America is a rich country, strong and self-satisfied. No financial crises, no war, in which she gets involved, the well-being of its people especially do not influence. Sometimes it seems that the U.S. can only stop the punishment of the Lord. Those who believe in the doom hanging over America, there is a very strong argument. At the heart of this country, in its corner of the highly favored natural catastrophe is brewing.
Yellowstone National Park, famous for its forests, grizzly bears and hot springs, is in fact a bomb that will explode in the coming years. If that happens, can die all the North American continent. And the rest of the world will not find it. But the end of the world will not, do not worry.
All Power to the Board
And, verily all started with joy. In 2002, the Yellowstone both scored some new geysers of hot water with healing. Local travel company immediately hyped publicity of this phenomenon, the number of visitors to the park, which is usually about three million people per year, increased even more.
Soon, however, strange things began to happen. In 2004, the U.S. government has tightened the regime visiting the reserve. Its territory dramatically increased the number of guards, and some areas were declared closed for a visit. But they often seismologists and volcanologists.
They used to work in Ielloustoune because the whole nature reserve with its unique nature — nothing like a huge patch on the extinct crater of a supervolcano. Actually, hence the hot geysers. On the way to the surface of their heats shkvorchaschaya and bubbling magma beneath the Earth's crust. All local sources were known in those days, when the white colonizers pushed forward the Yellowstone from the Indians, and then on to you — three new ones! Why is that?
Scientists are worried. One after the other in the park began to go and see the commission to study the volcanic activity. What are they dug, the public is not informed, but it is known that in 2007, in the Office of the President of the United States was created by the Scientific Council, endowed with extraordinary powers. It includes several leading geophysicists and seismologists of the country, as well as members of the National Security Council, including the minister of defense and intelligence officials. Monthly meetings of that body headed George W. Bush personally.
In the same year, Yellowstone National Park has moved from authorization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs under the direct control of the Scientific Council. Why would such attention of the American authorities to the simple resort?
End crept quietly
And the thing is, that the ancient and thought to secure a supervolcano, which is Xanadu, suddenly showed signs of activity. Zabivshie miraculously springs and became its first manifestation.
More — more. Seismologists have found a sharp rise in the reserve of the soil. Over the last four years of her vspuchilo by 178 centimeters. This is despite the fact that over the last twenty years, the rise of soil was not more than 10 centimeters.
By seismologists joined mathematics. Based on the information about previous eruptions of the Yellowstone volcano, they have developed an algorithm of his life. The result was shocking. The fact that the intervals between eruptions is constantly shrinking, it was known to scientists before. However, given the astronomical duration of such gaps, this information is of no practical value to humanity had. Well, in fact, the volcano erupted 2 million years ago, then 1.3 million years ago and was last 630,000 years ago.
Geological Society of America was waiting for him to wake no earlier than 20,000 years. But on the basis of new data computers gave an unexpected result. Should wait for the next disaster in 2075. But after a while it became clear that things are moving much faster. The result had to be adjusted again. A terrible date approached. Now she is looming between the years 2012 and 2016, and the first figure looks likely.
One would think — think of the eruption, the more that is known about it in advance. Well, the Americans evacuated people from the dangerous area, well then will spend on rebuilding damaged infrastructure …
Unfortunately, so can reason only those who are not familiar with supervolcanoes.
Worse than nuclear war
A typical volcano, as we imagined it — is a cone-shaped hill with a crater from which spewed lava, ash and gases. It is formed so.
Deep in the bowels of the planet is constantly seething magma, which occasionally breaks up through the cracks, fractures and other "defects" of the crust. As the magma releases gases rise, becoming a volcanic lava, and poured out through the top of the fault, usually called muzzle of. Congealing around the vents of the eruption products and increase the cone of the volcano.
Supervolcanoes have the same feature, due to which, until recently, no one even aware of their existence. They do not look like our usual cone-shaped "cap" with the muzzle of the inside. This vast territory thinned crust under which the pulsing red-hot magma. Simple volcano looks like a pimple, a supervolcano — the vast inflammation. On the territory of the supervolcano may be located more conventional volcanoes. They may from time to time to erupt, but these emissions can be compared with the release of superheated steam boiler. But imagine that the boiler itself will explode! After all, is not supervolcanoes erupt and explode it.
How are these bombings?
Magma pressure from below on the thin surface of the earth is gradually increasing. Formed hump height of several hundred meters and a diameter of 15-20 kilometers. Along the perimeter of the hump there are numerous vents and cracks, and then his whole central part falls down into the fiery abyss. Rock collapsed dramatically as the piston pushed out of the bowels of the giant fountains of lava and ash.
The strength of the explosion exceeds the charge of the most powerful nuclear bomb. According to the calculations of geophysicists, if Yellowstone blows mine, the effect will exceed a hundred Hiroshimas. Calculations, of course, purely theoretical. During the existence of homo sapiens never with such a phenomenon does not come across. Last babahnulo at the time of the dinosaurs. Perhaps because of this they became extinct.
How will it be
A few days before the explosion of the earth's crust over supervolcanoes will rise by several meters. In this case, the soil is heated to 60-70 degrees. In the atmosphere, would dramatically increase the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and helium.
The first thing we see — a cloud of volcanic ash, which rises into the atmosphere at a height of 40-50 kilometers.
The pieces will throw up to a great height. Falling, they will lay a huge territory. In the early hours of the new eruption in Yellowstone destruction will be subjected to an area of a radius of 1000 kilometers around the epicenter. Here in immediate danger residents are almost all American Northwest (Seattle) and parts of Canada (Calgary, Vancouver).
