Specifically, high-precision rifle with a telescopic sight from the time of the First World War is the basic combat equipment in sniping — more effective methods of warfare. Sniper art over the last decade has been the subject of many prestigious creators of books and articles, respectively, have already expressed very many views as to what should be a modern sniper rifle.
One of the relevant features of the sniper guns is that from the very moment of its own existence it was like at the turn of 3 types of small guns — military, sports and hunting. By now days are hunting traits are gone, but the properties of combat sports and are almost all modern models.
So it's still a tool for — a sniper rifle? In evaluating any particular rifle to imply that sniper — first combat weapon, so its main properties must meet as a combat weapon.
Famous Russian gunsmith VG Fedorov in 1938 wrote that the main trends in the development of hand-held firearms "were expressed, priemuschestvenno, to increase the firing range, sloping line of motion and rate, often with all this, one of these pieces are in conflict with others … prerequisite of all the works in the area of improvements in handguns was the requirement strategy increment range, enabling the defeat of the enemy from far distances … more gradual evolution of a manual of firearms from flint muskets, gave rise range from 300 to 3200 in steps of sufficient Hit and knockdown at these distances; rate communicated with one shot per minute during flintlock guns to 20 rounds per minute with automatic, ie 10 times the range and 20 times that rate of fire.
Which may be a limit to the growth properties of the coming of firearms? It was believed that with regard to the range limit will be raised capabilities of the human eye, but to the rifle scopes already entered. It was believed that with respect to the limit because of the enormous rate of flow cartridges will establish a production base and the organization of the supply. But the history of the development of weapons indicates that, whatever the enormous demands of ammunition are presented to the war — all of these requirements, though not immediately, but were made. "
It is believed that the totality of all the parameters of modern military small guns is reduced in the following groups: combat characteristics, performance and operating characteristics.
Under the fighting qualities of gunsmiths understand the complex properties of the system, which was characterized possibility of fire impact on manpower subject to the usual technical condition of guns and action neotkaznom it. Among the military options especially allocate power of fire, maneuverability and reliability acts weapon system.
Power tools have a total amount of energy, which is owned by all of the bullets that hit the target at a time. Here at once, the question is how to calculate the power of a sniper rifle, if the concept of rate of fire for "sverhmetkogo arrow" almost does not matter? After a sniper, as you know, most often makes the target 1-2 shot.
As the distance to the target increases, the target velocity naturally decreases, and hence, decreases and the power firing.
But the power of fire can be increased not only by increasing the rate of fire, as is the case in automatic weapons, but also increase the probability of hitting, or, in other words, the accuracy of shooting. Now that's directly related to the sniper weapon.
As mentioned above, in the midst of all the other parameters sniper combat system accuracy is high. What is the accuracy from the standpoint of science? According to the law of dispersion, is the "totality of the degree of clustering around the center points of contact grouping (patterning) and the degree of alignment of grouping the center (center of impact) We would like to point to the target (accuracy)."
In practice, the accuracy of estimated dispersion characteristics inherent in the system implements. Must be understood that critical in terms of the impact on the stability of the dispersion is — the ability to maintain the position of guns, to give it a shot. That's why most modern sniper rifles have a significant weight — he builds sustainability for this are the same and bipod — an essential attribute of today's sniper rifle.
Not the least important for the accuracy of shooting a gun battle and stability.
But there is in the world besides the law of dispersion — the "law of infamy" for all shooters. The fact is that, in practice, to observe the absolute uniformity of all test firing is unrealistic, because there are always minor, virtually imperceptible variations in the size of grains of gunpowder, the weight of the charge and a bullet, bullet-shaped, different combustion ability capsule, different traffic conditions bullets in the barrel and out his gradual pollution of the barrel, and heating it, gusts of wind and changing temperatures, the drift of the shooter at a tip-off, when at anchor, etc. Because even in the most appropriate criteria for firing any of the issued bullets will outline its line of motion, slightly different from the line of movement of other bullets. This phenomenon is referred to as the natural dispersion of shots.
If significant amount of shots the line of motion in his own totality form a sheaf, which allows for a meeting with startling surface (target) number of holes, the more or less distant from each other, the area they occupy an area called dispersion.
All holes are placed on the area of dispersion around a certain point called the center of the dispersion, or the mid-point hit (STF). The line movement, located in the middle of the bundle, and passing through the middle point of impact, called the mean trajectory. In drawing up the tabular data in amending the installation of a trailer in the process of shooting is always assumed this is the middle line of motion.
From all spoken clearly how difficult to make a clear shot at a great distance, and how many causes that negatively affect the accuracy, must take into account at all this sniper.
So, if you take into account all the above theoretical "nonsense", then it is clear how hard it is to cooperate in one design, all these numerous, often conflicting requirements. From this point of view, the rifle of EF Dragunov can be considered virtually flawless prototype tools for army sniper.
And yet …
In 1932, the armament of the Red Army entered the standard sniper rifles SI Mosin it possible to start a large-scale preparation of the "sverhmetkih shooters."
Hardly worth carefully into the history of that period, it many times is written. Another fascinating point: the standard sniper rifle 1891/30 years. without any configurations stood armed with three decades before adopting SVD in 1963. And this despite the fact that the defects Mosin even in the infantry version was well known.
