There is a view that the Cossack society, the runaway farmers and robbers, are flocking to Don for centuries, but such a statement ill-founded, because the mention of the respective belligerent and freedom-loving nation is still in the works of Constantine Porphyrogenitus. In addition, the emergence of a proud and ambitious civilization was hardly likely one of the worst congestion representatives of society. Boltina reasoning, Bronevski and other historians who consider the Cossacks rabble and thieves, from the standpoint of the study of ethnic processes unconvincing. The meaning of the word "Cossack", according to the views of the above-mentioned researchers, comes from the shameful and negative symbols of bandits and fugitives. Such a designation would serve as unlikely a source of pride and people, which is so called, would not accept such designations. Freemen also proudly call themselves Cossacks, not having any other ethnic definitions. Specifically, the meaning of a free man, freedom and independence is the word "Cossack"For the given ethnic group. In addition, the foundations formed Cossacks have always been focused on protecting the oppressed and daring feats. In the culture of this nation is no trace of forcible capture of predatory robbery or robbery. The Cossacks have always positioned themselves as free and intercessors are independent feeble, which once again proves the failure of theories about the scum and criminal elements in the roots of nationality. Sukhorukov rightly objected to this statement, pointing to the fact that data on the similarities in the home with the Cossacks Kasogs else in the Byzantine chronicles. In addition, approval of the formation of an entire nation of people seized by society and expelled from their native land, it is very clear. People — this is no ordinary human society, it is, above all, common traditions, lifestyle, ideology and religion. Nation differs from the crowd there is a culture that is held by each of its representatives, while the mass may consist of a very different type of individuals. Specifically on the basis that the exiles, runaway farmers, offenders and the rest of the bloodless rabble could not have a similar culture and customs, they could not do ethnicity for such a short term.
Fascinating view L.Gumilyov the origin of the Cossacks, which associates it with the Turkic-Slavic and Sarmatian tribes. There are a number of historians who claim the ownership of the Cossacks to the Tatar-Mongols, with a gradual infusion of Slavs. The above eye relate to the level of theory, which in the middle of some modern historians. So there is a perception of belonging to the Mongolian hordes of Cossacks, who adhere to Fisher and Stalenberg. But in the Tatar and Mongolian language contains nothing similar to the word Cossacks, while the ancient Iranian and Turkic dialects have the root of the "ace" has the meaning of faith and freedom. This root is transformed into the names of many tribes, territory settlement, which corresponds to stay Sarmatians and Scythians. Every theory has its justification and deserves the right to study.
But the best method to establish the roots of the modern Cossacks is the study of migration processes on the ground of their age-old settlement. In spite of all labor-intensive techniques, it is more accurately captures the essence of settlement occurred in the area of the Cossacks of historical events and respond to the question. This decision was justified recourse B. Shambarov in his own work on the history of the Cossacks. His evidentiary provisions on the history of freemen more persuasive and turn.
Traces of human society living in the Don referred back to the seventh century before our era, as evidenced by archaeological finds. Investigators found traces of kemeriytsev and Scythians, who later pushed warlike Sarmatian tribes. With the Sarmatians in the opposition entered yazygany who took the terrain before the invasion Roxolans. Specifically, with the tribe and links Shambarov first mention of the mysterious inhabitants of the Don. To say that this was a direct ancestor of ethnicity, of course, is not necessary, as such a busy area as the Dnieper, Don, Azov not have allowed to develop in seclusion any civilization as a strong and independent she was not. Perceptible impact on Roxolans rendered indigenous people, also live near the Slavic, Baltic, and Finnish Ugric peoples. Do not ignore the impact of the second wave of the Sarmatian, which failed to seep on the Don. In the first century on the ground between the Caspian Sea and the Taman government formed jars — Alania. Roksolany became part of a conquered people and were assimilated with the favorites. Alan impact on the formation of the Cossacks expressed in the transfer specificity Sarmatian-Alan language whose colors you can meet in the dialect now. In the 2nd century to the peoples added Russes, and came after the coming of the willing. The new conquerors failed to gain a foothold in the region forever, like the Huns. Brought its contribution to the formation of the nation and the Turkic tribes that came with the Avars and educated at the majestic rivers kaganates. The seventh century marked by the existence of the Bulgarian kingdom and the emergence of the Khazar country.
