— Here is the true law of life, — the Buddha said — from the good must come good and the evil — evil.
Founded: VI century BC. e.
Founder: Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (enlightened), 563-483 years. BC. e.
The sacred books: Tripitaka ("Three Baskets of Wisdom") divided by the sermon, the rules for the clergy and clarify the teachings of the Buddha. Since the emergence of the Tripitaka Buddhist scriptures list added so many volumes that simply list them all would take more than one page.
Distribution: most Buddhists live in China, Japan, Ceylon, Thailand, Burma, Indochina, Korea and Mongolia. A small number of Buddhists in the world is everywhere, including in the United States. In India, the birthplace of Buddhism, Buddhists are very few.
Religious groups: Buddhists are divided into followers of the Hinayana and Mahayana, which can be compared with the conventional and reformist trends in other religions. Tibet Buddhism developed into Lamaism. In China and Japan, he teamed up with Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism.
Shakya tribe on earth is born Prince
About 2500 years ago in the land of India, on the plains of the Ganges, at the foot of the Himalayas Shakya tribe lived, and the ruler was King Suddhodhana Gautama.
Suddhodhana king lived in a palace in Kapilaviste. He was rich, healthy and loved by his people. And all? Suddhodhana still king was not happy. He had no children.
Every day he made sacrifices many gods, which at the time believed the Indians, distributed alms, hours studying scripture of his people. And every day, praying for him to have a son who would rule his people after his death.
When the king was already nearly fifty years, Queen Maya gave birth to a son named Siddhartha — Prince Siddhartha Gautama.
When the news of the birth of the Prince spread throughout the small kingdom Shakya people, people from all over the country came to congratulate the king and queen. On foot, on horses and elephants, they came to the royal palace with gifts for the newborn prince.
Among the many visitors to the palace came seven saints from the Himalayas. When they showed Prince Sid? Dharthu, all seven at once exclaimed:
"Such a beautiful child had never been born here!"
Then again, look at the little prince and cried together:
"He will grow a great man!"
"What do you predict my son?" — Majestic king asked Suddhodhana.
"If he chooses worldly life — answered seven saints, — he will be the king of the world!"
Great future, predicted his newborn son by these holy men, the king did Suddhodhanu very happy. He ordered to bring even more sacrifices to the gods, even more to distribute alms to the poor, and the celebrations at the palace were to continue for another seven days.
When Prince Siddhartha was very young, one of his uncles taught him to control the elephant, the other — to shoot straight from the bow. A father — tame wild horses.
Very often, the young prince rode on horseback yellow rice fields of his father, or riding in the woods, where there were mango trees, tamarinds and Shoreya'a carpal. Or running to the river, to see how the snow-capped mountains in the distance in the evening becoming pink and purple color.
Most of the time he was playing with his cousins, who were about the same age with him. He had two cousins: named Nanda and Devadattha. He liked to play with Nanda, but with Devadatthoy he did not like to play, because he boasted and playing is not always fair.
One day Prince Siddhartha went into the woods with his cousin Devadatthoy. Both boys were with a bow and arrow, and Devadattha said:
"Let's see who shoots more accurately — you or me?"
They are stuck in the ground bamboo shoots before the dark tree trunk and walked away twenty steps.
"Now let's see who can break down this boom stick" — said Siddhartha.
"I can not" — said Devadattha.
"Then shoot first!"
Devadattha pulled the bow and shot an arrow. It has not got to escape, falling next to him.
"I almost got it!" — Gleefully shouted Devadattha.
"Almost — it's not good enough" — Siddhartha repeated that he often spoke of his uncle, who taught him to shoot.
"Here I can see how you shoot better" — challenged Devadattha.
The young prince raised bow, placed in the center of the boom to pull the string, squinted, and fired. The arrow whistled through the air and pierced bamboo stick right in the middle.
"I can not even better! — Inflated envious cousin Prince. — I can send an arrow which will split your arrow in two! "
He immediately picked up his bow and shot an arrow hastily. Rather than get into the boom Siddhartha, she flew into the branches of the tree and hit the wing flying dove. The bird fell to the ground, stunned by a sudden blow. Siddhartha ran to pick up the pigeon. He was pleased to see that the bird was frivolous injury, warmed and comforted her in his arms, and then let go.
