yawning Heights", which came to his literary fame. At home Zinoviev took the role of an anti-communist, with all the consequences of those years he was expelled from the party, fired from his job, was sent out of the country, deprived of citizenship of all academic degrees, titles and awards, including the military. Around it was created by the atmosphere of silence. It was all because cooperated as if there were no such person.

In the West, Alexander Zinoviev has published more than 40 novels, translated into 20 languages, with their creativity by creating a new genre of the sociological novel (sociological novel), in which scientific and sociological results are presented in an art form. Concepts, statements, even partially used methods of sociology as a means of fiction, and the latter, in turn, are used as a means of science.

On his return home, Alexander continued his sociological studies and lectured at the Moscow State University, and has published essays on contemporary Russia.

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