In 1945, the Egyptian archaeologist Abdel Moneim Abu Bakr (Abdel Moneim Abu Bakr) accidentally discovered the water-filled mine, located in a small tunnel that ran along the north-south under the road pharaoh Khafre in Giza.
Scientist researched it and found out that the vertical tunnel connects a number of rooms. However, the archaeologist never done excavations mysterious underground passage and did not publish any information about him. For many years, in a water-filled mine bathed or drinking water for local workers. A groundwater level rose so high that archaeologists could study it.
The purpose for which you created this mine for a long time remained a mystery. Many fans of Egyptian history, learned of its existence, and among them, began to spread rumors that the mine is located under the network of tunnels that lead to the pyramid of Cheops, or even perhaps to the Great Sphinx. In the summer of 1999 Dr. Zahi Hawass (Zahi Hawass) decided I needed to try to excavate a mysterious dungeons, to determine exactly what role he played, and prevent the spread unsubstantiated rumors.
Drainage of flooded mine
The most difficult thing was to lower the water level to the extent that the archaeologists were able to start work in the mine. The researchers turned for help to the engineer Osman Ismail (Esmail Osman), who brought the necessary equipment to pump water. Scientists had to work at constantly energized equipment. According to Hawass, "constant noise made it difficult to think, and the equipment worked so loud I almost went deaf!"
The researchers were most afraid that the water is pumped out, they can damage the mine or even its collapse. Everything, even the smallest cracks daubed with plaster, and they have put archaeologists date. If the crack began to expand and crack plaster, workers would have noticed it immediately and take the necessary precautions.
Once the water from the mine went off, archaeologists began their studies. The first part of the mine to a depth of about 10 m ended bathroom the size of 8.6 to 3.6 meters When the scientists were in this room, it was empty. But in the northern part of the room revealed another vertical shaft to a depth of 13.25 m It has also led to a room whose dimensions are 6.8 by 3.5 m At this time the main room surrounded by six other small rooms and the niche from which began another mine. In three small rooms were stone sarcophagi, in the style of Dynasty XXVI (about 685-525 years BC. E.), Two of them are preserved human bones.
Burial figures, which are usually placed in the ancient Egyptian burial. They were supposed to help the deceased, if the one in the afterlife will need to do any physical work. Most often ushebti were small in size and were produced in large numbers: sometimes they cover the entire floor around the sarcophagus. These "ghostly servants" have started to use since the Middle Kingdom (about 2040-1783 years BC. E.).
"At this level, we have also found fragments of pottery and ushebti Late empire. In addition, in the south-east corner of the main room there was a niche in which is entering its third vertical shaft. It ends in about 8 meters in the new room of 9 square meters. m ", — said Hawass.
The lower level of the mine
The last room was the most interesting. In the center is a rectangular recess hollowed out in the rock. In the corners of the indentation remains of square columns. The space between the recess and the walls of the room had a form of the chute. This trench was interrupted at the entrance to the room where the floor level were significantly increased, and was connected with a central depression. Thus, the shape of the trough looked like an Egyptian hieroglyphic sign pr, which means "house."
Period VI Dynasty
The end of the Old Kingdom (XXVIII-XXII century BC. E.). The dynasty began in the reign of the pharaoh Teti in 2345 BC. e. and ended with the death of Queen Nitokris around 2183 BC. e.
In the center of the recess was a large sarcophagus made of black basalt. In the sarcophagus preserved human remains and several times amulets Late empire (664-332 BC. E.). "But most of all we found there surprised smooth red clay with traces of white paint, which may have dated to the period of reign of Dynasty VI" — said Hawass.
Pharaoh's tomb or burial of Osiris?
Archaeologists have not been able to find any evidence that the mine was used as a burial place of the pharaohs. "I believe that the ancient Egyptians were going to build a symbolic tomb of Osiris, the god of the underworld. One gets the feeling that the groove around the recess was built specifically so that the ground water filled it. Then recess would have been surrounded by water like islands. Such a configuration could represent the primordial ocean of Nun, which covered the whole world to the time of creation. And at its center as it stood island, represents the first piece of land appeared, "- said Hawass.
Water could also symbolize the connection of Osiris with fertility and rebirth. Corner columns may have been associated with the four sacred feet of the god described in the later texts. The very central recess with a towering sarcophagus in it and pillars at the corners in its configuration is similar to Osireion temple of Seti I at Abydos, another symbolic burial of Osiris. The burials, which date from the late kingdom may reflect the desire of the Egyptians after death to be closer to God beyond the world.
Mine Osiris Herodotus
"I believe that the mine was described Osiris Greek writer Herodotus, the" father of history ". According to him Cheops was buried on the island in an underground room, located in the shadow of the Great Pyramids and fueled a channel extending from the Nile "- said Hawass.