"This was my bird! — Shouted angrily Devadattha. — You had no right to let her go. She was mine, not yours! This I hit it, not you! "
"Are you almost killed her! — Said Siddhartha. — I saved her. So in fact it was mine, not yours. "
They had a long argument about who owned the bird on the right. Prince Siddhartha insisted that whoever kills an innocent creature, is not entitled to it, and, on the contrary, the one who saves him from death, such a right has.
Devadattha left very angry. He has? Remembered for many years about the quarrel, never forgiven Prince Siddhartha of the fact that he released a dove into the wild.
Prince wears the sacred thread
When Prince Siddhartha attained his twelfth birthday, the royal palace staged a lavish celebration was invited many guests. It is no coincidence, because at that age, being the son of a respectable Hindu prince had to wear the sacred thread — it was what? Bit of confirmation.
In front of all the guests prince, like all boys his age, wearing a sacred thread vowed earnestly study the sacred books of religion of the father.
When the boy wears the sacred thread and swears allegiance to their religion, according to the beliefs of the Hindus, he is born again, and from that day it is called the twice-born.
Once Siddhartha was born twice, being the son of the king, they sent him to the most famous scientists and priests in the kingdom Shakya for education.
In those days the children of high-caste studied literature, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, and other subjects. But most of the time was devoted to the study of religion on the Vedas — the Hindu scripture. It was a very long book, written mostly in verse. In addition to the Vedas there are other books, interprets scripture. Some of them are very difficult to understand.
Before Prince Siddhartha was able to even begin to learn all of these books, he had to learn a new language, because all the sacred books of the Hindus were written in Sanskrit.
As soon as Prince Siddhartha mastered Sanskrit, his teacher? Priests began to devote it to the sacred books, which treat their religion — Hinduism.
Religion nog called "Hinduism"
Central tenet of Hinduism lies in the existence of an infinite Universal Spirit of Brahman, or the Soul of the World. Soul of the World, in turn, also called Trimutri — The Triune God, as it is embodied in:
1) Brahma — the creator,
2) Vishnu — Savior
3) Shiva — the destroyer.
According to the beliefs of the Hindus, Brahma created the first man and named him Manu, then the first woman — Shatarupa. From where the whole of humanity.
Not all people were equal in the world, although descended from Manu. From the beginning, there are four categories of people.
Manu came from the head of the best and most holy men in India — the priests, who are called Brahmins.
Hands Manu made another category the best people — kings and warriors.
Manu came from hip artisans, and of the legs — the people from the lowest class.
These categories were called castes.
The higher the caste, the more benefits and privileges of birth a person receives, and vice versa. Only the upper castes could be priests and teachers of religion. Representatives of the lowest castes were not allowed to become priests, rulers, or take what? Or important posts.
Over time, four main castes fragmented, creating thousands of new castes.
"If a member of a lower caste is very respectable, intelligent and brave, if he had a chance to get the same benefits in life, which have representatives of a higher caste?" — Asked people.
"No, — answered the priests — if the person was born in a caste, he will never be able to take advantage of higher caste."
"Then it makes no sense to be good" — decided a few.
"There, there! — Said the priest. — If you have integrity in this life, you will be rewarded for it in the next life. "
"What is life?"
"As you all know, — said the priest, — every living thing has a soul. It stems from the World Soul, Brahman. Because Brahman is immortal, right?
And the souls of living beings, which are derived from the Universal Soul, will never die. "
"Then what happens to the soul when a person dies?"
"When a man dies, his soul leaves his body and immediately enters the body of a newborn baby. If a person is good life, he is reborn in a higher caste. If his life is ugly, he is reborn in a lower caste. "
"What if the sick person will live for several lifetimes?"
"Then every time he will be born in all lower caste. They have the power to be born sick and suffer all his life — and it will be a punishment for bad behavior. Moreover, in the new life he can be born dumb animals. We say very? Very bad man — elephant. And if he is a bad bishop, in the next life can be born a dog. If he's a bad dog, down even lower stages of development, until a flea or mosquito-born. "
The belief that souls are reborn many times, taking a particular earthly appearance, called Reincarnation (reincarnation).
"What makes the soul good people to enter the body of the people of the upper castes, and bad soul — in the body of the people of the lower castes or animals?" — Want to know the people.
