Professor and organizational emergence in the mid 80's of the 20th century. The starting point for the development of special purpose forces was the conclusion made in June 1985, the CPC Central Military Commission, headed by Deng Xiaoping, the lack of capacity in the foreseeable future, large-scale armed conflicts with the use of conventional military forces. Subsequent powerful impetus to the re-evaluation and reform of military concepts gave the Persian Gulf War.
More opportunity to be full-bodied, short-lived time and sverhtehnologichny conflict areas on the periphery of China.
First completed a functional unit was formed in 1988 in Canton military environment.
Every military encirclement of China (out of seven) there is a proper, subordinate commanders neighborhood of special purpose regiment (3 battalions, totaling about 1,000 people.), With all this at every level has its own special forces podrazdenie: body — Battalion (of 18 battalions, 300-400 people each), a team — a company (about 120 people)., at regimental level — platoon (30-40 pers.) The level of training, and equipping of the regiment to the brigade, the brigade from the body and from the body to the District significantly increased.
Shelves special forces to the military districts (IN) painted followed by:
1) Shenyang IN — 'Dunbeysky Tiger' ('Dongbei' in Chinese Northeast, Manchuria, which has become a household name 3 northeastern provinces of China);
2) Beijing BO — 'Mageblade East';
3) Nanjing IN — 'Soaring Dragon', formed in 1992;
4) Guangzhou City IN — 'sharp blade of south China', formed in 1988;
5) Lanzhou IN — 'Night Tiger';
6) Jinan IN — 'Hawk';
7) Chengdu Folk-IN — 'Falcon', formed in 1992.
Apart from this, the forces of special forces units are marines 'Impact marines' and paratroopers 'sharp blade blue sky'.
Do not apply to special forces, but are trained in a lightweight programmke special forces, which are still much more difficult to prepare programs from ordinary fighter PLA 162-I (in the 54th Army), 63rd (in the 21st Army) and the 149th (as part of the 13th Army) division inflated ready. Follow the level of training, the first (Hangzhou, Nanjing IN), 38th (86 thous., Baoding, Beijing IN), 39th (75 thous., Yingkou, Shenyang IN) and 54th Army (89 thous., Xinxiang, Jinan IN) Army frisky response (start-up time of 2-7 days). In this last group — is filled with three of the most combat-ready armies and China.
Apart from the Army Special Forces also exist, the Armed Police SWAT (more on the text-VM, one of the components of the armed forces of China), and under the Ministry of Public Security (further in the text — ISB) Forces Special Forces units of public security.
There are also special units, which in the public domain there is only patchy information, with the one and only appeared not so long ago — antiterrorist unit 'Panther' (according to some sources, can be attributed to the Chengdu IN, maybe it was a precursor or in some way was part of the 'Falcon'), 'Snow Wolf' (subject to a VM in real time, along with the Beijing MOB commandos involved in the preparation of the safety of the Beijing Olympics in 2008, by the way, the total number of security forces at the Olympics will be more than 10 thousand people.) and others …
'Elite' special forces of China, the division in which since 1982 are collected from all over the country only the best of the best — counter-terrorist unit 'East', stationed near the Beijing airport, the full title — Counterterrorism special purpose police unit 722 MOB Training Institute fighters of special purpose VMs . Institute itself was founded in 1983. During the 23 years of its existence it has issued more than a thousand people, most of whom were special forces instructors. On the rigor of preparation may be indirect evidence of the fact that in all that time, almost half a century, 'a complete contrast' has received three (3) graduate.
China's special forces — one main constituent parts of the Force Response frisky China who have to fight in the criteria of a limited regional conflict and the use of the latest military technologies, including targeted killings outside of vulnerability for the enemy.
The functions of the Special Forces are: intelligence, short-lived and / or small-scale military operations and counterterrorism activities, including and settlement formations of the separatists.
So in October 2002, of the special forces participated in joint counterterrorism exercises with Tajikistan.
Outfitting special forces units
Military transport helicopters Mi-17, unmanned aerial vehicles, assault rifles KBU-88 sniper rifle model 95 plus hidden types of small tools. Mufflers. Machine guns, grenade launchers. Flamethrowers. Guns, including ATGM HJ-37/PF-89. Positioning system GPS / GLONASS with position accuracy of 1-3 m in the area of China, including Taiwan, bulletproof vests, Kevlar helmets, tactical radios, night vision goggles, laser range finders, special TV imaging system for operations in the criteria of reduced visibility and lighting, etc. .
Preparing the army and police special forces carried out according to procedures developed by the General Staff of the PLA allowing for the use of each individual unit, with breeding activities on the level of difficulty of the mental and the physical limit of human survival.
Management of Chinese special forces believed that the physical, mental and Prof. prepare them fighters has no equal in the world.
Preparing fighters divided into two parts: the base and the prof.
To the base include the full range of conventional units based physical strength, agility and endurance, plus martial arts and self-defense without weapons, the ability to survive in the extreme conditions of the field and, mountaineering training, aqua crossing place in full gear, all kinds of small tools, also statement of tents, digging shelters in the snow and earth to provide medical aid and rescue field criteria, weaning tools, methods, ambushes and surprise attacks, acts in the mountains, in the w
oods, in the water, in the snow. Plus Airborne training. Ski training is conducted in the north-eastern provinces of China in all weather criteria, including at temperatures below 40C. Targeting areas with or without a compass, map reading.
