Discussions about the fact that "the king-father of 3 rubles could buy a cow", usually nostalgic. Especially since these "three-ruble cows' lodge is not accepted at the time, for example, Nicholas, and blessed in 1913, in recent times of peace the king of. Hunt to believe that in an era when there were balls, and krosotki and cadets, and the crunch of French bread — life was cheaper and somehow, perhaps, more natural, more fair, more than at the moment.
Almost all of this is the "cow for three rubles" — and even "big wage skilled workers" — played the role of a trigger popular discontent in the nearby still 80 when in intellectual kitchens and newspapers talk about the human rights and freedoms, and in general the cars and industrial smoking room — about the true "dobeztsarya 'lives. After that, in Russia for 20 years revived in 1913, with all its beauty like the forgotten estate society and the lack of social guarantees.
Meanwhile, the relationship between real wages and prices in Russia in 1913 was not as rosy as it is commonly draw at the moment.
So let's understand slowly: which were the same prices and salaries in Russia in the early XX century, based only on actual documents: the orders and decrees of the Government and the Ministries of Russian Empire, price lists, price lists, reports, extracts from the books of income and expenditure accounts of the menu and long. We begin our journey in the 1900s and familiarity with the prices of the early 20th century, with most of the product is popular in Russia at all times. That's right, you guessed it, a tip. At the time of the Russian Federation at the Royal vodka sold exclusively in special state-owned liquor stores. Above the entrance to the liquor store, as well as at the entrance to at least some government agency, flaunted municipal coat of arms: the two-headed eagle. The government maintains a monopoly on the creation and sale of vodka. There is always a queue without vodka sold 2 kinds. Krasnogolovka (reddish cap), vodka, who called the people "kasenka." The cost of a bottle of vodka per se (0.61 liters) in the early 20 th century was 40 cents. And the second grade of vodka — a "Belogolovka" (snow-white cap), this vodka double cleansing. A bottle of vodka that of pre-revolutionary Russian Federation was worth 60 cents. Bottles sold a quarter (1/4 buckets) in woven plaits, which was 3 liters. And the smallest bottle of vodka had 1/10 of the ordinary bottles that the people back then dubbed "merzavchik" 0,061 liters. For such a small bottle was necessary to pay in a government liquor store just 6 cents. With all this beer cheapest forms of "Light", "Vienna", "Old City Town", "Munich" in the early 20 th century worth of 6 to 10 cents per 1 liter. Bottled beer because of the price of glass worth more in some places 20 cents per bottle. Wine is expensive and popular brands reached 09.05 rubles per bottle. Capacity of the bottle of wine before the Revolution was 0.75 liters. With all of this for a cheap house wine in the various provinces of the Russian Federation had to pay only 5-20 cents per liter. Cognac cost 3 rubles and ended with prices up to $ 100 per bottle.
Well, that all prices include shoplifting, and how much is needed to pay for a glass of vodka (1/6 bottles = 100 g) in a tavern, which at the time of pre-revolutionary Russia has already called taverns. In general, the difference from the restaurant's own older predecessor "tavern" in the fact that the pub could only purchase alcohol, and the inn's not counting alcohol and could dine. So, in a cheap restaurant on the outskirts of a provincial town, to pay 5 cents, you could drink polstopki, ie 50-60 grams of cheap and probably very dilute vodka. On zakus a quick offered the most popular snack enjoying the vodka at all times — this is true, pickles for just 1 penny. A gorge on "stuffed" in a cheap these restaurants can be had for 10 cents. By the way, on the market for two pennies quiet you could choose a dozen selected pickles (12 pieces). In such a cheap drinking establishments located was not very comfortable and not dangerous. Constantly scurrying suspicious, semi-criminal personality, intoxicated carter, unskilled workers. Murder and robbery there were not