Varangian question "- the central core of the infamous" Norman theory ", which for more than two and a half centuries of endeavor to bring Russian history of alien. Honor historical science is not delivered, but led to hopeless deadlock. Output in such cases is simple — similar to the Gordian knot: it can not untie, but you can cut.
For both parties — and Normanists antinormanistov — caught up in the same scheme: take for granted is that the Russian Vikings — just another name for the Scandinavian Vikings (Norsemen), who spoke or Swedish, or in Norwegian (sometimes allowed Danish option). Hence repeated several times in the "Tale of Bygone Years" arcade "Vikings = Russ" ("zvahu article varyazi Rus") led to a chain of ridiculous even from the point of view of common sense reasoning. Say, if the Vikings — it Scandinavians, then "Rus" (tribe whether the nickname given to the neighbors, or the area — does not matter) — well, simply has to be of Scandinavian origin. And began the search for a decent detective story of this most mythical "Rus" among Swedes, Norwegians and Finns.
But why? Where did that the Vikings — the Scandinavians? Indeed, in a famous passage of the vocation of Primary Chronicle Rurik and his brothers states only that the Vikings nickname Rus in the sense of ethnic and linguistic backgrounds, and from them came the name of Russia as a state ("those varyag prozvasya Russian land"). Not a word about Scandinavian roots (what the Vikings' because of the sea "or from Zamora, can be interpreted in different ways, what — on). But in the annals Nestorovoy strongly emphasized: Russian — Slavic, and Slavs of Novgorod race lead from his Vikings ("ti are the kind of lyude nougorodtsi varyazhska before bo Besch Slovenia"). Critical evidence, but it somehow historians ignore. But in vain! Here, because black and white registered: Varangian race was originally Slavic and Vikings together with Novgorod spoke Russian (Slavic) language! Because otherwise it turns out that the population of Novgorod (which after all, "the kind of Norman") and before calling Rurik, and in the future, I think, to use one of the Scandinavian languages (unless, of course, adhere to a dead-end formula "= Scandinavian Vikings") . Absurd? In fact — no other word!
Why Nestor the Chronicler, comma-separated list "offspring of Japheth": Vikings, Swedish, Norwegian, Goths, Russia, Britain, Galicians, Volokh, Romans, Germans, Venetians and others — did not announce Vikings Sweden or Norway (even though they are listed in the chronicle Russia called earlier) and does not claim that the Vikings speak Swedish or Norwegian? Yes, because for the Russian chronicler, as for all the Russian people of that era, it was absolutely clear that the Vikings — not the Swedes and Norway, and Russian are the same as they do — even so far as translators for communication is not required. But the fact that it was self-evident as early as the twelfth century to Nestor and his contemporaries, later proved a stumbling block for most readers and researchers, "The Tale of Bygone Years".
Not for everyone, of course. Even Mikhail Lomonosov in a violent dispute with German-Normanists Russophobes, tied at the Russian Academy of Sciences (with them that it all started), pointed to the lack of Russian language at least some words of Norman. How do you want to understand that age-old, and close contact between the two ethnic groups, the route "from the Varangians to the Greeks" through Russia, Varangian princes Varangian dynasty Varangian squad, Viking Guest (merchants), about two thousand Norman mounds of graves near Smolensk in Nest (where, along with the things of Scandinavian descent, found the oldest known until Russian inscriptions, inscribed on a clay pot) — and no proper Varangian words have survived. Even Khazars lexical memory left (Vladimir-Prince in "Sermon on Law and Grace" called Hagan), not to mention the Tatar-Mongol invasion. In Russian, a lot of Polonism, borrowing from German, French, English and many other languages — and suddenly no Norman words.
The answer to the question posed by Lomonosov, is obvious: no proper Norman language, especially from the Scandinavian, and never did not exist. For the Vikings — is Russia, but not in the sense of belonging to some unknown foreign tribes (unsuccessfully sililis prove Normanists), but in the sense of Slavic-Russian origin themselves and the language in which they spoke. For the first time this idea was formulated quite clearly passionate antinormanistov Yuri Venelin Ivanovich (1802-1839): "Russ and Russ — he wrote — as the people of Norman, Scandinavian, never existed, and there is only the fruit of a miserable interpretation, or the fantastic work of some prospectors. Nestor did not understand! Yes, they do not understand! "And results in favor of this thesis compelling arguments.