…In 1943, a group of the best front-line Russian army snipers had been invited for the role in a meeting of senior officers of the NKO. At this meeting addressed various issues related to sniping. And as is typical: the question of substitution and even radical modernization of t
he sniper rifle variant of Mosin not even ascended. But the gun at that time stood for the Russian Army for over half a century, and numerous bugs have made it uncompetitive even in the standard version of the infantry.
One of the participants of the meeting of the Union of Russian hero Vladimir Pchelintsev recalled: "Claims to combat sniper rifle mod. 1891/30's. We did not have. Key observations related to optics. Based on operational experience, we have expressed the wish that the sight would be somewhat modernized and made him some necessary adaptations to the front … We have proposed the development of a special reticle and more than comfortable accommodation sighting handwheel. Appliances From motivate us two elements: sun visor turning the lens and corrugated rubber tube to the eyepiece. " Also suggests "the development of special tools for sniping" motivated rounds "with an improved quality of gunpowder and more than a painstaking selection of bullets in factories. Chucks these should go in small batches especially for snipers. This gave the opportunity to dramatically make a better range and accuracy."
But proposals to improve the guns and ammunition were implemented only after 20 years from the adoption of the adopted SVD.
In January 1946, Dragunov once again came to the plant. Taking into account the experience of military service, the personnel department has sent Evgeny Fedorovich to the department head designer for the post of Technology researcher. Dragoons began work in the office support current production Mosin rifle and was included in the group investigated the background state of emergency, which occurred in the workplace. Taking into account the experience of the war in the technical specifications for the rifle was a new kind of test — firing 50 shots from the most probable rate of fire, with all this store loading was performed out of the cage. In tests revealed that the majority of rifles at the upper gate chambering rounds — the first round clings to the rim of the lower — the second cartridge, and so much that not be sent to the trunk, even after two or three times, hitting his hand on the handle of the gate.
Yet even before the second World War, many of the leading weapons experts understood the need for the production of special sniping weapon systems. Namely, known oruzhieved and expert arms production VE Markevich believed that "sniper rifle should connect within themselves the best possible quality of military and hunting rifles, because the major part of such as the barrel, sights, bed, descent, and the remaining parts must be skillfully designed …
The optical sight from 2.5 to 4.5 times more suitable for sniping. Increased multiplicity makes it difficult to aim, especially when shooting at moving targets and emerging. Multiplicity and more than 6x more applicable for shooting immobile targets …
The trigger mechanism has an enormous impact on shooting accuracy. The descent should not seek large hard you are not required to have a very long course and a free swing. The tension of 1.5-2 kg is considered to be sufficient. Modern descent should be a helpful, even better. Adjusting the shutter is also desirable …
For thick of winter and summer for the narrow butt odezhki need different lengths, so it is best to do the butt of variable length — with detachable straps with wood butt plate …
Neck lodge should be a pistol shape, it allows more uniform and stronger to keep the rifle with his right hand. Scale of the neck lodge is desirable because it does not allow to slide his hand. The fore-end should be a longish as a rifle with a long forearm is more convenient in the appeal, especially in the winter. Swivel should be comfortable not only to carry a rifle, and a belt for use with the shooting …
Among the accessories needed for the sniper rifle should be a good cover. Regarding cartridges must be said that the cartridges have to be especially diligent inspection of all parts of the cartridge and gently equipment laboratory method to enjoy the best ballistic properties. "
All or almost all of the above requirements are satisfied in the main army "sverhmetkih shooters" and now.
The development of tools and hardware, as significant changes in strategy that occurred under the influence of numerous local conflicts of recent decades have revealed the need to find a sniper armed with a high-precision system (including a rifle, a telescopic sight and a special cartridge), because in almost all cases, the snipers have solve puzzles on the defeat of small targets at ranges of 800 to 1,000 meters.
The answer to these "time requirements" are numerous sniper rifle western arms companies show during the 1980s. In the USSR, then it was not until the new snayperok: ended the war in Afghanistan began restructuring, and later came a very troubled time. Modest contribution to the fact that the management of the power ministries did not respond to the demands of those of their own employees, who are seriously engaged in "sniper trade", and brought some authors of books and publications, which are fully justified imposing the reading public the pros and even the benefits of regular SVD to Western systems.
It is interesting that these eyes had and some Western experts. A striking example is a quote from an article by Martin Schober, placed in the ninth issue of the magazine "Schweizer Waffen-Magazin" for the year 1989, this quote hit the traditional labor DN Bolotin's "History of Russian small arms weapons and ammunition," and since then it a lot of times repeated countless creators of place and out of place. Martin Schober wrote that "NATO standards prescribe for sniper rifles, the largest diameter of the dispersion at a distance of 600 yards (548.6 m) in a series of 10 shots 15 inches (38.1 cm). Russian Dragunov sniper rifle confidently covers these requirements." First, NATO's standards for accuracy of sniper guns, in this article, as of today have become obsolete: now the greatest amount of dispersion should be less than one angular Minutka (1 MOA). In addition, easy computations show that the average diameter of dispersion for SVD at a distance of 600 meters is 83.5 cm for the patron LPS and 51.5 cm for the sniper cartridge 7N1.