In an area of 10,000 square kilometers will rage red-hot mud flows, called pyroclastic surges — the deadliest eruption product. They arise when the pressure spurting lava high into the atmosphere will weaken and fall of a pillar of the area a huge avalanche, burning everything in its path. In pyroclastic flows of this magnitude would be impossible to survive. At temperatures above 400 degrees the human body simply is cooked, the flesh separates from the bone.
Hot manure will kill about 200,000 people in the first minutes after the start of the eruption.
But it is — just a minor loss compared with those that America will suffer as a result of the earthquakes and tsunamis that will trigger an explosion. They will kill tens of millions more lives. This is assuming that the North American continent does not go under water, as Atlantis.
Then a cloud of ash from the volcano will spread outwards. C. during the day in the disaster area will be the whole territory of the United States to the Mississippi. Volcanic ash — only sounds innocuous, but in fact it is the most dangerous thing in the eruption. Ash particles are so small that they do not protect them from any gauze bandages or respirators. Once in the lungs, the ashes mixed with mucus hardens and turns into cement ….
The greatest danger may be subject to the territories thousands of miles away from the volcano. When a layer of volcanic ash reaches a thickness of 15 centimeters, the load on the roof is too big and the building will start to crumble. It is estimated that between one and fifty people in each house will die or be seriously injured. This will be the main cause of death in the bypassed pyroclastic surges areas around Yellowstone, where the ash layer is not less than 60 centimeters.
Other deaths followed by poisoning. After precipitation will be extremely poisonous. In fact, to cross the Atlantic and the Pacific, clouds of ash and ash would need two or three weeks, and a month later they will close the Sun around the Earth.
Soviet scientists once predicted that the most terrible consequence of a global nuclear conflict will be the so-called "nuclear winter." The same thing will happen as a result of the explosion supervolcano.
Two weeks after the sun rose in clouds of dust, the air temperature at the surface will fall into the various regions of the globe from -15 degrees to -50 degrees or more. The average surface temperature of about -25 degrees.
Winter will continue for at least one and a half years. This is enough to forever change the balance of nature on the planet. Because of the long cold and lack of light will be lost vegetation. Because the plants involved in the production of oxygen, very soon, all the inhabitants of the planet will be hard to breathe. Fauna of the Earth will die painfully from cold, hunger and epidemics. The human race will have to move from the ground to the underground, at least for three years, and then who knows …
But, in general, this sad prediction is mainly concerned with the residents of the western hemisphere. The inhabitants of other parts of the world, including the Russians, the chances of survival are much higher. And the consequences are likely to be less catastrophic. But for the people of North America's chances of survival are minimal.
Run for your lives!
But if the U.S. government aware of the problem, why are they not doing anything to prevent it? Why there is still evidence of impending disaster did not reach the general public?
The first question to answer is simple: to avert an impending explosion neither the U.S., nor humanity as a whole can not. So the White House prepare for the worst scenario. According to analysts from the CIA, "as a result of the disaster will be lost two-thirds of the population, the economy will be destroyed, disorganized transport and communications. In the almost complete cessation of supplies remaining at our disposal the military potential will decrease to a level sufficient only to maintain order in the country. "
As for alerting the public, the authorities acknowledged these actions inappropriate. Well, in fact, it's a sinking ship can be saved, and then not always. But where to go with a broken and burning of the continent?
The U.S. population is now nearer to trehsotmillionnoy mark. To put this biomass, in principle, there is no place, especially after the disaster that prosperous places on the planet will not. Each state will have big problems, and aggravate their intake of millions of refugees do not want anybody.
In any case, a conclusion reached by the Scientific Council at the President of the United States. Output, according to the figures contained in it, one — stop most of the population to its fate, and to attend to the conservation of capital, the military potential and the elite of American society. So a few months before the explosion will take out of the country's top scientists and the military, experts in high technology, and, of course, rich. There is no doubt that every billionaire booked a place in the future ark. But the fate of ordinary millionaires vouch anymore. They will be saved themselves.
God Bless Liberia
Actually, the above information has become known thanks to the efforts of an American scientist and journalist Howard Huxley, who deals with the problems of Yellowstone volcano from the 80's, has established contacts in the circles of geophysicists, as many well-known journalists have been associated with the CIA and is a recognized authority in the scientific community.
Realizing what the country is heading, Howard and his associates established the Fund rescue civilization. Their goal — to warn mankind of the impending disaster and to give everyone a chance to survive, not just to agents.
For several years, members of the Foundation have dug out a lot of information. In particular, they figured out where to go exactly the cream of American society after the disaster. An island of salvation for them will be in Liberia, a small West African countries are opposed to the traditionally follows in the wake of U.S. policy. For several years in this country are massive cash infusion. There's built a network of fine roads, airports, and is said to have an extensive system of deep, very well-equipped bunkers. In this hole the American elite will be able to sit back a few years and then, when the situation is stabilized, begin to rebuild the destroyed state and its influence in the world.
And while there is still left a few years, the White House Science Council and try to solve urgent military tasks. There is no doubt that the coming disaster will be accepted by the majority of religious people as God's punishment for America. I'm sure many Islamic countries want to finish, "Satan", while he is licking its wounds. Jihad for the best reason you can imagine.
Therefore, since 2003, and applied for a number of pre-emptive strikes Muslim countries to destroy their military capabilities. Have time whether the U.S. military machine to neutralize these threats before 2012, God knows.
A vicious circle. Due to the aggressive policy of enemies in U.S. is growing, and the time to neutralize them is running out.
The author Paul Burin, the newspaper "My Family"