It would seem that much has been written about the Middle Ages, but, nevertheless, the enthusiasm for this historical period does not weaken until now. One of the reasons that — warriors that differed awesome fighting properties. And although they did not have the mystique and could not use it in a fight with their enemies, but completely real instrument, many of them possessed in perfection.
One of the brightest representatives of the Middle Ages are the Vikings. And though they belonged to different nations, that did not stop them understand each other. All of them have been home to the northern lands, because the French have got the title of the Vikings' Norman. " At the beginning of the word "viking"Designated pirates who raided the enemy in coastal waters. In Scandinavia, have become known for a long time before appeared first mention of them in Europe.
Wherever I steered toward the Vikings, they are always seized the lands of others, sometimes even remain in the conquered territories, and became the rulers there. The French, they managed to win a part of the country that has received the title of Normandy. The Vikings raided and on Russian soil, even going down to the shores of the Caspian Sea and the Dark. Vikings — this is the last German barbarian conquerors and the first European explorers, pioneers.
Vikings used to attack troops from specially prepared warriors who forms the teams of several hundred people. By the way, the entry of these groups has always been a volunteer. During the raid one of the soldiers certainly carried the banner, which was very honorable. Because, usually, for this purpose was chosen specifically distinguished soldier. It was believed that the banner is able to not only bring victory in battle, and save the life of the one who carries it. The main objective of the Vikings in the case of defeat came down to, to protect its own commander (of King), and if he died, all the warriors fought to the last near the body of the leader.
Especially in the middle of the Vikings were fearless berserkers who fundamentally do not wear armor and did not hide from threats. They went ahead, as if crazy, putting this nightmare for opponents. Berserkers could bring themselves to a state of euphoria and fought to the death, crushing opponents.
Vikings often used and troops bilmenov. Typically, these were soldiers of infantry armed with sickles combat (halberds). This tool is a certain kind of peasant sickle, which was used for harvesting. It was mixed prickly tip and blade battle-ax with a sharp ax. Vserasprostraneno was extensive in the Middle Ages as an effective weapon against cavalry. But later, when there was firearm, bilmeny lost its purpose because they started to use in parades and ceremonies pyshnovatyh.
But, as it turns out, and the Vikings were undefeated feeble places — is the inability to long siege. It is, in fact, and it became one of the causes of their injuries.
More outstanding military properties differed knights. For example, the German knights merged around the Teutonic Order which appeared in the Polyclinic, which was organized by the German pilgrims and crusaders between the years 1120-1128. The very same order (the spiritual body) was registered only in 1190, and after six years, he was transformed into spiritual knighthood.
From time to time been associated with the Teutonic Order and the Order of the Templar Order of Hospitallers. Its members were given three vows: poverty, chastity and obedience. At the time, the Knights were at the mercy of the pope and the emperor did not obey the order, on the ground that they were of ownership.
It is clear what role was played by the Knights of the Order during the conquest of the Baltic and Prussian territories. Since 1215, the knights on the initiative of the Pope fall on the Baltic coast Tipo to planting of Christianity. But the process is carried out with a bloody operations. A Prussian lands were brought under control in less than 50 years. They were able to capture a significant portion of Poland, also represented a permanent military threat to Lithuania. In 1216 the Teutons were defeated in the fight against the Lithuanians and Prussians rebelled against the German knights. It was only many years later in 1283 they were able to subdue the freedom Prussians. And in order to keep control of the Baltic states, the Teutons continued mercilessly destroy all nepokorlivyh, all who have dared to even the smallest resistance.
After the unification of the Swedish feudal lords and the Teutons were to glance at the Russian land, as the Pope wished to rule the world. Russia in this regard has been very valuable for its first inexhaustible riches. But Russia was able to provide decent resistance, the evidence of what can be a battle of Lake Peipus in 1242. Specifically, the Knights defeated the Ice massacre was the beginning of the end for the Teutonic Order. They no longer had the ability to move to the East, committing robberies and grabbing land.
Much later. in 1409 between the Teutonic Knights and the combined forces of Poland and Lithuania Lofty war broke out, which culminated in the defeat of the Order, and put an end to its expansion into the eastern lands. The Teutonic Order was obliged to abandon its political independence.
In Britain in the 15th century for the first time there were knights in shining armor plate. Specifically, these are included in the medieval legends. Naturally knight in the armor look more convincingly than in chain mail. Especially popular are the English knights of King Arthur. But, unlike those descriptions, which many in the literature, they were not so far faithful and true. Many knights have found drugs and a good job. Because without much hesitation could run from one side to the other. And some were transformed into real thugs. During this time, the knighthood as a phenomenon fundamentally changed. They no longer needed to protect the interests of the emperor in exchange for land. Moreover, many of them prefer a peaceful existence without war. In addition, the knight could become provided at least some city resident who had no knight passed. Knights who participated in the war, held officer positions in the army, which became more and more prof.
It is necessary to say a few words about the fact that in the Middle Ages to replace combat onions came Crossbow — Mechanical onions. From the 15th century, this tool has received a huge spread in Europe. Was the formation of the corresponding units of crossbowmen, in the main, in the armies of knights. Crossbow was much more precisely ordinary onions, also had a greater destructive power, but from time to time was not as quick-firing. A prerequisite for the popularity of the event was the fact that the string was stretched through the gate. Since no longer required great physical effort in order to push the string, light crossbow became languid, and his arrows could pierce even the armor. But this gun was and shortcomings — it's not a very comfortable shape, the highest price and the difficulty of recharging. Crossbow could afford for themselves only fighter standing army.
