And do not be surprised by this question. Yes, we know: with swimming Christopher Columbus, held in 1492, Europe has learned of the existence of America. Kudos for that Spanish explorer. This is to his credit, he discovered America for the Old World. But he was by no means the first person to set foot on its shores …
Volcano and Nebuchadnezzar as engines of progress
Who managed to beat Columbus? Oh, to that effect weight versions and hypotheses. One other curious. Let's start with the most incredible. America was discovered … the ancient Japanese! It happened already 6300 years ago, when the Japanese island of Kyushu rocked ultimate power eruption kicked! In power, he was far superior to the famous Krakatau, thundered in the XIX century. Kyushu Island was covered with a thick layer of ash. In fear and terror of the Japanese jumped to their carved wooden lodchonki without sails and hit the road. And thanks to the North Pacific current reached the shores of America. True, the researchers estimate of ocean currents such a voyage would take them 580 days. Half years sailing on the open sea? Is this possible? Probably not. But if you do not rush into the ocean, and move along the coast, from island to island, from shore to shore — the ancient Japanese could easily reach South America. This hypothesis says … ceramics. Yes, yes! Pottery shards dzzemon Japanese culture with a distinctive ornament in the form of bones and an hourglass, were found only in two places on the planet, on the island of Kyushu and in Valdivia, now a major port city in Chile. According to archaeologists, it can not be a coincidence. But of course, this hypothesis many enemies: mostly abut armchair scientists who deny the possibility of such long sea voyages in ancient times.
However, archaeological findings do not allow them to be bored and forced to come up with stronger argument than "it can not be, because it can not be." Sometimes they come to the aid of DNA technology. For example, recently through DNA testing Cherokee Indians who think they are descended from the … ancient Jews, I am sure that it is not so! Before that version looked very well, convincing.
So when Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC. e. finally destroyed the Temple of Solomon, and Judea fell under the onslaught of Babylon, the ancient Jews in search of peace and tranquility set off on a long sea voyage — and, again using ocean currents, reached American shores. There they settled and gradually mixed with the local population. So there was a Cherokee. Its representatives have always differed from other Native American lighter skin and European features. Besides, all their religious celebrations the day coincided with the Jewish holidays. Possessing these trumps Cherokee went to the DNA lab. Unfortunately, their assumptions are not true: not a hint of Jewish origin, scientists have found. But the authority said that the Cherokee ancestors came from Europe a thousand years ago …
Who could it be?
During the archaeological excavations in the town of Mystery Xill in North Saleme (New Hampshire) — were found in the language of the Ogham inscriptions. This is, strictly speaking, not even language, and type of runic letters, the former runs the … Celts. Harvard professor Barry Fell is convinced that thousands of years ago, the Scandinavians first reached America! And the fact that traces of them are lost in the mists of time, it is because they have disappeared as a distinct ethnic group and disappeared into the local population.
The first candidate for the discoverer of America — St. Brendan. On it piled a lot of myths and legends, and they are all as one, say that Brendan has found in his travels, the promised land.
Monk was born in 484 in Ireland in County Kerry. He was a good student in addition to theology and mastered astronomy, mathematics and navigation. He was attracted by the distant unknown land — he tried missionary, spread the word of God. And he found a way to quench that thirst: he built the ship — kurak — and out to sea.
Not soon, but he was lucky to land on a small island with the "flow of water cascading over the cliff." In other words, with waterfalls. This is on the cards — is an island of St Kilda. Next followed the land for the land: one island hit Brendan herds of white sheep and rivers full of fish, the other — with herbs and white birds. Curiously, the researchers do not avoid the alternative history, and found these pieces of land — most likely, it is a question of the Faroe Islands — and seeks to Vogue.
Kurak Brendan caught in a storm, and poems made it into the sea "as soured milk", which sailed "huge crystals." As you can imagine, we are of the iceberg here. So for dessert monk met mountain spewing flames and red rocks:
Finally, after many days at sea, he reached — the promised land that is North America.