Herodotus might actually describing the shaft of Osiris, though mistaken in her dating and the appointment of an underground facility. Mine Osiris, apparently, was built later reign of Cheops, as the ancient objects that archaeologists have found it applies only to the VI dynasty (Cheops belonged to the IV Dynasty). And most of the other finds more later.
"As I said above, during my research I was able to establish that the mine — it is a symbolic burial of Osiris, not a royal tomb, as Herodotus says," — said Hawass.
At the lowest level, archaeologists have made another interesting discovery. In the north-western corner of the room begins a narrow tunnel. This passage is so narrow that it was able to get through the child. But then he was beaten clay. "In 1999, I sent a boy to study the tunnel. He was able to crawl only 5 meters, and further progress was too narrow even for him, "- said Hawass.
In November 2008, a television producer Richard Reiss (Richard Reisz) took an endoscopic camera to explore this narrow passage. The team, which was engaged in this project, was able to move the camera by just 10 meters before the clay prevented them. In December, the researchers went back there with two self-propelled research mobile devices equipped with cameras that are able to continue their journey on the mysterious passage. After 6.5 meters, researchers found that the tunnel branches. They sent the unit to a branch, it was 10.5 meters, but then again, the passage was too narrow and filled with clay so that the robot was able to move on. But a team of researchers found that the main passage still continues for 21 meters, and then, apparently at an end, although it is precisely identify as yet.
"I got in touch with the Japanese team that is going to bring a more modern and technically advanced machine, which may be able to progress beyond the points where stuck other equipment", — said Hawass.
Archaeologists had to start a new attempt to explore the mysterious course of June 9, 2008. They were going to send a robot to the passage and, finally, to find out where it leads. Scientists hope to understand why the Egyptians hollowed this narrow passage in the rock, and even so deep underground.
Infox.ru continue to monitor the work of Dr. Hawass and be sure to tell about the unraveling of the secret mine Osiris.
From the administrator:
I see in this a strong resemblance to the narrow tunnels open strange not long ago in the great pyramid of Giza.
A lot of questions for researchers pyramids cause ventilation shafts Pyramid of Cheops. They are narrow stone tunnels having a square section (a side dimension of approximately 22-23 square cm) and extending from the burial chambers with the following angles with respect to the horizontal plane:
North mine chamber of the King — 32 degrees. 28min.,
South Camera Camera King — 45 deg.,
Northern shaft of the Queen of the camera — 37 degrees. 28 min.,
The southern shaft of the Queen of the camera — 39 degrees. 30 minutes.
In 1837, British subjects — Wise and Perring, engaged in independent research Pyramids of Cheops, found that the mine chamber of the King go outside. First, both researchers have assumed that the mines are in a room, but after clearing the northern shaft felt currents of air. So they decided that the mines were set up for ventilation. It is because of Vize and Perring and coined the term — "air shaft". Currently, however, the assumption that the purpose of these ventilation shafts into question. Indeed, for the airing of burial chambers in the pyramid of Cheops, it would be wiser to put the mine horizontally at the ceiling level than do their slanted, faced with a mass of technical problems during installation. Also, for some unknown reason, the builders left intact blocks in front of the two mines in the chamber of the Queen, so they vent appointment is highly doubtful. Given these considerations, the researchers surmised that the mines were not intended for ventilation at all, and some were used for religious purposes and ideological character: "It is more likely that they were performing a role at the burial, perhaps, as a way to release the soul king . "
In March 1993, German engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink hired by the Egyptian Antiquities Service, to carry out work to improve the ventilation of the interior Pyramids of Cheops, conducted a survey of the southern ventilation shaft of the Queen of the chamber through a robot "Wepwawet." Sixty meters from the beginning of recovery of the shaft wall were smooth and the robot has crept into the passage of polished limestone, and another five meters ran into an obstacle and stopped. As it turned out, was an obstacle, "door" with special metal parts, and a small slit in the bottom west corner, which penetrate the chambers' Wepwawet "was impossible. By objective reasons inspection of the mine resumed only in September of 2002 with a better robot, equipped with a fiber optic camera, scanner and special drelyu.17 September 2002-th year, millions of TV viewers in the 141st in the world watched live the progress of the robot through the southern ventilation shaft. Mini robot crawled 60 meters down the tunnel to baffle his door, drilled a hole in it and stuck it in the camera, which revealed another room and the door. According to Tim Kelly, president of the cinematic department "National Geographic": "We're not frustrated … The mission of the robot was successful."
These studies have convincingly demonstrated the failure of the theory of predestination inclined ventilation shafts Pyramid of Cheops.
Unfortunately on this discovery have so many obstacles that the famous researcher Erich von Daniken believes the situation a conspiracy of silence.
See also: The discovery of ancient artifacts, interesting facts about Antarctica.