It is difficult to paleontologists. More recently, just remember all the genealogical tree: praobezyany generated apes, those made Neanderthals, Cro-Magnons, they gave birth, and even these were almost modern humans. Now different theories more, and each claims to be the ultimate truth. And in such circumstances to recreate a picture of prehistoric life? For example, those of Cro-Magnons, who lived just south of Moscow, 20,000 years ago. But we still try to do it.
These were outstanding people. Compared with other tribes they are very much able. Build strong houses, figurines carved out of stone and bone, were making their first steps in the ceramic art and have been so strong that some historians believe they blame extinction of mammoths in the region.
Neighbors to the east to hunt buffalo in the west — on reindeer. And they chose the biggest game. Because, the more abundant prey, the longer the race will be provided with food, the greater will be the hunters of free time to settle life, for observation, reflection. Besides helping to keep ice extracted meat.
But climate change. Glacier melt, the mammoths went north. Behind them moved and hunters. Where did they come to our shores? Arguments about this still in progress.
Obviously, the ancestors of these very old people, many thousands of years before them, were able to free themselves from the fear of the outside world, no longer wait for favors from nature and learned the power and ability to obtain required. Obviously, a lot of that had to try the thousands of previous generations to learn how to make weapons that can defeat the giant mammoths.
Obviously, many of the victims and failure to pay for the experience of their ancestors techniques and skills in such a dangerous occupation.
These inferences are compelling, but they are not by any excavations confirm. It remains to dream, based on the new findings, the results of studies by modern methods. And much looks surprising.
For example, the method of extraction. Vasnetsov's famous painting, in which people in leather finishing off with stones and sticks caught in a trapping pit mammoth, is far from reality. For one animal, even a very large, so no one would dig yamischu not. Not to mention the fact that the sticks and stones against the mammoth — it's just ridiculous. So how can mined hairy giants?
One — two times a year the herd of mammoths hurried shouts and torches to the high cliff, such as the edge of the glacier, and then had only to flay the carcass. Such hunting demanded strict discipline, high level of organization and lengthy preparation. At many sites of the bones of large dogs, which, most likely, also used in the rut.
Powerful tribes EXTRACTION
Mammoth hunters provide not only meat. Of bones and tusks cut out and grind out everything that could need: the finest needles and strong clubs, spears and figures of animals. Skeletons made of the edges of dwellings. Obtained strong design resembling church domes. On top of their cover huge chunks of skin. All connections are strengthened sash of Mammoth tendons. Bone was all around: and tools for working stone, and all kinds of caps, and comfortable couches, and lamps like lampadok, and even musical instruments. In one of the houses found the design of differently colored dice, and in form, and very reminiscent of the sound of a xylophone. Analysis of traces on the surface confirmed that the set of bones played the drums.
The skins were indispensable for clothing and footwear. Styles, invented over the millennia, northern peoples used so far. The more frequent dress like Yakut jumper with sleeves and a hood. From the skins dried and warm hats, and boots. All garments were decorated with beads and numerous plates, carved mammoth tusks.
Hunters were masters of all trades. They knew how to make fire by friction, which was necessary for a stay near the glacier: fire protected from the cold, wild animals, and helped in the hunt.
The excavated stone mortars and floats indicate that hunters diversify the diet of chopped herbs, roots and berries. Many fish bones shows that they used to go fishing quite often, but no fishing gear is still nowhere to be detected. Most likely, the fish were hunted as well as on the ground game — with spears and javelins. Bow and arrow was already known, but was used as a military weapon.
Home, of course, were "one-story", but the "underground floor" they have mastered a very ingenious. The entire perimeter of the home, inside and out, around the fire and stove benches located near a lot of holes. Some were stored weapons and tools, others — food reserves in the third — clothes. Such underground enclosures allow to solve all problems of everyday life. Near the fire pit was a sort of pans. Before the emergence of pottery was still about ten thousand years, and the cook had somehow. Did so: the products placed in the hole, put on top of the hot stones of the fire. Sometimes, the "pan" from the fire broke through the groove and covered her shoulder blade mammoth: make great "oven".
If the way of life of mammoth hunters eloquently told archaeological site, then their social order is anyone's guess. We will never know, who led the life of the tribe: a leader, a council of elders or league hunters. Sleeping in shelters are absolutely equal in status, no hint of the "royal box". And no signs of marital compartments: the location and decor reminiscent of the barracks. Perhaps by this time the institution of family in the tribe has not yet arisen. There is also no evidence of any religious rite.
Apparently, the tribe was at that stage of development, even before the idea of a god, separate from living people. They are certain to ask no one to pray. The world is still single. In a way, or on the hunt take amulets, because with them luck.
Dumping does not essentially differ from the "underground enclosures." And is located in the same place, next to the housing. Universal equality?
But someone with such a complex organized hunting and someone taught the younger hunters …
One of the most mysterious phenomena in the life of our ancestors — "Paleolithic Venus." This is a small female figurines carved from bone, stone, or molded from clay and then firing at the stake. Attention of the authors (and perhaps the audience) focused on sex: thighs, stomach, breasts, vulva. All this is exaggerated, overly stressed. The other parts of the body most often just outlined. Legs and face slightly marked, but not at hand. It is often depicted in detail hairstyle or hat. For a long time historians agree that these figures are a symbol of fertility and childbirth, and some even considered them the image of the Mother Goddess. Now opinions vary a lot more.
In figurines no hint of motherhood. Women have always shown, to put it mildly, very mature. This is not the mother, but rather a great-grandmother. Figures are always found in homes in prominent places. They were not with them as talismans. Maybe they were a kind of monument dead ancestors? Or presaged the cult house gods, like the Roman Lares and Penates?
But one thing we know for sure — it was a world of people, totally self-reliant, and who could survive in any circumstances. True, they killed mammoths, well, that modern man is not an angel. And that we are with them are very similar.
Category: Mystery stories