Infantry fighting vehicles (BMP) for the first time appeared as a kind of armor specifically in our country. The founder of this type of technology was the Russian BMP-1, which was adopted on armament in 1966, the West pervoprohodchikom in this class was the German BMP "Marder", which entered service in the Bundeswehr in 1969. The concept of BMP meant their introduction on the battlefield in the same order with tanks. These machines were to serve as a vehicle with armor protection for the infantry, holding with all this pretty powerful weapon system.
In the following, the concept as a whole proved to be true. October War in the Middle East in 1973 to substantiate that the appearance on the battlefield large number of foot soldiers armed with RPGs and anti-tank systems, greatly increases the role of BMP because without stripping the battlefield of enemy infantry tanks now wage war not. Immediately this was found out that the BMP is very vulnerable to weapons. Armor they are able to penetrate not only RPGs and ATGMs, but a small-caliber artillery shells, which are not able to cause any harm to the tanks. In addition it was found out that at certain angles armor BMP vulnerable to even small guns, and the board of BMP-1 with rather short distances can be punched out of the ordinary AA.
Subsequent conflicts have only confirmed these findings. It was found that BMP in their current form are not suitable not only for the role in tank battles, and to deal with the guerrillas, because the latter also acquired antitank weapons destruction in large quantities and are able to enjoy a fulfilling mine warfare. Excellent apparent in Afghanistan, where Russian soldiers entered the latest decoding BMP — "mass grave infantry", quite the findings were fixed during the 2-Chechen wars. Now any infantryman would dream to climb inside BMP, despite the fact that this car is being designed to protect the soldier on the battlefield. At the current time to survive in the Russian BMP in a landmine explosion in contact with the shell or only in this case, if a person sits on the armor. When you are inside the chances of actually landing there, "cardboard" armor infantry fighting vehicles do not protect, and faster kills.
This statement is equally true of all Russian infantry fighting vehicles, ranging from the BMP-1 and ending with the most modern of their BMP-3. Pretty to look only at their option such as weight, so to understand why the Ministry of Defence is not optimistic and special wishes for bulk purchases of BMP-3. The last car series BMP-3 weighs 18.9 tons, and its on-board booking able to stand up to the caliber of the bullets hit 7.62 mm. At the same time, the South American M2A3 Bradley IFV weighs 36.9 tons, and the German BMP "Puma" weighs from 31 to 43 tons depending on the modification. No need to be a professional in the field of armored vehicles to conclude that the book of modern Western models BMP even more convincing.
With all of this over the BMP to a certain point was characterized by the same shortcomings. At least some civilian, who turned in the troop compartment BMP, said two main points: "how are you sitting here?", Mind you, not even you fighting, and just sit, and the second "here can not see anything!" Actually the way it is. The problem with the volume of interior space, in one form or another, burning to this day, with the review of the same case as technology advances, computers and microelectronics began to improve.
Another feature of all of early BMP had the opportunity to lead troops fire on the move through a special pistol ports. With all of this on the accuracy of the fire itself did not have to read. Many people who understand were that the only explanation of this fire had the opportunity to relieve psychologically landing, taking people actually stupid, but a matter of chance. This approach was typical of all BMPs, including the Yankees, but in practice it turned out that the only kind of fight, which can lead troops, without dismounting from the BMP, the "last". At present, in the sides of the embrasures refused everything. They are either absent at the beginning, or closed pendant armor. Thus, the Russian BMP-3M received additional side screens that are able to protect the landing of the bullets hit up to 12.7 mm.
Over-armored infantry fighting vehicles
The first state where the idea to make the BMP based on the tank with the same level of body armor infantry became Israel. For this Middle Eastern country to large-scale tank battles and counterinsurgency always burning. Recent military actions in Lebanon in 2006 against guerrilla forces, armed with a huge amount of anti-tank weapons, it's only been confirmed. With all of this in Israel very carefully apply to the personnel.
That's why armed IDF initially appeared BMP "Puma" based on the tank "Centurion", created for transportation to the place of the "work" of sappers, and then was created BMP "Ahzarit" on the basis of captured Russian T-55, which is due to the lack of gun from time to time was classified as APC. The crew of "Ahzarita" was 3 person Troopers — 7 people. Mass of 44 tons, which is 16 tons more than the T-55 without a tower, such a large weight gain is explained significant reservations.
On the "Ahzarit" sets the South American diesel, on the aft starboard arose pass for landing. Armament consisted of four 7.62-mm machine guns, 3 of which were located on the turret hatches of the Marines, and another one automatically controlled from within the BMP.
At the current time in service with the Israeli army is one of the most languid APC / IFV — "Namer" (with PSI. Leopard), developed on the chassis of the tank "Merkava MK4." Weight armored vehicle achieves 60 tons, booking is consistent Tank. "Namer" has a crew of 3 people and can carry up to 9 man landing.
Of course, in response to Israel and Jordan was created on the basis of BMP "Centurion." Jordan car has received the title of "Timsah," her weight was 47 tons, crew — 3 people Troopers — up to 10 people. BMP had adopted 20 mm cannon and coaxial machine gun 7.62 mm.