"There is a law of life, — explained the priests, — according to which the good should be rewarded with good, and evil is punished evil. This law is called karma, which means "law of action." If a person does good, he is rewarded for his good works in the next life, but if a person does evil, he is punished for it in the next life. Such is the karma. "
"So it should be — thinking people. — Good should be rewarded and evil punished. " Action law, called Carmen, they found the right one.
"But what if the person is respectable for one life for another?"
"Then he is rewarded — the priest answered, — having been born in the next life in a higher caste."
"And if he continues to be respectable?"
"Then he is born in an even higher caste."
"And if he still continues to lead a respectable life?"
"In this case, the level rises to his class as long as does not become a priest, Brahmin!"
"And if the priest continues to do well in life, by whom he will be born in the next time?"
"He will not be born again, because this is its life cycle ends."
"But what happens with the soul, which continues to be a respectable all the time?"
"As you know, the souls of living beings evolved from Brahman — World Soul. Consequently, when the soul completes the cycle of life, she returned to the world soul and connects with the Brahman. This state of mind is called nirvana. And this is the greatest happiness, to which the soul can hope. So you all need to keep a respectable way of life and not to do evil, that, in the end, can hope for a connection with the universal soul and enter into Nirvana. "
Doctrine of creation, Brahma and the origin of mankind from Manu — the first person, as well as caste and reincarnation, karma and nirvana have been recorded in the books. They also registered the names of Hindu gods and all the hymns that they should sing. Later, it was written a number of books that treat all of these beliefs and explain to people why they should lead a respectable life as befits the religious Hindus.
When the boys at the age of twelve years were confirmed, and wore the sacred thread, they started to explore all the sacred books of their religion.
The priests taught the doctrines of their religion — Hinduism — and Prince Siddhartha.
For four years, the prince remained with their teachers. At the age of sixteen years, he returned home to the royal palace, endowed with extensive information about the Hindu religion, like any other man in the kingdom Shakya.
Along with Prince Siddhartha — the same day, according to one story — was born and his future wife, Princess Yashodhara.
And now, when the prince was sixteen years old and he has become a scientist, a beautiful princess Yashodhara also sixteen years old, and they were married.
Suddhodhana king gave his son and daughter-three beautiful castle and many servants, and everything that they wanted. More than a decade Prince Siddhartha and Princess Yashodhara lived happily together.
Prince loved hunting and often traveled with his bodyguard Channahom.
One day, returning from a hunting trip, he saw an emaciated man — skinny, writhing in pain on the ground.
"What happened to this man?" — Asked the prince Channaha.
"This man is ill, and it hurts a lot of pain, my prince!" — Said Channah. "But why is he sick?"
"This is what happens in life, my prince. Anyone can get sick. "
Prince did not ask more questions, but very sad.
The next day, when the Prince and Channah again came to hunt, they met an old man, this old, that his back was bent like a bow with a tense string, and he kept nodding. His hands were shaking, like palm leaves in the wind, and even with the help of two crutches, he could barely walk.
"What is this person? — Prince Siddhartha asked Channaha. — Its that, also plagued by pain and illness? "
"No, my lord! But he is an old man, this man, and so people look at a very old age. "
Once again, the Prince returned home in great sorrow.
The next day, when Prince Siddhartha and Chan? Tries once again to the hunt, they met a funeral procession. The body of the deceased men were taken to the place of burning, and behind him were the widow and children of the deceased, crying bitterly.
Prince asked Channaha explanation.
"This is my prince, waiting for any man — Channah said. — It does not matter, it is the king or a beggar, death comes to all. "
When the prince returned home that day, his wife had a big celebration in the hall of entertainment, where the set of trained girls were dancing, singing and playing musical instruments. But the prince was too sad, to join in the fun. He went to his room to think about what they see.
It turns out, after living for nearly thirty years in the palaces, many scholars read books, he really did not know much about life and people. He spent many years in entertainment, for hunting and fishing and having fun on one holiday after another, but now he saw sickness, old age and death. And the more he thought about it, the sadder he became.
Probably what? Something in life is arranged correctly, he thought, if there is sickness, old age and death. He was interested in the origins of the suffering. None of the sacred books, he has learned not explain anything. Prince did not understand why all the people in his kingdom can not be as happy as he and his family.
And thinking about all the people in his country, he finally began to understand how difficult and unhappy lives of poor people. Most of them were among the lower castes. Most poor people are considered so contemptible, that they were not even allowed to enter the temple, read the Vedas or approach to what? 'Or belonging to a higher caste.