Speaking directly about the IRS, it should be noted that many of the creators on this weapon usually results when assessing the effective range of fire figure — 800 m Indeed, instruction on small business There is this particular figure. But the problem is that the army sniper, in most cases, not having a proper disposal of other guides, apart from this unauthorized access, can not understand, for what purposes, how chuck and on what is the real meaning of distances shoot (with the highest probability of hitting the target ).
The main conclusion is the figure head of the IRS should be amazed by the first shot straight at all distances up to 500 meters, breast shape — up to 700 meters, running belt and figures — up to 800 meters when used 7N1 sniper cartridge. We note also that these da
ta are exclusive of possible errors made in the preparation of the shooter to fire (eg incorrect assessment of the distance to the target) and the production of the shot (eg pulling for descent under stress) — in other words, not considered unfortunate "human factor".
Why the West is now listed as a rifle is quite accurate for sniping only in this case the dispersal does not exceed the unfortunate angular minute? Corner minute (minute of angle), or 1 MOA is 0.28 thousand range. In other words, at a distance of 100 meters in the dispersion of 1 MOA at a theoretical level, will give a circle with a diameter of about 2.8 cm scattering is important when shooting at great distances — up to 800 meters and beyond.
According to the instruction on small business, SVD accuracy is satisfactory if at a distance of 100 meters four holes are placed in a circle with a diameter of 8 cm Naturally, many of the "esvedeshki", especially new ones, with unshot trunks, and still give the best accuracy, but the unfortunate 8 cm listed as the maximum allowable rate.
Now let's count. If the diameter of the dispersion at a distance of 100 meters is exactly 8 cm, then — at the theoretical level! — At 200 meters it is 16 cm by 300 meters — 24 cm, etc. up to 600 meters. After 600 meters turn dissipation will not grow in a linear fashion, and will grow to 1.2-1.3 times in every hundred meters of distance: the speed of the bullet will begin by then approach the speed of sound (330 m / sec.), And bullet will lose stability in the trajectory. Hence, we have followed: at a distance of 800 meters of the theoretical accuracy of SVD was 83.2 cm from a rifle with such accuracy of fire can still be a fairly high probability to hit a motionless Rostovoj or fanny figure, but that's to hit the chest or even more so the head shape is almost impossible.
I can make the objection that there were occasions when the sniper managed to shoot the enemy at great distances. Of course, these things have happened. By the way, some of them. In 1874, somewhere on the West feral buffalo hunting party was attacked in his own camp, the Redskins squad. The siege lasted nearly three days. And the besieged, and the Indians were already quite exhausted, but still skirmish lasted. Bill Dixon, one of the hunters saw the true stand out on the cliff of the Indian. Hit a shot from the "sharps" — a red-and fell from the saddle upside down. Affected such precision Indians went away quickly. When measured the distance of a shot, it was found to be 1,538 yards (1,400 meters). This is a record shot even for the modern sniper.
Certainly, a beautiful shot, but in this case, as in almost all others, played a very important role in case, the usual luck arrow. Sniper performing a responsible military puzzle, can not rely on luck.
Naturally, the accuracy of the rifle — not the only goal for arms designer, as we read as before, there is still a lot of important points that you should consider. But the accuracy of sniper weapons of principle, first because if the gun shows the highest accuracy in the near-flawless shooting criteria, the probable error, which is entirely possible to be admitted to the languid criteria shooter combat environment, specifically compensated for highest accuracy and stability of the fight.
Must take into account also the problem of cartridge: special weapons and requires a special cartridge, and the cartridge itself with the highest quality of production must also be compared to cheap to manufacture. It is curious that the difficulties with the production on a large scale creation of sniper bullets were not only in the Soviet Union, and the United States.
SVD entered service almost immediately in conjunction with a special sniper cartridges. Despite the fact that the combat experience majestically Russian war made it clear that to achieve the greatest efficiency sniper must be equipped with special ammunition, to the creation of a special cartridge for sniper rifles in the Soviet Union after the war began. In 1960, while working on a single cartridge was found that brand-new bullet design for improved aerodynamic shape of the cartridge measured yielded interesting results on the accuracy of fire — 1.5-2 times better than a bullet cartridge with LPS. This led to the conclusion about the ability of the creation of the semi-automatic sniper rifle with the best accuracy of fire than with a sniper rifle mod. 1891/30 years. Close to the results obtained from the use of motivated rounds. On the basis of these research-patronschikam designers were given the task to work on increasing the effectiveness of fire from rifles SVD due to the cartridge. The aim of the work was to improve the accuracy of a sniper rifle in a fight 2 times the square of dispersion.
In 1963, for the forthcoming revision was recommended by the bullet, which is now known as a sniper. When firing of ballistic barrel cartridges with this bullet showed good results: at 300 meters R50 no more than 5 cm, R100 is 9,6-11 see Requirements for newcomer sniper cartridges were very strict: the bullet had to have a metal core, by grouping motivated not to give patrons the cartridge was to have a full-time bi-metal sleeve and prices do not exceed the gross cartridge with a bullet LPS more than doubled. In addition, the accuracy when firing from the IRS should be half the square of dispersion, ie R100 is not greater than 10 cm at a distance of 300 meters. In the end, was developed in 1967 and was adopted for the 7.62-mm sniper rifle cartridge, is now producing under the symbol 7N1.