Alas, no sign showing that the monk actually visited the shores of America, no. There are just epic, full details of which are not under the power of the "generate" the play of the imagination. But this is not enough to unequivocally assign the laurels of the discoverer of America Irish saint. So scientists believe Brendan certain collective character — such as Odysseus or Sinbad the Sailor. Well, it's nothing. In Scandinavia there is trump in his arms, but not alone.
One of the most powerful — is Prince Madoc, the legend of which is still carefully preserved Welsh Abbey. Mid XII century manuscripts tell us about the representative of a noble family — the brave prince, who fell out of favor, chose to leave their homeland in search of a better life.
In 1170 Madoka ships crossed the Atlantic and reached the mouth of the Ohio. There the prince with his followers and settled. And it was so good that Madoc decided to return to Ireland to tell their compatriots about the wonderful region and fertile lands and call them with you. But while he was swimming, the remaining Welsh conflicts began with the local population. In the end, some were taken prisoner — their fate is unknown. Others were killed. So when he returned, he found Madoc sad picture. Then he began to build a fortress — like those erected in his house! The remains of the fortifications — Old Stone — and now can be found in Tennessee. The architecture and construction techniques are identical to those that were built in the old Wales. And it is strong evidence.
What happened to the Prince? Here opinions differ, but most likely, he went into the country — and assimilated among the natives. In support of this hypothesis is the evidence of a certain Morgan Jones. His revelations were published in 1740 in the American Journal of "Gentleman's Magazine": "When I first saw them (the Mandan Indians), he was convinced of their relationship with a European race, pointed out that similarity and their language … In 1660, I and my friends had been captured by an Indian tribe, the Tuscarora, ready to devour us when I spoke to them aloud in Welsh. However, later they are cooled down and calmly talked to me in that language, however, slightly spoiled. "
Legends about the blonde Indians went to America in the late XVIII century. And those lucky enough to ever bring her closer acquaintance with the Mandan, told, if they live in a log cabin, and their language is remarkably similar Welsh. And besides, they build their family to some Caucasian God, who came from the other side of the sea. Perhaps this is Madoc? Who knows?
Leif-lucky day, the son of Eric Red's
Every year on October 9th 14 million Americans of Scandinavian descent celebrate Leif Erikson and praise of Norman as the true discoverer of America. And that's true — it's true, he came to the present Massachusetts in October 1000 — at 492 years before Columbus.
If we believe the Norman sagas (and reasons not to believe as if not), "Leif and his companions boarded the ship. There have been 35 people. Among them was a German, whose name was Tyurkir. They equipped the ship, and when all was ready, out to sea and reached the ground. They decided to settle there for the winter and built a large house. In the river and in the lake was a lot of such a large red fish, which they had never seen before. In this blessed country, in their opinion, do not store up for winter fodder. In winter, there is no frost and the grass is almost as green as the summer. Day and night, not so different in their duration, as in Greenland or Iceland. Wanting to explore new domains, Leif sent people into the ground. They returned without a German Tyurkira. And he soon came. Leif then asked him, "Why did you come back so late, my father? And why did you separate from the rest? "In response Türker only spoke German, rolling his eyes and grimacing. No one understood the words. After a while he began to speak in Scandinavian and said: "I was far ahead of his companions, but I managed to make one new discovery. I found vines and grapes. " "Is it true, my father?" — Said Leif. "Of course, it is true, — said he. — Because I grew up in an area teeming with vineyards. " When spring came, they were ready to sail. Leif gave this country the name corresponding to its characteristics, and called it the land of grape — Vindland. "
True, this vine, still growing in New England, the taste is not so hot, the wine from it is even worse. But where is it to know the Vikings? The fact that the Vinland — is the current Massachusetts — scientists found only in the late XIX century, and before that unsuccessfully sought grape land across the continent. Then Boston set up a monument Leif-lucky son of Eric Red, the first true forerunner of Columbus. By the way, the statue of Columbus, here too there is — just look the other way.