He wondered why Brahma the Creator divided the people on such a large number of castes? It seemed to him unjust. And all that he has learned from the Bible and religious books, it seemed wrong.
Sitting in his chambers, and thinking, he heard the sound of music and singing coming from the hall entertainment. It becomes even sadder, because we realized that all the fun — it's only a moment, and at the end of life comes death. The more he thought about it, the more depressed he became.
The next day he left the palace with Channahom. At this time in the woods hunting, and the market place, it is very crowded in the afternoon.
There, among the merchants, the prince saw an old monk, dressed in coarse yellow robe, who asked for alms. Despite the fact that the monk looked old, was poorly dressed and had to ask for food, his face was calm and happy.
This monk was one of thousands of people in India who have left their families and homes and went to live in the mountains alone, to where they could think of no interference. Only from time to time they come to the city to ask for food.
"If I could live like one of those monks — thought Prince Siddhartha — and spend time thinking perhaps I would know the truth about why people suffer and how to lead a respectable life. While I will not reveal this truth, I will not be happy. "
And then the prince decided to leave the palace and family to leave their wealth to go into the woods and live like monks.
We often hear about the poor, who would become a prince. But the prince lived in India, who decided to become a beggar, to be able to grasp the wisdom of the world.
The great renunciation
When Prince Siddhartha was announced that he was going to leave home and become a beggar monk, it was a major blow for his father. Suddhodhana king hoped that his son would become king after him Shakya country, and tried to persuade the Prince not to leave the palace. But Prince Siddhartha had already decided.
Just at this time, Princess Yashodhara gave birth.
"Now — thought Suddhodhana king — my son does not go away. Love for a child to tie him to the house and will not let him become a beggar monk. "
But King Suddhodhana wrong.
Siddhartha knew that if you do not run away from home before the love of his young son swallow, he did not reveal the true wisdom of life.
One night he called Channaha and told him to prepare his favorite horse for a long journey.
"Right now?" — Channah asked, surprised that his master wants to hit the road after midnight.
"Yes, right now, — said Siddhartha. — And I want you to come with me. Get ready now! "
When Channah left to fulfill his order, Prince Siddhartha went to the room of Princess Yashodhara. He saw her sleeping next to a sleeping baby and put her hand on his head. Prince Siddhartha lovingly looked at them, but did not wake. He was afraid that his heart tremble from requesting wife stayed home.
He left the palace with Channahom, and they both went in the direction of the kingdom Moghadam. When they had driven a long distance from Kapilavisty, then stopped and dismounted. With Channaha Siddhartha shaved his head and beard.
Seeing his master-shaven as a beggar monk, Channah wept.
"Now, Channah, go back to the palace, and I will go alone, and I will beg and search for the truth of life."
"Yes, my prince!"
"I'm not your prince, Channah! I do not want to be a ruler over the people. I want to be one of my fellow and find out what they need to do to bring to life the good and happiness. "
"Yes, my prince!" — Sobbed Channah.
Channah slowly returned to the palace in Kapilaviste and Siddhartha foot set off down the dusty road.
On the way he met a beggar.
"Listen, — said the prince to the beggar, — let us change clothes!"
And he gave a beggar his nice clothes instead of wearing a beggarly rags.
Went on to become a beggar in search of wisdom in the world, which explains his life.
That night, when Prince Siddhartha Gautama the twenty-ninth year left his home, known as the Blessed Night of the Great Renunciation.
The long and tedious search
For seven years, Siddhartha wandered in search of wisdom. His voice was soft, it — simple and wise. And all the people he met and became his friends.
Once, when he was sitting in the woods and talked with wandering monks arrived Mogadaha king Bimbisara became listen. When Siddhartha was finished, the king Bimbisara said:
"Your words are wise. Come with me to the palace, and you will be my principal adviser! "
"If I was looking for honors and wealth, I would be the king of the kingdom of the Ganges, — said Siddhartha. — But I'm looking for something that no wealth or honors can not pay that back — the true knowledge of life. "
"Then, — said the king Bimbisara, — promise me that when you find that knowledge, come and teach me to him!"
"I Promise" — said Siddhartha.
Then he left the woods and went to wander until he came to a great teacher of Alara.
"Teach me the wisdom of the world" — Siddhartha asked Alar.