A couple of years back the exciting development was presented in the Ukraine. Neighbors tank builders presented to the public tribunal BMPT-84. This BMP created on the basis of the T-84 (an analogue of Ukrainian T-80). With all of this, if the Israeli and Jordanian BMP main armament is dismantled, the Ukrainian version has retained its one hundred percent, including a powerful 125-mm gun (only ammunition was reduced to 36 rounds). With all this given standard armored vehicles capable of carrying 5 people landing.
According to experts, the BMP is now assigned to the 2 main functions on the battlefield — the action as a light tank. In this case, the BMP accompanies tanks to attack and destroy the purposes for which the fine is not enough or expensive to use the main tank armament. Second function — is the delivery of the fighters in the relative intact specifically in enemy strongholds that you want to capture.
In Russia in recent years have tried to divide these two functions. At the end of the 90-ies of the last century "Uralvagonzavod" presented by the development of the military tribunal, which has no analogues zabugornyh — BMPT "The Terminator" (tank support combat vehicle), made on the basis of the T-72. This machine is not a BMP, as not intended to carry infantry, but it makes the function of the tank support on the battlefield and created, in fact, specifically for the substitution of the infantry. Having a tank booking and massive armament: two 30mm guns, two grenade launchers AGS-17, four ATGM "Ataka", which is also capable of destroying low-flying attack aircraft and helicopters, this machine could perfectly cover the tanks on the battlefield, including in while urban combat. But first, in 2010 the Ministry of Defence refused without explanation of the circumstances of this machine is quite promising.
With all of this in Russia and created its own real "armored infantry fighting vehicles," on the basis of the same T-72 tank. Moreover, this machine has adopted an additional 10 years ago. The car has received the title of BMO-T (fighting machine flamethrower languid). In fact the machine close to the traditional infantry fighting vehicles and designed to carry seven infantry weapons of its own — a 12.7-mm machine gun, controlled remotely.
Frontal armor protection of the housing BMO-T corresponds to the level of main battle tank, the side walls of the superstructure are made with the installation of spaced apart in their fuel tanks, various equipment and ERA. The side walls of the extended partition MTO to stern machine. The sides of the body and provide protection at the MBT, with the possibility of mounting additional broneekranov with integrated dynamic protection.
There is, however, a "but." At BMO-T on this day, a very narrow specialization — it carries only flamethrower (just boeukladke machine has 30 infantry flamethrowers "Bumblebee"). What explains such a narrowness of implementation — it is difficult to explain. Maybe the point is that now our home is actually a monopoly on the flamethrowers that still represent quite effective and a massive tool, not only in the military, and in the mental plane. If you wish to convert this car for the introduction of the ordinary foot soldiers will not make much difficulty.
Formally, today this machine fits into the concept of languid teams who need to use a single tracked platform. But the T-72, of course, is already rather outdated model. So the future of the machines on the platform of "Armata", the development of which is to "Uralvagonzavod". Maybe brand new BMP-based platform "Armata" will cooperate internally generate both the currently available models of armored vehicles: BMPT and BMO-T.
And in the west?
One of the most modern western IFV is the German "Puma", tests which were completed December 30, 2007. Total Bundeswehr involves the purchase of 1,200 such machines in the amount of 3.6 billion euros. This BMP created a standard for this class of machine assembly, but also has a number of features. MSW is placed in front of the machine and takes up 1/3 of its length. The driver is placed in front of the left, the right is the power pack motor bulkhead. For the power department, and management jobs posted Gunner (left) and Commander (right).
BMP is equipped with a set of uninhabited turret main armament. The tower is located in the central part of the body with a shift to the left. It placed the main armament of the BMP — 30-mm automatic cannon and coaxial machine gun caliber 5,6 mm. Along the right side behind the commander of the BMP is 4 seat landing, 2 more seats are placed along the left side. Fastening seat is made to the roof of the machine body.
A machine according to the views of developers, has "unmatched protected". Foreseen 3 levels of protection machine: option "A" (aviatransportabelny), a variant with inflated level of protection and the option of "C" (combat).
In the embodiment of the "A" of its weight is 31.45 tons, which allows its transportation by air aircraft A400M. Body armor protects troops (6 people) and crew (3 people) from destruction by bullets mnogokalibernyh sniper rifles and machine guns (caliber 14.5 mm) in all planes. In forehead "Puma" is able to withstand hits 30-mm shells and hand grenades. In the embodiment of the "C" weight of the machine comes up to 43 tons. This option requires the installation of special bronemoduley that are installed on both the front part and on the side walls, roof and aft hull. This option provides protection against the car 30mm piercing shells and RPGs, not only in his forehead, and in the side. It should be noted that the information about what exactly an RPG and what ammunition is not affected, this BMP is missing.
To the main shortcomings of the machine include inability to combat tanks and other armored vehicles of the highest security. At the "Puma" is not a complex missile. With all of this machine gun MG-4, which uses machine-gun bullets caliber 5,6 mm, is also considered insufficiently massive. In addition to the shortcomings include the absence of mechanical duplication of complex weapons, ammunition and small automatic gun — 200 shots. Another 200 rounds stored in the tape inside the machine housing, and to produce overcharging, the crew must leave the BMP.