Venelin argument further developed antinormanistov historian, director of the Archaeological Commission and the Imperial Theaters, at the end of life — Hermitage director Stepan A. Gideons (1815-1878) in a permanent two-volume work "The Vikings and Russia" (St. Petersburg, 1876). Here the Vikings were not clearly assigned to the German-speaking Normans, and to the Baltic Slavs-Wagram, exterminated in brutal expansion of the Crusaders. In Search of Truth Gideon was on the right track, he correctly intepretiroval approval Primary Chronicle of ruskosti Vikings and their Slavic language. But needed to understand why the Vikings have played such a prominent role in the history of the world — and not destructive, but constructive and unifying. This task is only for energy-carrying population, close-knit community dedicated people who Lev Gumilev, developing teaching Vernadsky's biosphere, named passionaries. Endowed with a powerful energy potential and increased activity, they are by their nature were doomed to be counselors, encouraging them to put their trust in the masses to ugotovlennye their exploits and fated to become the driving force of historical progress. These would not allow you to cut yourself, like defenseless sheep, as happened with the Baltic Slavs.
Of course, you can call the Vikings and the tribe, but with a sufficient degree of conditionality. Rather, they are a special military brotherhood — a prototype for future orders of chivalry. They lived mainly on the coast of the Baltic Sea (Viking) Sea, but the record speaks of Zamora, and as such might well be the Arctic territory of the Arctic Ocean, located to the north of European Russia, the Baltic and the White Sea. Vikings were well organized, with extensive experience in all areas of economic life, trade, government, and especially — of the art. Therefore is applied to the 862-year Novgorod to Rurik and his brothers, as it were now, for the organizational help. And the Russian Vikings responded quickly and willingly, and then took part in the establishment of fruitful Russia and the Russian state.
In the future, the past passionarii North imperceptibly and without excessive noise disappeared from the horizon of the country's history. Since moved to the service of the Byzantine emperor, which formed the core of the palace guard. Varangian squad averaging times of up to six thousand persistent heroes and of excellent swordsman. Thanks to them, the Byzantine army won a lot of critical victories. Significantly both: in Constantinople Vikings always thought only Russian and Russian. Of course, appeared in the Russian-Norman troops and Scandinavians, but, as is now commonly expressed on a contract basis. By the way, European Normans had not called themselves the Vikings and becomes so only by entering into the Russian squad Varangian, when the term of the contract expired, they again became the Vikings. So close interaction between the Vikings and Scandinavians certainly was, but who influenced whom more — one more question. The same applies to so-called Scandinavian borrowing. Yes, clothing, weapons, religious items, utensils, ornaments, outdoor archaeologists, many Varangian specifics. That's just why must it be considered a Scandinavian. Why not consider a different option — borrowing more advanced Scandinavian achievements Varangian culture.
For when the Greeks meticulous asked our compatriots, who served in the Imperial Guard: "Where are you from, the Vikings?" — They did not hesitate to answer: "From Tula …" Wow otvetets, if you think about it. However, at Tula are not referring to a city in the central part of Russia, and ancient Hyperborea, the other — Tule. That's what is called the mysterious polar regions in the famous "Geography" of Strabo and other ancient writings of authors. Byzantines spoke of "huge island Tula", located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean. The root of its name in common with the Russian name of the city, but not the one. For example, the ancient capital of the Central American Toltec empire also named Tula. Place names from the root "Toole" in general are extremely common: Toulon and Toulouse in France, Tulcea — Romania, Tulchin — in Ukraine, Tulymsky Stone (range) — in the Northern Urals, the river in the Murmansk region — Tuloma, lake in Karelia — Tuulos .
According to the Dictionary by Vladimir Dal, the concept of "Tula" — a "hidden, inaccessible, secret place" — "Zatula", "Pritulo" ("tulit" — hide, hide, hide, etc.). There are other Russian words with this root, "Tulo, the body" — the body excluding the head, hands and feet (hence the same — "coat"), "tulo" — a quiver of the tube, which holds the boom (hence — "bush" ). Derived from the same root base in the Russian language is the word "rear" — head and all — back part of something, "tlo" — the base, the bottom (in modern language remained stable expression "to the ground"), "smolder" — rot or burn slightly, etc.