"To study the Vedas. There you will find wisdom in the world! "Siddhartha once again hit the road until he came to a great teacher udaka. And that he also asked, "Teach me wisdom in the world!" And udaka replied:
"To study the Vedas, for in them is hidden the wisdom of the whole."
But when Siddhartha? Then many years studied the holy books, but have not found an explanation for why the Brahman makes people suffer from disease, poverty and old age.
When Siddhartha left udaka teacher, he met five monks, who also wandered in search of wisdom.
"In order to achieve wisdom, we must improve our souls — said five monks. — And to achieve this, we need to torture and torment their bodies hunger. Through great suffering body the soul will be better. So teach Brahmins. "
"If such is the way of understanding the wisdom — said Siddharhta — I tested it."
He and five monks left together in the woods and stay there long. They starved himself to death as long as their bodies become skeletons, and the legs are so weak that they could not get through and the shortest distance.
Siddhartha once fainted from hunger, and how? While his friends thought he was dead. But he came to. And as soon as he rallied and was able to speak, he said:
"From now, brethren, I cease to starve and torture yourself."
Hearing this, the monks said to each other: "Indeed Siddhartha refuses to righteous living? Truly religious people" and walked away from him.
Siddhartha began to eat and drink, and strength slowly returned to him. The more he got, the more clearly made his mind. "Those teachings that man told to starve yourself to lead a respectable life and the wisdom to know the way — thought Siddhartha — must be wrong. Because the more I get, the more my thoughts about the world and religion. "
But where did the suffering and how people should live their life was good, he still has not learned.
Day after day, week after week, month after month, he wandered through forests and cities, found eating berries and fruits, and rice, which he was given the townspeople.
Sometimes he is very tired of this way of life. He wanted to see his wife and young son. Very often it occurred to abandon such a life and go back to the palace. But Siddhartha knew that more will not be happy in the palace until he knew how to put an end to the suffering humanity.
One day he was sitting under a wild fig tree.
"Here, — he said to himself, — I sit and think about everything I was taught, and all that I have seen in my life. And from this I have learned wisdom. "
By that time, Siddhartha realized that knowledge — is not what? Is a great mystery, hidden where? Then at the end of the rainbow, they can not be obtained by studying the Vedas, the sea himself to death while sitting on a bed of nails and sharp stones, as do some of the monks. Now he believed that the truth must be sought in himself, in his own soul, there and we need to continue to search.
Then the prince made a vow:
"While I do not comprehend this wisdom, I have not move from the place of? Under the tree!"
Siddhartha spent many hours under that tree, comparing the religious teachings with all his experience.
Suddenly his face lit up with joy.
"Finally — he said — I found the key to knowledge! Here's the first law of life: from the good must come good and the evil — evil. "
Siddhartha wondered why he had never thought about it before. After all, the law of life he was known for a long time. It was one of the most important teachings of Brahmanism — Law Actions. But now he saw him in a new light, giving rise to the wisdom and truth of life, that he was looking for ever since he left his home.
All through the night Siddhartha sat under a tree and meditate. Having the first law of life as the key to knowledge, he discovered that he could answer all the questions that troubled him since he became a monk.
The next morning, Siddhartha realized that he was at the end of his long search for wisdom. Now he became the Buddha, which means "enlightened."
That night, when Prince Siddhartha Gautama of the Shakya kingdom people became the Buddha (enlightened), his followers called the Holy Night.
A tree under which he sat that night, known as the Bo tree — the tree of wisdom.
Sermon at Benares
After Holy Night Buddha remained seven times seven days under the Bo tree, thinking about the First Law of life and wisdom, which to tread. When all his ideas were so clear to him that he was ready to answer questions about it, he decided to reach out to people and preach to the world.
First he went to the city of Benares to find the five monks who left him when he began to eat and drink.
"These monks — he thought — to seek the truth as well as I do, and easier to teach those who want to learn than those who are not interested."
Arriving in Benares, he found them in the woods outside the city.
They saw approaching the Buddha and said to each other:
"This is Siddhartha, who was unable to lead the life of a good priest. We will not pay attention to it. "
But when he got closer, they greeted him and asked to sit down.
"You found the wisdom he sought?" — Asked the monk.
"Found" — said the Buddha.
"What is the wisdom of the world?" — Asked the monk. "You did all believe in karma, the law of action, right?" — Asked the Buddha.