The spread in the last decade, body armor lowered efficiency cartridge 7N1. In the conditions of modern warfare, where the majority of the military have the means body armor, sniper cartridge must be quite higher armor. Namely, if the sniper is on fire, "breast shape", dressed in a helmet and body armor, the vulnerable target area decreases to the size of 20 x 20 cm, ie, face size. Naturally, the effective range of fire will be the makarom decrease. To avoid this, the designers patronschikam had to find another solution, combining in one cartridge is not compatible enough properties — accuracy and penetrating power. The result of this search is the new sniper cartridge 7N14. The bullet of this cartridge is heat-treated core, as has inflated penetrating ability, while maintaining high ballistic properties.
According to the views of leading professionals weapons, modern sniper rifle must first ensure the defeat of live targets at ranges up to 1000 m, for all that need the highest possibility of getting the first shot in the waist target at a range of up to 800 m, and in the chest — up to 600 meters Weather and Climate conditions, the temperature of the trunk and the state of the gun should not have an effect on accuracy. In addition, the specificity of sniper operations requested that the telltale causes, such as a flash shot, gun smoke, the power of the shot sound, clanging gate at the sound of reloading or moving parts, automation, were the least ability. Form a sniper rifle should provide comfort when shooting from different positions. Weight and dimensions as possible to ensure the sustainability of the delivery of fire, but at the same time not to bore needle at the length of time in a closed position, and not to reduce its maneuverability when moving.
Military experts at think that the above requirements are basic. Without the fulfillment of their weapons and ammunition are not applicable for use in sniping.
In the main the same all the requirements for a sniper system should be focused on improving the accuracy and effectiveness of fire safety tools at its operation in the toughest criteria, and — importantly — to the greatest ease of appeal.
First on the accuracy is influenced by such causes as the rifle barrel design, sturdiness, strength and weight of the box, the p
roperties of the optical sight and special ammunition.
Thus, with increasing thickness of the walls of the barrel reduces harmonic vibrations when fired and the impact of temperature configuration of the barrel. Box sniper rifle butt and desirable to make a walnut with an epoxy-impregnated or from durable plastic.
Sniper telescope deserves a separate discussion, as the demands placed upon it, quite contradictory. On the one hand, it should provide an opportunity to observe the terrain, detect targets and lead to move and fire on the on short term goals, why should a huge field of view and a multiplicity of small — about 3x to 5x. And at the same time have a sniper fire the enormous range of up to 1000 m, as follows, requires excellent build aim at this distance, and means and a large multiplicity — to 10-12x. Optical sight with variable magnification (Pancratic) avoids these contradictions, but at the same time, such a system makes it more difficult to sight and more than fragile.
In general, the optical sight sniper system must be strong, to have a tight case, rubberized better and filled with dry nitrogen (so that the lens is not misting the inside temperature drop), stably maintain the alignment values in all criteria, comfortable device introduction of amendments (handwheels).
Uniform and smooth operation of the trigger also has a significant impact on the ease of shooting, and the means and the accuracy. Because the extremely best that the sniper could not help others and simply adjust the length and tension of the descent.
Traditional prototype of the modern Western-made sniper rifle can serve the British system AW (Arctic Warfare).
The British company Accuracy International of Portsmouth from the beginning of the 1980s, is a recognized favorite in the production of high-precision sniper weapon with a manually operated. Specifically, AI was the first to develop a rifle for "supporting-rail technology."
In 1986, the British Army has adopted the latest rifle to replace the obsolete Lee-Enfield L42. She became a model RM Sniper chambered for 7.62 x 51 NATO developed by Accuracy International, received the Army index L96A1. From previous rifles sharply different and in appearance and design. The rifle was so successful that it got hold of for their own security forces more than 20 countries around the world. The office is a good decision and the fact that on the basis of the basic model were made a few special modifications — mnogokalibernaya, quiet, with a folding stock.
Immediately after adopting a L96A1 company to start working on creating the next generation sniper rifle, taking into account both practical experience in the construction and operation of the layout and requirements for the Swedish army, jobseekers sniper rifle capable of firmly to operate at low temperatures. New model, the development of which at Accuracy International has taken more than 2-years old, received index AW (Arctic Warfare). In the Swedish army, bought 800 copies, rifle received index PSG-90.
The model has kept the main design decisions, but all the elements were finalizing order to simplify the design and increase the reliability of the operation. The barrel stainless steel pointed to a higher survivability tests without losing noticeable accuracy even after 10 thousand shots. When shooting high-quality cartridges at a distance of 100 m bullets stacked in a circle with a diameter of 20 mm. To reduce the recoil forces to equip a rifle barrel with a muzzle brake. This reduces hand fatigue, reduces the time to repeat the shot and easy learning and getting used to the weapon.
Gate with 3 lugs provides reliable operation at low temperatures (down to minus 40 ° C) temperatures, even in the freezing of condensate. Compared with the model reduced the effort required to recharge the weapon, which increases the stealth action sniper. Power is from a middle-row box magazine 10 rounds. The rifle is equipped with a normally five stores. Can be used for targeting different scopes, mounted on the bar, mounted on top of the receiver. Usually it tenfold sight of "Schmidt-bender." The kit also includes an open sight with graduations up to 700 meters and fly. At the front of the fore-end for mounting a tide height-adjustable bipod office "Parker-Hale." Rifle with all the accessories fit into duralumin case. Model AW (Arktik Warfare) works fine in the most difficult weather criteria. When using precision-guided munitions tool provides dissipation less than 1 MOA. Cartridge — 7.62 x 51 NATO. Length — 1180 mm. Weight — 6.1 kg. Barrel length — 650 mm (four rifling in steps of 250 mm). Magazine capacity — 10 rounds. The initial velocity — 850 m / s.
