In 2010, China passed the Census major problems of society. She called in Chinese society heated debate, to identify the main internal problems of China.
The most painful internal prepyadstviya
— According to the Chinese demographers, in Chinese ancestors once a year "hidden" from the authorities about 3 million newborns. The penalty for "illegal" children in Beijing and Shanghai is 90 thousand yuan (it's about 14 thousand dollars), with an average annual wage in these towns 30 thousand yuan. For farmers, a penalty less — about 40 thousand yuan, but taking into account that their annual income is approximately 5-8 thousand yuan, is a tremendous amount.
— The problem of abortion (As similar to the Russian Federation, we are one of the reasons of population decline), the figure of 13 million abortions every year, with a significant portion of them — the result of forceful pressure on officials to give. Often abortions in late pregnancy, which leads to the impossibility of the upcoming birth. Abortion terminates any fourth pregnancy.
In China, there is a very real power structure — the Ministry of Family Planning (not joke). The numbers of this, almost 230 thousand repressive authority officials, his office is in all administrative units directly to the counties. Ministry of Planning family owns 42 plants for the production of contraceptives, provide them free of over 200 million households. The Ministry has clinics and health posts, where you can freely carry out an abortion and sterilization. Each year, the sterilization agrees more than 20 million men who already have a 1st or 2-kids (that's almost half of similar operations in the world). Female sterilization affect about 11 million women every year.
— Big problem — exceeding the number of boys over girls and ladies. At the age of 18-40 years for 130 men for 100 women. Nationwide, the ratio of males and ladies 107:100, by world standards, it's a lot. The main reason for this — birth control, the Chinese believe sons and successors of the kind of breadwinners, often because abortion, if you find that is born girl. In rich families decided to travel to the U.S. to Hong Kong, South Korea or Vietnam — in China itself determine the sex of the child is disabled (and the doctor doing the ultrasound, and the future new mother can get for that penalty to 100 thousand yuan). In poor — Newborn beautiful girls just could destroy the authorities have not been announced.
— This imbalance between the guys and the ladies led to another dilemma: Cross-border trade queens. According to the Chinese press, "brides" are discharged from North Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, Burma, Laos, Russia, and Ukraine. "The Bride" from Vietnam is 8-9 thousand dollars. This, of course, available only to the wealthy Chinese. In 2009, only one in Zhejiang province in eastern China has been recorded about 200 thousand marriages with foreign ladies.
— The lack of women has led to yet another dilemma — they steal, 'll steal the main one of the least-developed western regions of China. In 2009, the police announced on 36 tyschah kidnapped "brides" of the underdeveloped provinces such as Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Hubei.
These challenges have led the government of China to the idea that a policy of "one family — one child "to do something. Since 2012, in 5 regions of China will be an experiment: if the 1st of the spouses have no brothers or sisters, this family will be able to afford for themselves two children. According to studies represent farmers in Hubei (of course, that these data, with small variations, are also true for other provinces) of China, it is clear that having the 1st baby only want 5% of the families, 2 kids — 51%, 3 -s and more than — 44%.
— Hitch Law "one child". This law was passed in 1978, every home on it a couple living in a small town, only allowed the 1st baby. Rural families are allowed to start a second baby if the first — girlfriend. Also allowed to have two kids, and if both the first girls, then the third (in the hope of emergence into the light boy) minority government of China. This law has led to yet another dilemma — the growth of the number of ethnic minorities. For example, the 2000 census showed that over 10 years the number of Han (we call them — "Chinese") grown by 11.2%, and minorities — by 16.7%. During the rest it does not threaten the stability of the country, but during the socio-economic crisis threatens the growth of separatism.
— 80% of older Chinese people do not have pensions.
— China, as before, the poorly educated country, 2000 Census led to that higher education was only 3.7% of the population (about 45 million), lower secondary education — 429 million people, the original — 451 million the number of one hundred percent of illiterate — 85 million (6.7% ). Beijing, despite the world intrigued about the highest in the education of their own people, spends on education only 2.6% of GDP, which is 50% lower than the global characteristics.
— Great difficulties with medicine (especially for farmers and seasonal workers). The cost of medical service in China — 4% of GDP, while in the United States, Germany, Britain and France — 15%. According to international organizations, WHO, China is from the end of the 4 th place in terms of fair treatment.
— Large injury rate in enterprises, so they save on a safety. China is a huge thing in the world the number of mine accidents. According to statistics, more than 90% of miners in China in varying degrees of ill light dusting. In total, China has more than a million miners, dusting unhealthy lungs. Their mortality rate is 3 times higher than the death rate from the unfortunate cases in the mines.
— With the onset of the global crisis, China has seen an increase in dissent, there was a wave of performances in a number of cases of all kinds were destroyed police stations and buildings of the Communist Party.
In other words, we need to know that China is not a monolith, it has lots of internal and external problems, the aggravation that can happen recently. China has never in its history has not passed the stage of "great harmony" — always followed by a period of growth and decay of the expansion that will kill most or a significant part of the population.