uncommon. Quite another matter is solid restaurants, in our cafe-restaurants. These solid and so of favorite during the early 20th century taverns were very pleasantly while away the evening. Cutlery sparkling clean, starched tablecloths and were amazingly crisp white, gleaming everywhere deft and neat sex (waiters), and spread from the kitchen magically delicious and savory smells. Then dinner was worth in 1900s in Russia is 30-50 cents. But it was, according to the memoirs of contemporaries, justified. A shot of vodka in a similar cultural institution already cost the 10 cents, but it really was a breech vodka! Do not spoiled. Over a mug of beer (0.61 liters) should pay up to 10 cents. Tea with 2 pieces of sugar cost only 5 cents. In the not-bad recognizable restaurants, of course, cost more expensive to eat. On average, over lunch in a respectable restaurant XX century in the Imperial Russian Federation had to pay at the rate of 1.5 — 2 rubles. This is a fee for lunch everyday: the first, the second, a salad, a couple of shots of vodka, dessert, without the frills. After lunch, well-fed and respectable Russian people at the exit of the restaurant vie tried to persuade a cab to go to the cabbies. In large towns in those years was the only public transport tram, usually the cost was 5 cents without a transplant, and 7 cents with change. But, of course, the main mode of transport was the cab driven dashing cabbies. Typically, for a trip in Russia in the early 20 th century inside the town cabbies took 20 cents. However, the cost has always been negotiated and changed the degree of supply / demand. Though, even in those pre-revolutionary times PRIVOKZALNAYA cabbies were the most expensive, which shamelessly declared 50 cents per often not very long trip from the station to the coming hotel. About the station and travel. Of course, in those days the main road traveled by the steel. First class ticket from Moscow to St. Petersburg cost 16 rubles, and in a sitting car could drive and for 6 rubles 40 kopecks. Prior to Tver from Moscow first class could be reached within 7 rubles 25 kopecks, and the third — to get up to 3 rubles and 10 kopecks. The porters will gladly offer a service to bring bags for 5 cents. Large luggage, leaving little cart, transported back to the train or on the highest fee of 10 cents. Let's go back to the hotels … In hotels for very lords held in the lavish rooms with all amenities, telephone, restaurant, etc. cost the price of a room in a day 5-8 rubles. Hotel room with no frills, but very solid costing 0.7 — 2 rubles a day. Bed-and cost 15-60 cents a day. In general, the pre-revolutionary Russian Federation in the early 20 th century accommodation in the average cost 20 cents per month per square meter. In the center of Moscow large apartment with luxurious furnishings and renovated with the latest technology then dispensed at 100-150 rubles per month. A small apartment with a tawdry situation on the outskirts of 7.5 rubles. Drilling same price a rented apartment for a family with an average income, ie about 80 rubles, was about 15 rubles per month. Call friends and acquaintances from the hotel, and tell how to arrange cost from St. Petersburg to Moscow 50 cents a minute, but were paid more than 1.50 rubles per connection. It was cheaper to write a letter for sending it was necessary to pay just 3-4 pennies. Or send a telegram. In another city to send word transmitted by telegraph, only cos
t 5 cents, and send the message to someone on a summer residence in the suburb of 1 penny per word. Send the parcel inside the Russian Empire, weighing up to 1 kilogram was worth only 25 cents, and for sending parcels weighing up to 5 pounds needed to pay 65 cents. Apart from the restaurants can be fun and culturally by going to the theater. For example, to be in Moscow and did not go to the Grand Theatre at the opera or the ballet there were not decently. Tickets to individual preference box cost 30 rubles for a place in the front ranks of porter should have to pay 3 to 5 rubles, and look in the gallery representation only cost 30-60 cents. From a cultural food in the early 20 century, now everything is clear, go back to market prices in Russia before the Revolution on food.