Armored nobles — a category of soldiers majestically Duchy of Lithuania and Eastern Europe 10-16 centuries. They came from the "armored servants", in other words people who are obliged to perform military service on a stallion, being dressed in heavy armor-clad arms. Usually, they are exempt from paying dues. And later, when the period of war was in the past, they are lured to serve as messengers or police. This class was particularly vserasprostraneno in Kievan Rus', Bulgaria, Metropolitan State of Moldavia, Wallachia.
Armored nobles were a kind of "glue" between the nobility and serfs. They had earthen plots with the right gear for their heritage, for which he was in military service. Despite the fact that some of them were serfs, they preferred without the help of others to cultivate the land. They also have the right to live in the towns and engage in trade and crafts.
After Belarus was annexed by the Russian Empire, armored boyars ranked as the palace peasants and they were right on par with the Ukrainian Cossacks.
A lot of enthusiasm among historians continues to be the Order of the Knights Templar and Hospitaller Order.
Order Hospitaller was created in the 12th century and named in honor of St. John of Jerusalem. The main purpose of its origin — the embodiment of the protection of pilgrims who traveled to Jerusalem. At the beginning of the Order's own education did in the main missionary and charitable functions, and the knights were needed only for protection. But later, during the Crusades, order was transformed into a monastic-military company, headed by majestic Master Raymond du Puy. After the Crusaders were driven beyond the boundaries of the Holy Land, the Hospitallers, after spending a short time in Cyprus, Rhodes conquered the peninsula, where he established his government. But in 1522 they had to leave the peninsula because of the Turkish siege. In 1530, the Hospitallers were possessed peninsula Malta (hence his second title of the Maltese), on which the fraternity and remained right up to 1798, the time of its capture by the French. They launched a struggle against the Levantine Sea, Algerian, Tunisian pirates of Tripoli, and also fought off attacks of the Turkish army in 1565.
Order of Malta with the passage of time had to return to Rome, and then his knights honor their traditions and preserve sovereignty. At present, the Hospitaller Order — this is the only award that is recognized officially, unlike the Knights Templar, which walks more rumors than truth. Over the entire period of its existence the Knights of Malta participated in the political life of the world. And at the moment they are observers in the UN.
Knights Templar — is, like the Order of Malta, military-religious order, the base of which falls on 1119 year. Similarly, his knights were supposed to protect the pilgrims. History of the Order began with the usual crusaders, but soon he became one of the richest orders. By the way, the Knights Templar was specifically invented the banking system, they are not given once vzaem huge sums of money. In addition, the Knights had broad legal and religious features, which gave them the Pope (a specific manager of the Order.)
The Battle of Varna took place November 10, 1444 between the combined army of the Crusaders and the Ottoman Empire in the town of Varna. Battle was a bad ending crusade to Varna Hungarian and Polish King Vladislav. The ending of the battle was a complete defeat of the Crusaders, the death of Vladislav and strengthening of the Turks in the Balkans.
The Templars were widely known for their martial qualities, their military training was canceled, they had a professional tool, and units are of the highest degree of organization and discipline. But other than that, the Knights were known as libertines and zapivohi. In addition, their inheritance is not brought to the good. Philip Fine very jealous so untold riches. Because the trial of the Templars, as a result of which most of the knights were burned. But gold as anyone and did not get, and on where it is at this point, as nothing is clear. Those of the Templars, who were still alive, were able to put him firmly.
Not the least intrigued historians call the regular military representatives of the Middle Ages — khuskarlov. At first, this word meant courtiers servants. But in the era of the Vikings is changing its value. At the time, became known as the king's retainers. In the UK in the first half of the 11th century, the term "khuskarlov" personify a unique company closed professional soldiers that made up the base of the Anglo-Saxon army. Usually, this body used for offensive operations.
In most cases, the origin of khuskarlov associated with the pirate brotherhood of Vikings fortified Yomsborga. Khuskarlov had the highest level of military organization had its own code of honor, were brought to the king. Most of them received for the service excavation of ownership, where she lives in peacetime.
In this organization had its own charter of which defines the rights and obligations of the participants. For example, the king's table all had to sit down on the nobility of origin or by the service seniority. If any of khuskarlov commit a misdemeanor, his transplanted in place of the post. If such misconduct was three — guilty planted to the end table, where he was no one spoke. In addition, it could roll the dice. If khuskarlov killed comrade — for it was deprived of the head or expelled beyond the borders of the lands ruled by the Anglo-Saxon lord Whip. Also, is glued tightly to him the word "coward". A similar punishment was foreseen for treason — penalty or forfeiture of property.
Since the number of khuskarlov was insignificant, they have never been used as an independent fighting force, even in spite of the fact that on its own military strength they surpassed the national Anglo-Saxon army. Most of khuskarlov were killed in the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The survivors fled the UK by going into the service of the Emperor of Byzantium.
Naturally, this is far from complete list of medieval warriors. There are just more fearless of them, those who went down in history as the brightest representatives of the civilization era.