"That's right" — said the monk.
"This is the beginning of wisdom: Good has to come from good, and from evil — evil. The first law of life, and all the inhabitants of the earth are subject to him. "
"But this is nothing new," — objected monks.
"But if this law — the truth — Buddha said — then sacrifices, prayers and petitions to the gods — stupidity."
"But why?" — Asked the monk.
"Because, — said the Buddha, — the water always flows downhill. Fire is always hot. Ice is always cold. Prayers to all the gods of India does not make water flow uphill, do not fire cold and ice — hot. This is because there are laws of nature that make these things as they are. And what is done can not be undone. Therefore, prayers and sacrifices to the gods are useless. "
"It seems to be true," — said the monk, agreeing with him.
"If it's true — the Buddha said — then why all the idols representing gods? If these gods can not change anything in the world, they should pray and worship. If a person does good, then the results will be good. And if he commits evil deeds, the results are bad, and all the gods of India can not change it. "
"It also seems to be true." — Monks again agreed.
"From this it follows, as day follows night, the Vedas, which teaches people to pray and make sacrifices, are not sacred books. Our priests say that the Vedas and every word in them sacred. But I tell you that the Vedas — not the holy books. "
Monks looked at the Buddha in great astonishment. No one in India had not dared to say that the Vedas are not sacred.
"Yes, — added the Buddha — the Vedas teach us to believe that Brahma created people and divided into castes. But this is not consistent with the first law of life. People are divided only into good and bad. Those who belong to the good — the good, and those who belong to the bad — bad. And there is no difference in what family they were born. "
"Well, you do not believe that Brahma divided the people into castes?" — In amazement asked monks.
"I do not believe — Buddha replied. — I do not believe at all that Brahma? Then created. The world was not created by Brahma. "
"Then who created the world?" — Asked the monk.
"I think that the world would last forever. And there is no end to it. And anything with no end and no beginning. The world was not created by anyone. The world was forever. "
Monks was silent a moment, thinking about what has been said by the Buddha, which was so different from the way which they studied and trusted for life.
Suddenly the Buddha addressed the monks, saying
"There are two extremes to be avoided. In? First, a life full of pleasures, selfish and shameful. And in? Second, a life of self-torture, for it too unworthy. These two roads do not lead to a good life. "
"Then what is going to be expensive?" — Asked the monk.
"In the middle" — Buddha replied. "How do you find this middle way?" "Following octopartite Way", — said the Buddha. "And what is that octopartite Way?" — Asked the monk.
Octopartite Way teaches the eight rules of life:
Right Faith treats truth as a guiding principle in man;
Right intention calls for calm and no harm to any living being;
Right speech does not recommend lying, cursing and use offensive language in the speech;
Correct behavior — do not steal, to kill, to do something shameful, what can later regret;
Proper exercise — do not engage in fraud, trafficking in stolen property, usury, etc., that is unjust deeds;
Right effort — you must always strive to do good and stay away from evil;
Right thoughts — you should always keep your cool and do not let your thoughts run to joy or sorrow;
Right concentration comes when a person follows all these rules and reaches levels of absolute rest.
"This, O monks, is octopartite Way!"
He then explained in detail again Eight Rules of life and ended up told them the Five Precepts of morality:
Do not kill,
Do not steal,
Do not lie,
Do not commit adultery, and
Do not befuddle yourself ever.
When the Buddha had finished his explanation, the monks said to each other:
"It is truly wise and truly Siddhartha Gautama became enlightened — a Buddha! After all, he started the wheels of the True Law of Life, which teaches people that the world is ruled fair. "
Then they bowed to the Buddha and said they wanted to become his followers.
The first sermon Buddha read five monks, now known among his followers as the Sermon at Benares.
"From good must come good"
When five monks took an oath to observe the Five Precepts of morality and faith, like the Buddha, in the fact that the Vedas are not the holy books, and the people are divided not by caste, and the good and bad, the Buddha combined them into the Brotherhood Monks detail explaining his teaching and together they hit the road to spread it to the world.
And called the doctrine of Buddhism.
"I promised the king Bimbisara — Buddha said — that when I perceive the wisdom that was looking back and enlighten him. Let's go now to the realm Moghadam, I must keep my word. "
When the king found out that it goes to the Buddha, he went out to meet him.