Here is a list of prices for long products, although at the time all measured in pounds, the price per kilogram for readability:
Stale loaf of black bread weighing 400 grams — 3 pennies,
Freshest loaf of rye bread weighing 400 grams — 4 cents,
Snow-white loaf bread biscuit weighing 300g — 7 cents,
Potatoes freshest collection of 1 kg — 15 cents,
Collection of old potatoes 1 kg — 5 cents,
Rye flour 1 kg — 6 cents,
Oat flour 1 kg — 10 cents,
Flour 1 kg — 24 kopecks
Potato flour 1 kg — 30 cents,
1 kilogram of ordinary pasta — 20 cents,
Vermicelli of flour 1 kg — 32 kopecks,
Sweet sand second grade 1 kilogram — 25 cents,
Refined sugar lump select one kilogram — 60 cents,
Tula gingerbread cookies with jam 1 kg — 80 cents,
Chocolate candies 1 kg — 3 BR,
Coffee Beans 1 kg — 2 rubles,
1 kilogram of tea leaf — 3 BR,
Salt 1 kg — 3 pennies,
1 liter of fresh milk — 14 cents,
Fatty cream 1 liter — 60 cents,
Sour cream 1 liter — 80 cents,
Cottage cheese 1 pound — 25 cents,
Cheese "Russian" 1 kilogram — 70 cents,
Cheese on foreign technology "Swiss" 1 kg — 1 ruble 40 kopecks
Butter 1 kg — 1 ruble 20 kopecks,
Sunflower oil 1 liter — 40 cents,
Chicken Man 1 kilogram — 80 cents,
Testicle selective dozen 25 cents,
Meat sliced veal steam 1 pound — 70 cents,
Beef blade 1 kilogram — 45 cents,
Pork neck meat 1 kg — 30 cents,
Freshest fish perch river 1 kilogram — 28 cents,
Freshest fish pike river 1 kilogram — 50 cents,
Freshest fish catfish 1 pound — 20 cents,
Freshest fish bream 1 kilogram — 24 cents,
Fish, frozen pink salmon 1 pound — 60 cents,
Fish, frozen salmon 1 pound — 80 cents,
Frozen fish sturgeon 1 kilogram — 90 cents,
Dark granular caviar 1 kilogram — 3 rubles 20 kopecks,
Caviar dark payusnaya 1 grade 1 kg — 1 ruble 80 kopecks,
Caviar dark payusnaya 2 grades 1 kg — 1 ruble 20 kopecks,
Caviar dark payusnaya 3 grades 1 kilogram — 80 cents,
Caviar reddish salt 1 kg — 2 rubles 50 kopecks,
Freshest vegetables cabbage 1 kg — 10 cents,
Vegetables sauerkraut 1 pound — 20 cents,
Vegetables onions 1 kg — 5 cents,
1 pound carrots vegetables — 8 cents,
Choicest vegetables tomatoes 1 pound — 45 cents.
The smallness about the price of things in the early XX century, the Royal Russia:
Let's start with the price of uniforms and military uniforms odezhki that Russian officers were required to obtain at his own expense, and it is given the low salaries of the officers (which will be given at the end of the article) apparently cost them dearly.
Boots ceremonial officer — 20 rubles,
Tunic dress officer — 70 rubles,
The chief officer's cap — 3 BR,
Cap Ulanskaya — 20 rubles,
Hussar cap Shtabnaya — 12 rubles,
Staff officers' epaulettes, gilt — 13 rubles,
Spurs — 14 rubles,
Dragoon and Cossack saber — 15 rubles,
The officer Backpack — 4 rubles.
Something to Wear to cost the civilian population even cheaper:
Shirt output — 3 BR,
Business suit for clerks — 8 rubles,
Longish coat — 15 rubles,
Boots barren-5 rubles,
Summer shoes-2 rubles,
Accordion-7 rubles 50 kopecks,
Royal well-known brand — 200 rubles,
Car without additional equipment — 2,000 rubles,
And other basic means of transportation in those days,
of course, was the horse that was worth:
Horse carts to -100 rubles
Dray horse, work — 70 rubles,
Sausage on an old nag — 20 rubles,
Good stallion, on which the people did not seem shameful was — from 150 rubles,
Cancel milch cattle — from 60 rubles.
Well, with prices now everything is clear is acceptable, we come first to salaries of the 20th century. Thus, the average wage in the Russian Empire, the employees of factories and office junior ranks from 1880 to 1913 increased from 16 to 24 rubles per month. This figure is quite small in comparison with the average salaries in other developed European countries during the same period. For ease of reference, salaries, all data are given in rubles at the gold parity exchange rates since then. For example, in Italy the average wage in manufacturing and municipal employees lower ranks rose from 19 to 32 rubles per month, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire — from 28 to 44 rubles, France — 30 to 41 rubles, Germany — from 42 to 57 rubles in the UK — from 47 to 61 rubles in the U.S. — from 63 to 112 rubles. But we should not forget the cheapness of goods and products of its own production at the Royal RF in comparison with the designated countries.