The significance and the etymology of the word "Vikings" also expressed a variety of assumptions. In the Russian language (see again V.Dal Dictionary) "Vikings" — "shopkeeper", "peddler of goods", a synonym for "Ofen" and "peddler" (in Ukrainian word "voryag" also means "fighter" "strong tall man"). In a slightly different sound — "Varyag" — the word means "agile", "lively", "agile" (people). So it is no reason to insist on the foreign origin of the word "Vikings", which until recently meant "trade visitor", "merchant". In this sense, the classical Bylina Vikings were Novgorod Sadko and Nightingale Budimirovich.
We can go even further. In "etymological dictionary of the Russian language" M.Fasmer given one very interesting explanation of the word "Vikings". Is in the past, it was a synonym — "klbyag" (it is used in the longer version of the "Russian Truth", dating from the twelfth century), meaning "the Vikings — Member of the [Brotherhood]." In general, this is consistent with the interpretation of the Vikings, not as ethnic group, and as a society. We can go even further. In "etymological dictionary of the Russian language" M.Fasmer given one very interesting explanation of the word "Vikings". Is in the past, it was a synonym — "klbyag" (it is used in the longer version of the "Russian Truth", dating from the twelfth century), meaning "the Vikings — Member of the [Brotherhood]." In general, this is consistent with the interpretation of the Vikings, not as ethnic group, and as a society. We can go even further. In "etymological dictionary of the Russian language" M.Fasmer given one very interesting explanation of the word "Vikings". Is in the past, it was a synonym — "klbyag" (it is used in the longer version of the "Russian Truth", dating from the twelfth century), meaning "the Vikings — Member of the [Brotherhood]." In general, this is consistent with the interpretation of the Vikings, not as ethnic group, and as a society.
So, perhaps, the Russian Vikings, even in the self-containing allusion to the ancient Aryan roots, and there are last Hyperboreans, the keepers of traditions lost ancestral Arctic? Not for nothing because the coast of the Arctic Ocean remained toponymic traces of the past and a long stay here Vikings. This — Varangsky Bay (Varanger Fjord), washed on the peninsula west of the Russian and Norwegian Fish-Varanger Peninsula. Incidentally the next bay to the west called the Yar-fjord: the first artificial words purely Russian, and most of all, connected with the name of a pagan Solntseboga Yarily. This, presumably, is that Zamora (or portion thereof), as mentioned in Russian chronicles. Essentially Varangsky = Viking = Hyperborean. So, perhaps, in the social structure of Norman military brotherhood (orders) is partly preserved archaic old Aryan caste class. So, perhaps, in the social structure of Norman military brotherhood (orders) is partly preserved archaic old Aryan caste class.
Rus roots go back to the Indo-European inaccessible depths of the past. It was born, lived through flowering, catastrophic upheaval and decline in the north, where the climate at that time was different than now. Gradually migrated south because of poor living conditions, many ancestors of the modern Indo-European ethnic groups (Indians, Iranians, Greeks, Spaniards, Italians, Armenians, Ossetians and others). Closer to the northern latitudes settled part of the Slavs, of whom subsequently isolate and the Russian nation. Vikings — with drive past North — flashed on the Eurasian sky, like a shining car, left behind an indelible mark on Russian history!
Postscript. When this article was completed, and its main points are reflected in the pages of my new book "Mysteries of the Russian North" (Wiley, 1999) and in the magazine article, "Vikings — Russian Knights of the North" (World of the North. 1999. No 3-4 ) [formerly etymological side covered in my other book — "Secrets russkolgo people" (Moscow, 1997)] — A collection of works antinormanistskih "Russia and the Vikings" (Moscow, 1999) in the series "The True Story of the Russian people "Yu.D.Petuhovym published. To some extent, it complements the previous year published an extensive compilation of texts of Russian scientists on the "Varangian question", included in a very substantive and thoughtful anthology "The Slavs and Russia: Issues and Ideas" (Wiley, 1998) (compiled and extensively commented by AG Kuzmin). Here are the most revealing passages from the works of prominent Russian scientists for nearly two and a half centuries — from VNTatishchev to B.A.Rybakova and O.N.Trubacheva.