On the "Bullpup" and "sniper machines"
Traditional prototype, almost perfectly suitable for the practical study from the standpoint of the question, "what should not be a sniper rifle," are the Russian rifle IEDs and its modifications.
What is VCA? From the perspective of developers, this SVD is redesigned in a "bullpup" to reduce the overall size of the gun. But the potential "users" usually refer to this system of "castrated esvedeshkoy."
Creator had become intimately familiar with the prototype of the Russian "wonder weapons" only a year earlier. Although in the past a couple of times ever hold IEDs in hand, it was found that appearance is very misleading: despite the unusual for the Russian eye contours and steep enough view, this rifle, tell them so, do not fully correspond to the notion of "sniper weapon."
Hard to call a luxury design, is not so, apparently, and the process of production. By taking the standard SVD, with a deduction of stock, shortened barrel, which was later hung on a powerful muzzle device USM moved forward, installed pistol grip and rubber recoil pad. As a result of all these actions of a polished, beautiful LED turns stumpy midget. Outside the similarity between the SVD and SVU is the same as between trehlineykoy and edged "death chairman."
SVU-A, which had to "talk", was released in 1994 TsKIB. In the form indicated that when the rifle was still SVD, its accuracy on four shots in the 100 meters was R100 = 6,3 cm (ie the radius of a circle enclosing all the holes), and after the re-gun R100 was at 7.8 See Who said that despite the short barrel accuracy is not diminished?
The rifle was tested on standard distances — 100 and 300 meters. Unfortunately, even at the shortest distance of 100 meters results are impressive: for a group of 4 shots R100 was 10 cm at 300 meters all was even sadder: the average amounted to R100 as much as 16 cm, while none of the five shooters never managed to lay all the bullets in the chest size of the target. For comparison it should be noted that the shooter secondary qualifications from a distance of 300 meters confidently affects not only the chest, and a head piece with the same number of rounds.
The trigger IEDs has so very long and hard descent, it sometimes seems as if the store has run out of ammo. When fired, the gun makes a rather short and subtle movements of the eye cup which is very unpleasant sight click the arrow in the eye. Despite the muzzle device and a rubber recoil pad returns for some reason you do not feel a lot less — perhaps because the muzzle device has only one window on the right side (perhaps to compensate for the displacement of the barrel when firing bursts). Accordingly, after each shot rifle markedly shifted to the left. Last particularly noticeable when shooting with the stop.
My fuse has 3 positions (like AA), but he's so tight that you can rip the skin on the finger, trying to move.
Due to the fact that the plastic lining moved forward before the diopter sight appear a window through which one ca
n see the feeder spring and through which the inside of a rifle at an alarming rate stuffed gryazyuka different.
Diopter rear sight on military weapons — a new phenomenon for us. The fact that both sight and folding front sight made, in principle, well, the bad thing is that when they are active operation they begin to sway in the transverse plane.
Longish trigger bar connecting the trigger and the trigger mechanism is placed on the left side of the receiver and is covered by a removable cover. But the inside of the jacket she walks with a crunch that some shooters is not for you.
Like all the "Bullpup" center of mass of guns have for the pistol grip, and it loads the right hand of the sniper that has to run only on the descent. In addition, on our IEDs every 15-20 shots going jamming the bolt due to the fact that jumped out of the ejector axis. In some cases, there is a spontaneous unscrewing the locking screw muzzle device.
Another important point: automatic fire. I would like to behold at least one western sniper rifle under a standard cartridge (such as 7.62 x 51), which shoots bursts. They say that at the time the modification SVU-AS has ordered the Interior Ministry … for weapons assault teams! Hard to imagine how the special forces will fire in the assault of an IED structure. Accuracy of fire in bursts such that at a distance of 50 meters from the 10 rounds into the growth figure falls 1-2 bullets, while others, respectively, will go for a walk on the rebound buzzed the building. Small trunk, coupled with a massive chuck makes automatic fire completely ineffective.
In general the idea "sniping machine", born with customers, perhaps under the influence of VSS "Vintorez" on his own sinful nature. BCC is quite feeble shoots bullets that have little recoil momentum, and 7.62 x 54 rifle ammo IED throws like a jackhammer.
Immediately to the development of complex silent weapon was being developed specialized ammunition for it. Small powder charge (the requirement to ensure low noise) sought the presence of the heavy bullets (up to 16 grams), is also quite large caliber to ensure the reliable operation of the automation, and the required acts of slaughter. Cartridges SP-5 and SP-6 (index 7N33, armor-piercing version of the cartridge SP-5, characterized by a bullet to the core on the basis of tungsten carbide) were made on the basis of the standard cartridge case in 1943 caliber 7,62 × 39 mm (which is used For example, in the AC and AKM). Dultsev sleeve was pereobzhato to 9 mm. In accordance with the requirements to ensure the quietness, the initial velocity of the bullet cartridges SP-5 and SP-6 does not exceed 280-290 m / s.