Conquest of Alanya joint Khazar and Slavic peoples associated with the first mention of Kasogs, which Shambarov and connects with the Cossacks. Eastern version is kept and Gumilev, arguing that the emergence of the Cossacks should merge with the indigenous inhabitants of the fords Kasogs. In the ninth century Kasogs Rusichi were conquered and became part of the population T'mutarakan. On the borders of Russia is still constantly perceive all new ethnic infusion, through the policy of princes in verbovaniyu on border protection Torquay, Berendeys, Polovtsian and dark hoods. More organized the defense of Prince Vladimir of Russia by border outposts, and the base of which were the forefathers of modern Cossacks. Talk about the direct Hereditary do not have to, because ethnicity, constantly pouring into nation changed beyond recognition early life, traditions, language and appearance.
Mysterious people roamer, appeared in the area in about the 12th century and belong to the researchers etnogrofami Slavo-Turkic tribes.
Representatives of the tribe settled near the river crossings and engaged in cattle breeding. Brody, by reason of settlement in the area of active movement possessed the highest degree of military art, were strong and hardy. According to the testimony of archaeological finds and information chronicles roamer had farming skills and fairly developed a real culture. The researchers are inclined to believe that the roamer treated who had settled near the river crossings Slavs. They professed the Christian religion, had a type of Slavic appearance, their way of life in almost all looked like Rousseau and Alan. In some documents, since there are descriptions of the ladies belonging to this tribe. According to the testimony girls were very lovely and humble, dressed smartly and cheap, which is typical for Slavs. Apart from everything else, fords have had their military campaign that has had a severe support of the Mongol-Tatar
s in the struggle with Russia. Thanks allied relations with the nomads people could keep the feature and confession, property and customs.
After the invasion of Batu mention of the country Kasogs stop. Apparently, the coming of the invaders completely dissipated and mixed tribe, which have been absorbed, including the roamer. The sources of this period contain information about chigov tribe living on the territory of modern Kuban and Black Sea region. There are data on the presence of this nation and in the upper reaches of the Don. The invasion of Tamerlane killed the established way of life of the local population, as narrated in the legends and chronicles. Particularly affected roamer, on which the brunt of hordes. People fled to the Crimea, Iaik, Lithuanian and other land, remote and non-hazardous areas. Busting Tamerlane gave new impetus to the formation of Lithuania, the Crimean, Meshcherskys and Ryazan Cossacks also severyukov. The fragmentation of the Horde led to constant raids on the area of resettlement Brodnikov, Kasak and other ethnic groups, resulting in a mixed ethnic group, which already at that time was called the proud title of "Cossacks" is increasingly becoming a military contingent, attracted to the service, the Russian princes, the Lithuanian rulers , the countless Mongol khanates.
The finalization of the outlaws came much later, and the formation of a separate Cossack relate to the period of overthrowing the yoke of the Golden Horde. Specifically, the Cossacks presented an icon of Our Lady of Dmitry Donskoy and supported it in a speech against the Tatar troops. During this period, formed a few branches of the future of free peoples, akin among themselves on the dialect, traditions and appearance. The peoples are proud to call themselves a free people or "Cossacks" and felt commonality among themselves, and that was the prerequisite of ethnic descent in several areas. Geographically broken between a group already established civilization accelerated by troops of Tamerlane, supported intercourse among themselves. Communication supported the Cossacks, even in the service of the warring countries. So, for example, states in military documents of the Crimean Khanate, a big dilemma, which has become a close interaction between the Cossacks.
So Makarov, and Sarmatians and Roxolans and Kasogs, and next Kasak, Slavs and Tatars roamer and even left their own mark on the ethnicity of the Cossacks. It is a unique product of the tremendous number of ethnic nationalities attending the Don, Kuban and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Gumilev called Cossacks sub-ethnic group, closely associated with the main ethnic group — Russian. Approval of ENU confirmed long history of Russia and the Cossacks, as modern research works of historians and ethnographers.
However, the final design of the ethnic group came even later. Moscow rulers, starting with Ivan the third lure Cossacks for border protection, while meeting with them after the reception organized at the level of foreign guests. Support was provided by a giant wrestler in the conquest of Kazan, then received a letter from Ivan Vasilyevich fourth on the Don land. Cossack units played a role in the election of the first Romanov, the conquest of Siberia and the Far East territories and other state events and historical significance.
1552, prazdnichek Intercession of the Holy Virgin is the date the emergence of Russian Cossacks. As such, the first part in a joint anti-Tatar hordes were united Cossacks in military actions in the service of Ivan the Terrible, for which he received a wrestler and Quiet Flows the Don.
Raised Cossacks indeed formed from alien people, but base it still was the indigenous population. The lower reaches of the Don Cossacks were also settled specifically, nationality, formed of fragments of numerous cultures and ethnic groups. Then the word "Cossack"Becomes a common noun for the light horse warriors who do not have constant refuge. But such is not the meaning of the title ended the existence of the typical bright "ethnic cocktail."