About a similar situation is observed in the one-year change in per capita income over the period from 1894 to 1913. In Russia, the annual increase in state revenue per unit of the country's population grew from 67 to 101 rubles. In the Land of the Rising Sun with an increase of 24 to 60 rubles, in Italy from 104 to 230 rubles, Austria-Hungary — from 127 to 227 rubles, France — from 233 to 355 rubles, Germany — from 184 to 292 rubles, Great Britain — from 273 to 463 rubles in the U.S. — from 290 to 545 rubles. The only thing you should not forget that the population growth in Russia ahead of all European countries, and was second only to the U.S., where growth was maintained fairly enormous flow of labor movement. All these numbers show that the growth of GDP and living standards in Russia took place still slower than in other advanced countries. But, having a tremendous natural resources that were already so necessary for business development in the early 20 th century, Russia could very well use this natural "head start" for more frisky development of its economy. If not for the war, weak, weak-willed government (after the death of Stolypin) and, unfortunately, almost all, almost everything else …
But, back to the salaries of the Royal Russian Federation in the early XX century, in 1913. The average monthly wage of workers and young employees in 24 rubles a very relative concept, so let's take a closer look: who and how many earn in a month.
So, the most poorly paid part of employees in Russia was the servant who received this month: 3 to 5 rubles women and 5 to 10 rubles men. However, an employer other than the currency servants allowances provided free shelter, food, and usually also odezhku with "his master's shoulder." Very often, this profession was hereditary, and the servants of the kids growing up and getting to the office, beheld only the life of the manor house windows. Further, by increasing wages in Russia in the early 20 th century are the workers of the provincial factories, rural factories, laborers, porters. Their salaries ranged from 8 to 15 rubles per month. And it was not uncommon when one-tenth of the wage issue a card, which can be otovaritsya exclusively in the factory store products at inflated prices, far away, not the first freshness. To a greater degree earned more than workers in the steel mills of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The wages of these workers in the early XX century, the Royal RF ranged from 25 to 35 rubles. And the representatives of the so-called labor aristocracy, ie Prof. turners, fitters, foremen, foremen were obtained from 50
to 80 rubles per month.
Now on the payroll of employees in pre-revolutionary Russia. The smallest salaries in the early XX century were at the junior ranks of municipal employees in the amount of 20 rubles per month. The same number of ordinary employees receive mail, and district primary school teacher, assistant pharmacists, nurses, librarians, etc. More doctors receive, for example, in the Zemsky clinics have their salary was 80 rubles, 35 rubles from paramedics and hospital chief received 125 rubles per month. In malehankih rural clinics, where the state had only one paramedic, he received a salary 55 rubles. High school teachers in the ladies' and men's high schools were obtained from 80 to 100 rubles per month. Chiefs postal, railway, steamship stations in large cities had monthly salaries ranging from 150 to 300 rubles. The deputies of the State Duma received a salary of 350 rubles, the governors have salaries of about one thousand rubles, and the ministers and senior bureaucrats, members of the Municipal Council — 1.500 rubles per month.
In the Army officers' salaries the beginning of XX century Russian Empire after the increase in 1909 were the following. The lieutenant had a salary of 70 rubles per month, plus 30 cents a day for the guards and 7 rubles surcharge for hiring home, all combined total of 80 rubles. The lieutenant received a salary of 80 rubles plus the same apartment and the guards still 10 rubles, in the amount of 90 rubles. The captain received a salary of 93 to 123 rubles, the captain — from 135 to 145 rubles, and the lieutenant colonel from 185 to 200 rubles per month. Colonel of the Royal Army received from Sudar salary of 320 rubles a month, the general as commander of the division had a salary of 500 rubles, and in general as commander of the body — 725 rubles per month.
To understand what are the daily costs were compared with the daily income of our Protz, the then recalculate prices and wages in the present.
The database conversion procedure has been put gold equivalent — the cost of an ounce in 1913 and 2010. With an emphasis on publicly available annual average gold price and exchange rates have been calculated indicative rate Russian ruble in 1913 against the Russian ruble in 2010. This rate was 1,335 rubles for a modern one, "Nicholas." By emphasizing the value, you can count on the latest tools price basic parts of life in one of the Russian capital cities in 1913.