Silent weapon (sniper rifle special "Vintorez")
Modification SVU-AS, except the translator has folding bipod. At the IRS would have allowed such a bipod to increment the efficiency of fire, and on an IED just a little offset the low precision, but tangibly increasing weight.
Unfortunately, all of these shortcomings are not unique to individual swatches. As you know, most of the special units of the Interior Ministry has refused to IEDs, preferring the IRS or other systems. By the way, the scheme "Bullpup" was not proven in the sniper gun on the positive side.
SVD or trehlineyka?
Though what the armorer utter that repeating rifle always (or almost always) will have a clear battle than the self-charging of the same class. Prerequisites for this are obvious: there is no removal of powder gases, due to which there is a reduction in muzzle velocity (the rifle Mosin — 860 m / sec., With SVD — 830 m / sec.), No moving parts, knocking down a tip when a shot gun , the whole system is easier to debug, etc.
Try to compare the main characteristics of SVD battle rifle and the standard 1891/30 years. Such a comparison is interesting also because it allows visually trace the stages of development of the Russian sniper guns.
Width of the back plate on both rifles approximately similar and therefore not very comfortable: for sharp implements better have more recoil pad for the best stop on the shoulder. In addition, both systems used a powerful cartridge 7.62 x 54, which gives a strong enough impact because more desirable to have a rubber damper on the butt. In general, the issue with the IRS is simple: most of the snipers in accordance with the Army, "fashion" has long been equip their esvedeshki rubber butt pad from a grenade launcher GP-25.
What's all the same for the neck butt, here again the same IRS wins in all respects: pistol grip around the neck convenient Mosin rifle, which was manufactured at one time line for the convenience of bayonet fighting.
The wall thickness in both the barrel rifles approximately similar. Now these guns just cause prirekaniya snipers. It is clear that the barrel when fired performs harmonic vibrations that cause the spread of bullets. Accordingly, the thickness of the barrel, the less the fluctuations and higher accuracy of fire. One of the main demands of the modern sniper weapons — heavy trunk of match type, as is done in the western weapons.
IRS has on the trunk gas chamber, through which the removal of the powder gases to operate the moving parts of machinery. This detail is, of course, violates the uniformity of the oscillation of the trunk and aggravated gun battle, but such a defect common to all models of automatic guns, working on the challenge of gases, and it should be taken as a given. But the IRS has the trunk of the necessary detail as flash suppressor significantly reduces the flash shots, which is very crucial for the sniper working with a masked position.
The inner surface of the barrel rifle mod. 1891/30 years. Chrome (unlike LED) because more prone to rust. But the trunk trehlineyki well to debug. It can drop "three point", i.e. greatly reduce the area of contact between the barrel and the lodge. To do this, an ordinary cartridge cases made scraper (sleeve is mounted on the handle, and sharpened her lip), which then selects from the box tree layer up to the time until the lodge between the barrel and will not be free to reach out folded in half sheet of paper. In front of the barrel (under the front lozhevyh ring) on the trunk wrap a piece of woolen cloth is now 5-7 cm wide trunk "sits" on the 3 points: the tail rotor (with the gate), stubborn screw (pre-box stores) and seal. This significantly improves the light lapping battle rifle. Some arrows metal peg replaced by copper, more Myagenko. But as a peg rests on the stop screw, copper in this case it is better absorbs impact.
Step rifling both rifles similar — 240 mm, despite the fact that in the "Manual on small business" for the IRS indicates 320 mm. Changing the pitch of rifling at the IRS from 320 to 240 mm was due to the fact that at step 320 mm armor-piercing incendiary bullets were flying upside down. Barrel with rifling pitch 240 mm stabilized flight armor-piercing incendiary bullets, but with all this lowered the overall accuracy of nearly 30%.
The trigger mechanism (USM) Dragunov rifles occasionally causes prirekaniya at shooters — lowering stress and tension, adjustable trigger picked a nicer way. Although better that trigger sniper guns were all well-regulated.
But the trigger Mosin debug simple and easy. In order to reduce the length of the shutter release, you need to bend a little trigger spring. Make
it work smoother descent can polish the mating surface of the sear and cocking the hammer.
Removable cheek IRS has only one drawback: it can get lost. But the drawback is eliminated in the last years of production rifles with plastic butt — then this piece is made permanent.
Firing a rifle mod. 1891/30 years., Shooter, used to SVD, catching himself on the fact that the head does not have a foothold. And here it is necessary to put the head on the crest of the butt chin, on the other eye deviates from the optical axis of the scope. Get used to this state, of course, possible, but still it is quite embarrassing, especially when shooting from unusual positions.
All sniper rifles wartime production were equipped with a telescopic sight PU. In the middle of all the models of the sights to be installed on trehlineyku, PU most common, a cheap and easy to manufacture. Its multiplicity of 3.5 x reticle is designed as a T-shaped mark. One of the main shortcomings is a small focal length — given enough longish butt, the arrow has to drag his chin forward, so surely create the entire image in the eyepiece completely. Particularly embarrassing to do it, being in the thick winter clothes.
PSO-1 — SVD regular sight — on the background of PU looks almost miraculously military optics. Then there are the protective lens hood, and a rubber eye cup, and the reticle illumination and distance measuring scale, and the scale of lateral correction. All this makes PSO more efficiently and conveniently. A shift base sight to the left of the axis of the barrel makes the process of targeting the more conventional and comfortable.
