More than forty years of mutually beneficial alliance between the U.S. and China is associated with the name of Henry Kissinger — a unique diplomat, who is not only prepared in 1971, an effective President Nixon's visit to China, and not once talked to Mao and Zhou Enlai on finding compromises in difficult for states period.
This is the time of the war in Vietnam and Korea, the conflict in the Russian-Chinese relations. Exchange led to the views of understanding and awareness of the position of the warring parties and the development of proposals for the care of a military solution to the diplomatic side of the settlement.
The uneasy relationship is a feature of Chinese strategy and political culture. More than 2 thousand years ago, a Chinese military leader said that the middle kingdom does not put his own to conquer neighbors, and absorbs the invaders, then to disarm their own weight and culture.
So, for example, Russian military doctrine has established that the border will be harmless only if both sides thereof is Russian soldier (meaning the country's friendly Russian Union).
The Chinese believed that the defense should be on the internal borders of the country. This strategy has received the evidence in the Taiwan conflict in collisions in 1950 with Korea, and in 1962, with India, with Vietnam and the Russian side of the peninsula Damanskiy in 1969, at which China is in a small time period, showing its military strength and left the disputed areas. China further stated that these areas he still considers his, and this created for the parties to the conflict state of uncertainty, and hence, gave the Chinese side of the possibility of a political, military, and mental flexibility.
China has a vast experience of military confrontation: a half century of Japanese and European intervention, the burning of the British during the Opium War in 1860, the Beijing pravitelskogo Palace — just small episodes in the history of China.
Even the times of Chinese communism, whose emblem was a terrible cultural revolution and radical economic reforms as Deng Xiaoping — all only a moment in the existence of Chinese civilization.
If Gorbachev's attempt to bring the country out of the crisis has led to the destruction of the Union, the Chinese Communism smoothly defected to the capitalist system of farming, has received a new impetus to the development of the country.
China, by owning a distinctive cultural values, a unique historical experience and age-old traditions, has similarities with the United States that has a fairly bolshennymi economic and political achievements, has inexhaustible energy and confidence in their chosen path of development.
China stripped of illusions in the United States that, for the creation of strong coalitions requires the parties to the alliance were democracies, and, as it should be by successive actions to change the structure and policies of states towards their democratization. Chinese approach can be described as "we or they." American military doctrine in the real military deterrence, and the Chinese hold a course on psychological deterrence, part of which is the service.
Connoisseur of Chinese diplomacy Kissinger believes that the first plan of America's and China should act financial and political competition in the framework of the creation of the "Pacific community", but an attempt to put pressure on China to absolutely avoid. The difference in cultural values of both countries should not interfere with long-term process of convergence, as the Chinese model is also constantly changing. Creating a system of mutual consultation on the basis of mutual respect, will allow, to build the world's total order for future generations.
Survey data confirm the fact that most of the inhabitants of the planet believe that China has surpassed the U.S. for most items. If the rapid economic development of China positively assessed the residents of most states, the Chinese military build-up of force is a concern. For example, a high-ranking Chinese military claims that the peaceful rise of China is not feasible, since it is usually virtuous Chinese are dealing with a broken West, and, as it should, you need to prepare for a victorious war with the West.
At the moment, China's grown up a generation that did not experience on to the yoke of the Cultural Revolution and the difficulty of dictatorial economic reforms because experiencing tremendous national pride, consider China a superpower.
Americans have always sought to dialogue with China. In the sixties the negotiations, though fruitless, conducted in Poland. Americans believed that China could become an ally against the Soviet Union.
Burdened by the Vietnam War South American President Nixon once again tried to find an ally in China, but then followed talks in Pakistan have not yielded the desired result America. The cause trouble, by the views of the head negotiator with China, Kissinger, is that Americans do not take into account the specifics of Chinese political culture, in which a thousand years, there is a logic of victory over the enemy, the doctrine of the old philosopher Confucius, Mao's philosophy, as excessive democratization of South American society, which has become a burden in the negotiation process.
But the Americans with double zeal tried to resume negotiations with the Chinese side. Specifically Kissinger and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai defined framework of so-called Shanghai Communique.
As a result of negotiations was made "kvazialyans" against the Russian Union. But this convergence has been profitable not only America. Mao also lusted remain in sensitive environments, where the west and north was the Soviet Union, India in the south and the east side of Japan.
Mao feared a simultaneous attack from all sides, because the advice of the ancient Chinese thinkers, who taught that fighting with neighbors, lead negotiations with distant countries. Much less that the complication in Russian-Chinese relations soon led to open confrontation on the Ussuri River. Mao was horrified by the conflict and gave the order to evacuate the population of Beijing and alerting the People's Liberation Army of China.