In general, when it comes to perpetuate the memory, then the Americans should fork and a statue Chinese naval commander — Admiral Cheng Ho! For he reached the shores of the New World before Columbus '71 — in 1421! This is sure a British historian, in the past — a submarine navigator Gavin Menzies. He even wrote a book — "1421: the year when China discovered America." There, he spoke in detail about how the admiral Zheng He led a fleet of 300 ships reached the coast of America in 1421. Theoretically, this is more than possible: the Chinese are well versed in the maps and astronomy, they were the strength complex calculations, plus they knew the ocean with its currents and used this knowledge to their advantage. So the way the Chinese flotilla was to take no more than 280 days: it is certainly a challenge, but experienced sailors could easily handle it.
But this is only a theory. And where is the evidence? According to Gavin Menzies, Chinese admiral explored the seas and oceans — he spent time in the South-East and South Asia, and East Africa. In this he was convinced the ancient Chinese maps! Gavin found that cartographers to China in 1428 mapped the entire globe — absolutely all continents, including the Americas — its west and east coast. But how could this happen? After the European discovery began only 70 years! Then the scientist come to grips with the history of China and, in the end, "discovered" the admiral He and his fleet. Briton convinced that thanks to the sea voyage of Zheng He and the Chinese have such vast geographic knowledge. In addition, Columbus, arriving at a new continent, was sure that he was in China. And all because the first people he encountered surprisingly resembled indigenous China …
Who else could discover America?
It was in the V century. BC. AD, when the Greeks defeated Carthage, and Phoenician leaders had to flee. The evidence? Yes please! In 1949, a teacher from Pennsylvania named Beystlayn discovered a stone with subtle signs. Scientists at Cornell University have investigated the find and have come to the conclusion that the inscription — Phoenician. These "letters" are in America, and later — in Ohio in 1956. Across the archaeologists and the Phoenician beads.
And in Massachusetts, one of the cliffs was found image of a ship. Now this figure is hidden under the water, but experts who have studied it, no doubt: the "picture" depicts a Phoenician ship! This either means that the Phoenicians themselves, or locals who see foreigners, were quick to capture the "memorable event."
In the 20 years before Columbus, in 1472, an expedition led by Juan Kortereala discovered America! Trip sponsored King Afonso, eager to find a northern sea route to Asia and India. As a result, their emissary discovered a new continent, the Portuguese tried to hide from the world. The evidence? — Globe Martin Behayma 1492! It shows not only the Scandinavian countries, and the land to the west of Iceland, reminiscent of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Until such Behayma globe nobody did. Where did he take all this information? It's simple. German cartographer married the sister-in-law Kortereala, and in 1488 he settled on one of the Azores — Terceira. By a happy coincidence, they just ran already aged admiral. Four years of communication have not been for a cartographer for nothing: so there was a globe, which the light had not seen before.
In 1920 the American anthropologist John Jaeger of Minnesota, USA, received in the mail with obscure rock icons like pattern. After studying the mysterious stone, Jaeger suggested that the strange symbols — a kind of Etruscan runic script. But was not able to read the inscription, and sent "rock rose" to the University of Sao Paulo for further study. And there is an inexplicable thing happened: the inscription on the stone allegedly tried to clean up acid and … completely destroyed the artifact: after these "studies" it was just a rock. But Jaeger at the time took a few pictures of the stone. After decades of photos were posted on the Internet and tried to decipher the inscriptions Professor VA Chudinov. He did it and that's what conclusion came the scientist: a century before the discovery of America by its residents prayed Slavic gods. The inscription on the stone reads: "Runnika with Yara capital, Arkona Yar." This means that the "Americans" who signed the boulder came from the capital of Russia Spring — Arkona, and it happened a few centuries before the arrival of the first immigrants from Europe.
Category: Mystery stories