In turn, the new (and probably, not the last) collection into account latest Normanists performances, the number of which is multiplied like mushrooms after rain. Can not but pleased with the zeal and enthusiasm with which expose the disguised as scientific innovations mossy normanistskie Study N.I.Vasilevoy article "Russia and the Vikings", which gave the name to the entire collection, and is two-thirds of its volume (in fact this is a whole book) and which may well be attributed to the now almost forgotten accusatory-injective genre. In dozens of meticulously analyzed examples (taken into account almost all newer literature), the author proves that no matter how изощрялисьультрасовременные Normanists, all their attempts are not absolutely nothing new, and are direct rehashing long-debunked hypothesis "fathers normanizma" Teutonic trio of St. Petersburg "Academy de Siyans "Bayer-Miller-Schlozer while their faithful squires, and followers somehow embarrassed to refer to his spiritual inspiration. Could it be that the emergence of "Norman theory" has coincided with one of the darkest and most tragic periods in Russian history — Biron, in fact it was the direct product of an ideological cast of?
Since its appearance on the horizon of the national science Normanism marked by the seal of the hopeless obscurantism. Suppression of any free thought kostolomnye tricks against opponents arguments' rack and chopping block "- the main features Biron in all spheres of life at. Omnipotent personally supported and encouraged the activities of academician Gottlieb Siegfried Bayer (1694-1738) — author of the first "normanistskogo Manifesto" published in 1735, that is in the midst of mayhem bironovskogo. That's why Normanism — and in the past and in the present and in the foreseeable future — on his sources, nature, and the true essence and methods of dealing with dissidents remains what it was from the beginning — the spiritual Biron. Duke of Courland — sinister hater of everything Russian — has long disappeared from Russian life, but his cause alive: thistle seeds scattered everywhere still yield abundant fruit.
But back to the content of the collection "Russia and the Vikings." In addition to that paper N.I.Vasilevoy here put more articles of the four authors, including I.V.Tashkinov, N.A.Morozov and Yu.D.Petuhov. Gratifying impression leaves A.Eliseeva article "Ancient Rus: the people and caste," where express provision on the availability of the ancient Slavs caste estate signs, dating back to the era of Aryan, with the author believes that the special military stratum — the prototype of the future of the Cossacks — should protorussky include ethnicity in general, including, apparently, the Vikings, which in this particular regard, reason is silent. Overall, the authors advocate the collection of Slavic-Baltic and Slavic version of the Black Sea origin Vikings. Such an approach needs to be some clarification. Yes, by the time of his "vocation" in Veliky Novgorod Russian Varangians (or Vikings-rus, which is one and the same) have lived in the vast territories of the Baltic. But, first, it does not mean that the Vikings lived here forever, and a picture of the end of the 1st millennium does not coincide with the picture of the start, not to mention the earlier times. Second, people's memory does not save the information about the Baltic, and the pedigree of the Dnieper Rurik. The fact of the Russian origin of his name is based on the northern tradition, according to which the true name of Rurik was Eureka and he appeared in Novgorod from Dnieper. Novgorod "zalyubili" his mind-mind and agreed to become a "master" in Novograd. (P) is imposed on each Eureka Novgorodian initially small tribute, but then began to gradually increase it until they make it unbearable (which subsequently compounded with each new ruler). This amazing and essential for understanding the history of the Russian legend recorded and published in the late 70's of the nineteenth century, the famous collector of folklore northern Elpidifor V. Bars (1836-1917).
Sufficiently symptomatic that the notorious "Varangian problem" once again highlights the scientific and pseudo-scientific debate, and its metastases deeply immersed in encyclopedias, reference books, textbooks, and even children's cartoons. For Normanism — not science in the true sense of the word, and the ideology of the purest water. She, like muddy foam, each time to the surface in the most difficult time for Russia. The current situation in the country, where once again gave the "green light" and Normanists mondalistam — another proof. No less significant, and more. Proponents of "normannnskoy theory" in the last decade have not been able to give any convincing argument or fact in its favor from the beginning to the end of the trumped-up "theory." On the other hand, argue University (as well as other local luminaries) and still have not lost their deadly power. As indeed, the whole methodology and chronology of Russian history, initiated by the VNTatishchev, Mikhail Lomonosov and V.K.Trediakovsky.