It should be noted that the helmsman at the majestic own commitment to the teachings of Lenin and Marx, not slighted the advice Protz, who taught: the hostility of 3 countries, entered into a contract with the strong against the weak, and even the great fighting, learn to wait when you can defeat the enemy ( theory surrounding checkers).
Mao was confident that the difference of China from other countries with a population of more than one-fifth of the world's population, has the right to be called the middle of the Kingdom or China. The main principle of Mao's foreign policy was the motto — push the barbarians together, and if it does not come out, then you have to win over a strong barbarian. Etalon warriors on Mao — it's a vicious, mercilessly, imperative and victorious killer. Knowing this, it is hard to imagine for themselves the favorites approval of China that China's goal is not global leadership development, and the "great harmony".
Analysts dispute on relations with China continues constantly, presentation professionals differ: some say that the Chinese system is not burdened with democracy may take longer strategic decisions, and how to be dominant in the world, while others believe that the main role will be to hold India because it is a dem
ocracy. Unfortunately, analysts do not support the possibility of some Western countries to take a global leadership position.
In the new book "On China" Designer of US-China relations, Henry Kissinger pays great attention to the psychology of relations 2-states. It is based on the difference between the years of Chinese history and the U.S., which has a little more than two hundred years. In particular the apparent lack of understanding at the time of the June sobytiy1989 year in Tiananmen Square. Americans condemned the ruthless oppression of the Chinese Administration of performances adherents of democracy, without taking into account the usual horror in front of the Chinese political chaos and the fact that it can not be corrected by forcing the adoption of the provisions of the "enlightened West." One of the favorites of Chinese Jiang Zemin explained to Kissinger that China will never yield to any pressure — this is one of the fundamental philosophical principles of Chinese politics.
The conflict between the U.S. and China, in Korea, in the apparent superiority of the Yankees, showed that China was fundamentally not so much to put the first blow, as to conquer the enemy by changing the mental balance, and not so much to win, how much force the enemy to calculate the available hazard itself.
Mao had a masterly strategy of "open city gate", the meaning of which is, that for the anger and confidence to hide their weakness. For example, Mao claimed not to fear nuclear war as a great human potential will allow the country to recover quickly — and in fact it was a masterful bluff by Mao.
Chinese policy in finding solutions for even what question of foreign policy by diplomatic bind to a single pattern political, psychological and military elements of difficulty, while the South American diplomats constantly, showing "flexibility", avoid deadlocks by making new proposals, which provokes more intractable situations .
West needs to learn the Chinese concept of "shi", the foundation of which is to develop a plan of action in accordance with the overall strategy of issue being addressed — in other words, to plan outright vseobyatny plan acts. The Chinese are never in a hurry — because they determine the time for thousands of years.
Failure to understand the fundamental concepts of the West of Chinese traditions and philosophy of Confucius, Mao's teachings can lead to an error in assessing the actions of each of the parties: in the end the Western policy of containment may be perceived by China as brutal as the defensive position of China as a threat to the West.
Far not an idle question is the likely direct encounter between China and the United States, because in the current time is not their common enemy — the Soviet Union, which became a prerequisite for rapprochement between Beijing and Washington in the seventies. Also, the disagreement over Taiwan and North Korea. Unbalanced compromise can only be based on mutually beneficial economic cooperation. And it is not all smooth.
China has become the largest holder of U.S. municipal bonds. And how did he dispose of them — is unclear.
There is a historical analogy is the situation when a sudden rise of Germany and its immense economic and geopolitical ambitions led to war with Britain. Parties to the conflict were dragged our homeland and France.
It remains to impose that Beijing will not be on the road in Germany, and, abandoning the great-way, together with the United States will accept a role in the development of friendly tihookeonicheskogo society.
Another 40 years or so back, Richard Nixon realized that if China comes to power weighted politician and economist, no country the world will not be able to make China konkurentnst.
Despite the reluctance of the Chinese administration to advertise the main statistical data on the development of the economy, even on the available disk imaging can be concluded that the Chinese economy is the first economy in the world.
U.S. debt is 14 trillion dollars. China is one of the biggest creditors of America (1.5 trillion of debt). In addition, the United States consumes more than without the help of other makes, as it should, has a large trade deficit gap.
In 1980, when the countries of the West have seen that the level of modernization of the USSR will allow him to tightly close the economic level to the United States, the West decided to kill the Soviet Union.
Taking advantage of the political crisis in the country, they succeeded. But China is just right to eliminate the crisis in the echelons of power and provided stability and the stability of government and headed for the efficient development.