SVD is necessary for loading of only attach to weapons equipped with ammunition store, while in the rifle mod. 1891/30 years. You need one to put 5 rounds, much less that they are at it all the time and then go crazy (if the rim of the upper cartridge clings to the rim of the bottom). Of course, the speed of reloading, perhaps, is not critical for sniper guns, but still in some situations, this will be an important factor perhaps.
Mosin rifle reloading, the arrow is necessary after each shot tear his head from the butt, and it's pretty embarrassing. However, there are so-called "sniper" method of recharging: after the shot to capture the trigger for the button of delay and reverse (up to arming) with your fingers to lift the handle up gate, and the gate again for the same trigger button of take back, then right thumb Shutter hand in these forward, and index and middle fold down handle. But to quickly make all these manipulations, a certain skill.
The stock Mosin-piece, made up mostly of birch (at the guns of the war years of release). With such a swell box can completely novel, then it will touch the barrel, and it's much worse accuracy of hits.
The Lodge consists of SVD stock and barrel linings, plastic or wood. Lining specifically with the barrel does not touch under any circumstances, because no effect on the battle cannon. In addition, there are holes in the lining, which accelerate the cooling of the barrel of the weapon.
In terms of the impact SVD few loses, because the shot takes up the trunk. Perhaps a consequence move the bolt to the gate and accordingly the center of gravity configuration tools. But the rifle mod. 1891/30 years. has a smooth straight out, well perceived shoulder sniper.
Here it should be understood that according to tamper, sniping is out of the Mosin rifle only to 600 meters (although remote handwheel sight PU designed for distances up to 1300 meters). At great distances from the main fire is disturbing.
Manual for the IRS says that more effective fire out of it up to 800 meters, although most of the snipers converge on the fact that this tool provides a first round hit on the chest of the target up to 500 meters, and on the head shape — to 300.
It must be recognized that despite a number of these shortcomings, to work with trehlineykoy nice. Easy-to-action shutter, accurate and uniform descent, smooth returns, evident even in the twilight crosshair make the gun quite comfortable for the shooter. The accuracy of this rifle is slightly higher than that of SVD (in general, as already mentioned, it is natural for instruments with manually operated).
And yet … All the same, Dragunov sniper rifle more handiness, allows faster to fire at random, and easier to kneeling and standing, as has a pistol grip and allows the shooter to use as needed gun belt and store (for the stop in the back of the hand — because it is seen in the picture). And items such as flash suppressor, butt cheek, improved the telescope, making the whole system is much better for an army sniper.
Concluding the conversation about the IRS, it should be noted that this rifle in a class of its own semi-automatic sniper guns on generalized characteristics of accuracy and precision shooting, simplicity of design, reliability of the automation is one of the best in the world. Certainly, it has a number of shortcomings, but the world has not yet created a cheap semi-automatic sniper rifle, which has a higher shooting accuracy while maintaining that of the same as the IRS, the reliability of the automation in a variety of weather criteria.
Dragunov sniper rifle has a few modifications, a more promising of which is SIDS. She has a butt, folding to the right side of the receiver, even more conveniently for frisky bring guns into firing position compared with an AK-74M. The butt is made of steel tubing with a butt pad and cheek focus of polyamide. The emphasis is on the top of the cheeks of the butt and can take two fixed positions — for shooting with an optical sight (top) and for shooting with open sights (bottom). Several modified rear of the receiver, the body of the trigger and the trigger.
To simplify service rifles in field criteria, optimized operation and venting device is excluded from the construction of a gas regulator. Flame arrester has more smallest size than the LED, but inferior in performance. Barrel length is reduced, and the hardness increased due to the growth of its external diameter. The small size of SIDS makes it very comfortable when using a sniper in the criteria of the town, on the concealed position, etc.
And yet the IRS in its own traditional version no longer meet modern requirements. Candidate she should be, of course, not trehlineyka, and the modern high-precision system.
And such a system there: about three years back Izhmash presented his new creation — the sniper rifle SV-98. Due to the urgent need to have in the arsenal of over-precision sniper system in the office of sports
instruments under the direction of Stronsky was designed sniper rifle SV-98 "cracker".
SV-98 is designed to defeat emerging, move, open, unmasked, unsecured and provided with appropriate personal body armor of the enemy at ranges up to 1000 m
Izhevskoye gun. Sniper rifle "SV-98"
It is a tool created on the basis of a motivated rifle "Record-CISM", and is intended as stated in the description, "for the destruction of emerging, moving, open and masked single targets at ranges up to 1000 meters." According to the manufacturer, the design provides the highest reliability and the softness of the mechanical parts. Locking is done by turning the sliding bolt into three symmetrically spaced lugs. The shutter is cocked pointer.
The trigger has a "warning" and allows you to adjust the trigger pull (1 to 1.5 kg), trigger travel, and even the position of the trigger relative to the handle box. Right next to the pen gate is a lever-type fuse, which are locked when the shutter (from opening), sear and trigger.
Feed cartridges made from a local store 10, having a custom guide mechanism — to facilitate its abutment in a combat situation, such as the touch. Unlike SVD move forward store and not rotated towards the latch. The feeder is composed of store levers connected to a parallelogram.