In this hard to believe, but also are trained survival (respiratory rate and body movement) in the water with his hands and feet! (How to be in the water and what is not indicated, as I understand it, this should apply to the units' Night Tiger ',' sharp blade of south China 'i'Sokol', at least, taking into account their area of responsibility).
Survival skills training (for example, units 'Falcon')
A group of 6 people. Equipment: army boots, a knife, a gun and a lightweight helmet. With a fighter can take 1 kg of rice, 5 pieces of upressovannogo biscuits, salt and matches. Prior to the group painstakingly searched, literally shaking pockets — no excessive unauthorized items, including and water resources, and should not be (though in some sources write that the issue on the flask of water, 2 pieces of pastry, but without the rice) ..
Terms of march-throw: a group of up to 7 days must pass through the virgin forest of more than 200 km (according to other sources — 300 km), with part of the route (about 3 days in the way) runs through the mountains with altitudes of 2,700 m Terrain such that most of the sources of water for drinking or inapplicable simply not safe for life, the men have to find the tracks of birds and animals are the reservoirs, which are applicable to the use of, or use of water for trees and plants. An additional difficulty doing that in spite of the heat odezhka must be firmly fastened, because the terrain is full of poisonous snakes and insects. Mountain section of the route (about 3 days the way) is so poor in terms of plant and animal life that the group will enjoy ants, mice and snakes. In addition, in the way the group should take around 20 training tasks (assaults, captures 'languages', bypassing the outposts and the imaginary enemy ambushes, etc.).
Such training can take place from 3 to 6 months of the year.
This part of the training fondly referred to as … 'Descent into hell. "
The rise at 4:30. Common 'hard' qigong. Tan Tien Chi Kung — 30 min. At 6:00 climb the mountain or jogging on the longish distances. When running every soldier collects Backpack satchel 10 bricks. 5 km distance must be overcome in less than 25 minutes. Such as cross — in the evening. Which in this case happens to his back, precisely the skin on the back — easy dodumatsya.Posle race begins uprazhenie 'steel hand'. Fighter must apply for 300 beats his hand on the bag, but only for a series of initial training — 15000 strikes first with beans and then with steel filings. Evenly two thirds the length of her hands covered with calluses hard as a rock, and the thickness of palms grow by almost 100%. Bleeding and wounds are healed by soaking the hands in a special healing solution. In exactly the same way and with the same standards practiced fists, elbows, knees and feet.
After breakfast, start working off his head breaking wood bars. They begin and end with Myagenko hard wood. When there is corn on the head width of 2 mm, it is possible to run across to the breaking of bottles and bricks. After going properly trained fighter can strike on a tree or wall (in this hard to believe, or an error in the sources, but the standard — 500 times a day). Headstand — 30 minutes a day ..
Then lunch, a little rest and hell lasts …
Several standards …
Climbing a brick wall building on the 5th floor with no means are at hand for 30 seconds.
With full gear, including with 4 grenades and machine gun, weighing 10 kg to swim 5 miles in 1 hour and 20 minutes.
With bound feet, with 4 hand grenades on his belt and other equipment, weighing 4.5 kg, gallop in a bag of 10 km.
With full gear in the rain on the bumpy mountain road (and more precisely speaking on clay) for 12 minutes to cover the distance of 3300 m (evaluation — 'satisfactory'), 3400 m (evaluation — 'excellent'), 3,500 m (score 'excellent')
The rise on the bar and push-ups on the parallel bars — each uprazhenie 200 times a day.
Passage of the 400-meter obstacle course with 14 targets in a group of 4 people, twice. First — to heat up, the second — on time — less than 1 Minutka 45 seconds.
The emphasis lay ahead — 100 times less than 60 seconds.
Lifting dumbbells weighing 35 kg — 60 times less than 60 seconds.
Throwing grenades — 100 times the distance of more than 50 m
The defeat of the target-man from a distance of 200 m from the roving at a speed of 50 km car.
Throw a grenade into the window of a vehicle from a distance of 30 m
Sabotage and subversive training, training to work with explosive substances (awareness of species and characteristics of explosives, methods of installation and removal, assessment of rational installation location). Telegraphy, signals. Penetration into this place masking outfit, also on the water — with the introduction of inflatable boats or timber, empty drums as masking agents. Ability to scuba diving.
Regardless of the role of this or other podrazdeniya focus on acts of urban criteria, sabotage and subversive operations, foreign languages, computers and communications, operations in (a) the aquatic environment.
Role in combat operations and events:
Since 1998, China's Special Forces receives invitations to ongoing international competition in Estonia Special Forces units — 'ERNA'. By participating in the competition was the first time China's special forces in 20 kinds of programs from 8 first places, one second and four thirds. After taking in the overall 3rd place.
Later, the Chinese team won the prize 'Best zabugornye team' — a prize Karev (for the accuracy of the transcription of the name of the Estonian 'hero' is said to Chinese sources, I can not vouch).
According to indirect data fighters units 'Falcon' in the number of 32 people were sent to help the Afghan government intelligence agencies to release the hostages Chinese workers. fight against terrorist groups. The newspaper Islamabad Ti
mes' claimed (according to the Web), a Chinese special forces NIGHT MODE without a single shot freed hostages and detained 21 terrorists to hold them, which was praised by representatives of U.S. intelligence in Afghanistan.