"Have you found the wisdom that was looking for?" — Asked the king.
"I found, excellent king!"
"Is it hard to understand it?"
"The truth is always simple and easy to understand."
And the Buddha explained to the king the truth that came to him when he was sitting under the Bo tree.
"If I understand you, — said the king Bimbisara, when the Buddha had finished — do not you teach a new religion, you are at serious changes now existing — Hinduism."
"It is as you say," — said the Buddha.
"So, from the good, you say you should always consider the good?" — Asked the king Bimbisara.
"This is the law of life."
And then the king Bimbisara adopted Buddhism and helped spread his teachings in his kingdom.
Soon there were many thousands of Buddha's followers, and his fame flew from kingdom to kingdom, until they reached the country people Shakya.
One day, when the Buddha preached large gathering of his followers, messengers arrived and said,
"We come from a country of the people of the Shakya Suddhodhany king, your father, who wants you to come home to see him and your family!"
With the king's messengers, and hundreds of his followers who followed him, the Buddha went to the palace, from which left one dark night many years ago in search of wisdom.
Once home, read the Buddha preaching his household of the palace, explaining his theory.
Approached the Buddha, his son, Prince Rahula, and said
"Father, I want to get his inheritance."
Buddha looked at his disciple Ananda, who understood his teacher and gave the prince Rahula monk robe, and his son to join the Order of the father.
Then the princess Yashodhara bent at the feet of her husband and wanted to get his share of the treasure, which the Buddha attained. Buddha looked at Ananda, and he asked:
"Teacher, can I take women into the Holy Order?" Buddha said,
"Is not human sorrows fall on women as well as men?"
Then the princess Yashodhara was the first nun of the Order of the Holy Buddha.
All the people accepted the teachings of the Buddha Shakya. People began to call Buddha Shakyamuni — Sage Shakya people.
When Buddha became widely known, his cousin Devadattha also entered the Order. Devadattha pretended to be very religious, but in fact he was jealous of his brother's fame and built intrigues against him. He tried to give it the kings who traveled through the possessions of the Buddha, but the plans fell through, and he was disgraced by the Buddha and his followers.
Wherever the Buddha came, people large crowds came to hear him preach.
One day the Buddha came weeping woman, "the enlightened, I died my only son. I always ask if there are any ways to get it back again to life? And I said, go to the Enlightenment. Maybe he can help you. Can you, O Teacher, my boy back to life? "
Buddha looked at her with compassion and said:
"If you bring me a mustard seed from a house where not dead yet no adult, child or servant, I will return your child to life."
The woman went to look for a mustard seed of such a home, which the Buddha said.
For many months it in their search went from house to house and eventually returned to the Buddha.
"Come, my daughter, do you bring a mustard seed, which I say?"
"No, — she said. — People tell me I live a little, and many of the dead. "
The Buddha explained the weeping mother the truth about the suffering that all of life — suffering and the path to the good life consists of eight stages, after which she joined the Order of the Buddha.
For many years, the Buddha and his monks went around the country, preaching octopartite way to help the poor, wherever they can, and have won many followers of his teachings.
At the age of eighty years, the Buddha suddenly fell ill and he knew that his end was near.
His monks started crying and said:
"Our teacher is leaving us! Our teacher is leaving us! "
Buddha turned to him and said:
"When I go away from you forever, do not think that the Buddha has left you and it is not among you. You have my teaching, my truth, the laws that I gave you. Let them be your guiding star. Buddha did not leave you. "
And having said this, he died.
This occurred in 483 BC. e., more than 2,400 years ago.
Birds wise and foolish birds
After the death of the Buddha, his sermons were combined in three volumes, called the Tripitaka, which means "three baskets of wisdom." Tripitaka was the holy book of Buddhism.
In addition to the "three baskets of Wisdom" has been written and many other books on the Buddha's life and teachings. In one of them — "Dzhatakas" — collected stories about various life lived by the Buddha, before he became enlightened.
According to these stories, he lived about five hundred and thirty lives. Forty-two times a god. Eighty-five times the king. Twenty-four times a prince, twenty-two times — a learned man. Twice a thief, once — a slave, once — gambler. Many times was a lion, deer, horse, eagle, bull, snake and even a frog. But, of course, Bodista (the name of the Buddha before he became enlightened) was different from all the other kings, slaves, and animals, among which he lived. He was always wise.