The barrel length of 650 mm cannon box is laid on a completely adjustable box. Step stem cuttings "sports" type — 320 mm, which significantly increases the accuracy. Some shortcoming is that the barrel is not chrome — this trait inherited from the SV-98 sports layout. In this connection, the guaranteed survivability barrel is only 3000 shots — and even then subject to painstaking care. In addition, to optimize the harmonic vibrations during firing barrel is made in a "floating", ie the entire length of his own, he is not in contact with the lodge.
Boxes rifle butt length is adjusted to 20 mm, the position of the back plate varies up and down to 30 mm, and right-left to 7 mm groove butt vertically adjustable range of 15 mm and the horizontal — 4 mm.
Usually on the barrel muzzle is the muffler, which increases the overall length of the rifle from 1200 to 1375 mm, but it can be used perfectly SV-98 during special operations, especially in urban criteria. In addition, it reduces exhaust sound of the shot is about 20 dB, it is still almost 30% reduction in recoil force. Instead silencer on the barrel may form in the bride a special protective sleeve — it makes the necessary voltage at the muzzle to increase the accuracy of fire. The third device is likely muzzle flash suppressor.
If there is a need, on the body of the muffler is installed protivomirazhny visor-reflector. For the same purpose is served by a cloth belt, pull up on the trunk along its entire length. By the way, the need for 2-last piece is a kind of hesitation: still SV-98 is a system for solving particular problems — it is unlikely that the sniper would have to carry out her intense fire. But the fact that the Russian developers have to take into account even such minor details to increase the convenience of hands, can not fail to delight.
For shooting from SV-98 sniper cartridges recommended by the manufacturer and 7N1 7N14, also motivated by bullets "Extra." Such munitions under industrial conditions indicates rifle accuracy in the range of 60-70 mm when fired in groups of 10 shots at a distance of 300 meters. The initial velocity of the bullet when using 7N14 cartridge is 820 m / sec., With all this blank range on the chest 50 cm high figure achieves 430 meters.
In front of the lodge is folding bipod, which has separate control of each coulter adjustment. When carrying the bipod retracted inside the forearm, not speaking for the dimensions of the box.
In the middle of the box can be mounted removable handle — except for improved portability, field criteria it kind of protects the telescope from an impact.
The iron sight, located above the receiver, allows the firing range in the range of 100 to 600 meters every 100 meters. Length of the sighting strip is 581 mm.
Standard optics is Pancratic sight 1P69 "Hyperon". It is mounted on the guide plate-type "Picatinny" at the top of the receiver. This sight provides automatic administration of aiming angles in determining the distance to the target, or if you install this distance (this is a special rotating ring). In addition, the design allows you to search 1P69, observation and aiming shots without changing the angle of sight at any magnification from 3 to 10x. At the landing site can be set at least some day or night sight of Russian or Western-made world-mount having a standard.
Speaking of sights. Spoiled an abundance of weapons accessories western direction has long been accustomed to the fact that high-quality telescope at a cost can be almost equal to the most weapons, and that's fine, because of the sight depends very nearly everything. Namely, the optical sight is not only required to have a clear positioning mechanisms for the introduction of even small corrections vertically and horizontally, but it should also allow the sniper to adjust it in accordance with the features of (plus or minus 2 diopters) have a variable multiplicity (normally from 2 to 10-fold) and allows you to store parallax correction regardless of the distance to the target — at great distances, and it matters. A show in the last couple of years in our country fashion Pancratic sights, in which the multiplicity of changes in accordance with the configuration of the set range and thus allows to determine this distance, the West has long since passed. The fact that the estimate of the distance is very approximately, and the error in installations with a rather complicated mechanism is sufficiently large. In general, specifically "Hyperon", according to many reviews, just combines the best features of ordinary optical and Pancratic sights.
"Cracker" — a pretty heavy weapon: the gun with a silencer and "Hyperon" the entire system weighs 7.5 kg. Great weight makes it stable when shooting. Naturally, in the maneuver warfare sniper, armed with SV-98, will not be easy, but in-1's, the main indicator of a sniper system still is the accuracy and in-2, a tool for specific purposes, to solve special problems.
SV-98 has not once "took part" in competition law enforcement snipers in Krasnodar and Minsk. Reviews snipers professionals — most positive. But the arrow mark and the little bugs. For example, the disadvantage is the personal details of each fit rifles, ie interchangeability of parts missing. The trigger mechanism is enclosed in a rifle duralumin chassis, which makes it sensitive to shock, inevitable in combat criteria. In addition, the reflector is not spring-loaded (as in most Western rifles). This means that for the ejection port gate to vigorously take back that leads not only to a gradual loosening of the bolt, and unmasks the sniper clatter when reloading.
Has its shortcomings and regular optical sight: When the angle of sight grid from time to time moves jumps scale does not always move according to the number of clicks.
Yet the competition SV-98 to compete with the most promising western sniper — Arctic Warfire (AW). With all the cost of Russian system of several orders, which is important at the general lack of funds from the security forces. It must
be emphasized that the SV-98 is not a candidate Dragunov sniper rifle. This system is designed to perform specific tasks, rather than for the mass army sniping.
They say that the promising plans at Izhmash issue is the export version of SV-98 chambered for the 7.62 x 51 NATO. It may be that the use of a wide range of high-quality Western-made weapons will allow not only to enter the global arms market, but further increment precision sniper system "cracker".
What should be the modern sniper (part 2)