In the nineties, they also made the Comptroller of the party of power — the national bourgeoisie. To do this, use the power of the experience of people involved in personal business until 1949, and the business community zabugornoy diaspora, including Hong Kong. So Makarov, though what action the party was controlled by the army and the bourgeoisie. State bourgeoisie did not allow party officials to make decisions that could harm the economic development of the country. China has right to develop private and municipal sectors, which successfully led the interaction in the interests of each other. Where the public sector worked perfectly — he was doing his functions, but the personal work, where it is more effective.
Private equity refers to the resources wisely, considering that you can not use predatory, destroy and privatize. Because China is not possible full privatization, which could lead to the collapse of the economy.
The success of China's effective work specifically in the business community. In the elite personal business and included representatives of the diaspora, capital and connections of which have become major foreign investments in the country.
While China for 30 years successfully developed the real sector, the sector in the U.S. is in decline. In the seventies, in the United States with a decrease in the real sector to the detriment of his bloated the financial sector. The main profit of the country received in the financial sector (50%), which subjected the manufacturing sector monetary institutions, and it has become a prerequisite for the suspension of its development. It came out because of the departure of money from the productive sector in order to extract money from the greatest profit can be a rather short period of time. On the duration of the project was finished.
Because of their own actions neobmyslennyh Americans themselves have given way to China. Than Beijing and enjoyed. China significantly increment export their own products, joining the WTO in 2001. Cash supplies in China rose, compared with the year 2000, more than a thousand times and totaled 2.8 trillion. bucks.
Americans are right, China is really underestimated the price of the products, the cost to subsidize more than $ 2 trillion. dollars for 10 years. But these investments have paid off quickly.
China did not sit on the money earned by a dog in the manger, and put them in the acquisition of the impact on the economy and politics of the West.
Becoming naikrupneyshim U.S. creditor, China will be able to influence the fate of the dollar.
The strategy of economic cooperation between China follow: if China is interested in cooperation in any of the states — it allows it to exceed its own exports to the Middle Kingdom in comparison with imports. But if the territory of the country is not seen as a priority, her crush large mass of China's industrial exports.
China gets on import sverhtehnologichny products, services, new developments. The main suppliers of high technology are Japan, Taiwan and South Korea.
Experienced actions have led to the fact that the Chinese state bourgeoisie successfully competes with the world community. West h
oped that by destroying the Soviet Union, he will cope with the growing economies of China. But really, at the present time there are two stars — China and the United States, together with the advanced countries of the West.
Mistake America and the West was underestimating the ability of China use the highest technologies. A similar bug was in the 50s in respect of the Land of the Rising Sun. China as well as Japan, first started manufacturing srednetehnologichnyh products. By 2010, mastered the creation and sverhtehnologichny products. China confidently began to create aerospace and produce high-tech weapons modernization.
Unlike Russia, which in the preparation for the import of high-tech equipment, stops production of similar equipment, China buys equipment to not only make it to the release of its territory, and make it competitive in the global market. For this China skillfully imports new technologies, development, experience, developing its own scientific and technical sector. China has been able to agree on the placing on the Chinese countryside scientific structures representative of large companies in the world, offering as employees of Chinese professionals. As a result, all new development acquired in these structures, immediately realized the Chinese industrial complex. China invests more than 5 times in the industry than the U.S..
His successes of China has proved that successful economic development is not in any way related to the level of democratization of society, and is dependent on the proper monetary policy that supports long-term projects for the development of new technologies, and does not go into the speculative side.
The real GDP of China did not know anybody. On it can only be judged from the perspective of the analysis output. Specialists believe China has three times before the U.S. industrial an advantage.
In agriculture, China is headed for certain success. For example, meat China produces more than double the U.S..
Even in areas such as China overtook the U.S. auto industry to produce cars almost doubled.
China this month produces more iron than firms in the U.S. year. The annual production of pig iron in China and a half times more than the company of all states taken together (excluding China). Also, cement production is twice the creation of the world. The same situation is with the creation of steel. Such a volume of production of steel, iron and cement allow for the construction of a major scale, and it leads to an early renewal of fixed assets. Most of the steel goes into service, and the construction, maintenance and repair work and the creation of art.
Even taking into account the fact that the GDP of China and the U.S. are calculated by different methods, experts believe that real GDP growth in China is much larger than that of the United States and is about 28 trillion. dollars, which is two times the GDP of the United States.
The success of China's well connected with the fact that the country is using the best economic model, combining the personal and the municipal sector. The history of successful development of many countries is related specifically to the fact that the scheme has been used a mixed-controlled economy. A departure from this effective scheme led to the degradation of the economies of the "apostates." China has said that it is impossible to transfer such personal sector branch as energy — is the concern of the municipal sector. If the West does not return to the model of mixed-regulated economy, China, using its economic power, will and political hegemony of the world.