Here's a story about Bodiste when he was a bird, "Long? Long ago when in Benares rules Brahmadatta, Bodista again revived — this time in the form of a bird — and lived in the forest with a flock of birds with a very tall tree, whose branches spread in all parties.
Once, when the branches of the tree began to rub against each other, sprinkle dust, smoke appears. Seeing this, Bodista thought, "If the two branches will continue so to rub against each other, then there will be a spark, a fire breaks out and cover the dry leaves, and the tree will burn. We can not stay here, we should immediately move away to what? Anything else. " And he turned to the bird flock in verse:
Birth of the Earth tree where
We, the children of air, live,
It even emits fire.
Flying in the sky, the birds!
Look out! Our home and haven
He became dangerous for us!
And then those birds that were smart and listened to the voice of Bodisty immediately flew with him in the air and went to another place. Foolish said unto each other, "Yeah! Yeah! He always makes a big deal! "And, not paying attention to his words, remained on the tree.
And shortly after the fire started, he anticipated Bodista, covering the tree. Smoke and flames began to rise up, and the birds did not see anything in the smoke, could not fly away and burned to death! "
All the stories from the "Dzhatakas" tells the story of Buddha's life before he became enlightened. After that, he did not born again, lost in nirvana.
Religion for all mankind
When King Bimbisara of Mogadaha first heard the sermon of the Buddha, he said:
"If I understand you correctly, you can not teach a new religion you preach major changes in Hinduism."
"It is as you say," — said the Buddha.
But the changes that he preached, were nevertheless very important. Some changes have been so significant that at least one he? Did change the old religion completely.
Hinduism — the national religion, and thus confessed only Hindus and any other people.
In Buddha's time, all religions in the world have been national. Similarly, today the governments of all countries in the world are national. Each government develops laws for the people. Exactly the same happened with all religions in the world at the time of the Buddha.
While some religions do not allow other people to practice them. This was the case in Hinduism. Anyone who was not a native-born Indian, even if he believed in and worshiped the same gods worshiped by the Hindus, could become adept Hinduism.
Buddha explained that all people can join his Brotherhood of monks, regardless of race or nationality, as long as they are willing to follow octopartite Way, and founded a new religion for all people in the world.
"In whom there is truth and righteousness, is blessed," — said the Buddha. And if this is true for the Indians, it must also be true for all people in the world. Buddha told his monks to teach all throughout the way people should live a righteous life.
And when the Buddha died, his teachings — Buddhism — has spread to the north and south, and east and west, covering the whole of India, and went far beyond it.
What happened to Buddhism
About a hundred years after the death of the Buddha, his followers began to quarrel among themselves as to what Master had in mind in their teachings. They gathered in Vaishali, to discuss their differences, but have not been able to come to what? Either agreement.
Some of the Buddha's teachings were different interpretations. Devotees soon divided depending on the relationship to the true teachings of their Master.
Since the agreement was not reached, the adepts were divided into two groups. Over time, they began to break up into more and more areas, called sects.
Many priests? Buddhists do not understand what the Buddha taught. And when the priests can not understand the great doctrines of the teachers, they try to explain them? Own way, arguing that only their explanation only true, and all others — are wrong. Very often, their explanations contradict the postulates of the Master.
Buddha was against idols and idolatry. However, his followers set Buddha statues in many temples and Buddha himself made an idol, for that matter, and so much else that teachers do not have told.
Buddhism developed slowly.
After about 1200 years after the Buddha's death in India there are new religion. Some of them have impressed people more than Buddhism. Little? Buddha's teachings gradually lost its adherents. By this time in the country beyond the Himalayas there are not many followers of the Buddha.
But the Buddha's teachings spread to the east — in Nepal, East Turkestan, China and Japan, as well as to the south — to Burma, Siam and Ceylon.
Across Asia, Buddhist followers to build a temple in each — a statue of the Buddha. These idols faithful bring flowers and burned incense to honor his memory. Buddha is worshiped as a god, and the "three baskets of Wisdom" are sacred books of the Buddhists.
Even after 2400 years after the death of Prince Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, his teachings on? Still lives in the hearts of millions of men and women. And the first truly universal religion, which he founded, is one of the greatest of present-day religions, not only in the number of believers, but also the ideals that it preaches.
Category: Mystery and Mysticism