To understand the extent to which the metropolitan government, with the young Tsar Misha Fedorovich valued rewards of Prince Pozharsky, you need to look at the first stage of his career, to find where it started and who became.
Dmitry M. was born in 1578, and about his childhood and his youth, almost nothing is clear. He belonged to the genus, is not among the particularly influential and wealthy, and not seedy. Pozharskie were Ruric, came from an old family Starodubsky princes. Moreover, they were the oldest branch starodubskiy princely house, however, by Dmitry Mikhailovich took place from the 1st of the junior knees. He wore a generic nickname "Silent", inherited from his grandfather, Fyodor Ivanovich. It is nicknamed Prince Dmitry pass and his sons, Peter and Ivan I. As can be seen in the industry branched family appreciated the silent ones …
In the XVI century the genus Pozharskys decayed, lost ancient patrimony. Younger branches starodubskiy princely house — paletzkiana, Romodanovskaya, Tatev Hilkova — Pozharskys bypassed for promotion. Such "zahudanie" happened to their relative poverty, and yet even more — from opal imposed under Ivan IV. This fact has unveiled L.M.Savelov, excellent special pre-revolutionary in the field of genealogy.
At the time, the highest position indicator at least some aristocratic family destination were its representatives governors in shelves and fortress governors in town, stay in the best positions of the court, as in the Boyar Duma. In order to get into the Duma, the emperor wanted to get from the rank of secretary to the Duma nobleman okolnichy or nobles. In the XVI century, during the 10's aristocratic families sought "duma" ranks, hundreds — of province.
But Pozharskys was nothing like that. They were assigned to serve more low-level — not the governor, and the "head" (the average officer rank), not the governors, and the chief of police (also a lower rank). If you translate merit awards relatives Dmitry Mikhailovich in modern definitions, it turns out that the family gave him the level of battalion commanders of the Russian Federation. Many of them were killed at different times for their country. They may not come out to the boyars, nor courtiers, nor even in the duma nobles, despite the nobility. And when any of their fate is raised a bit more on a higher level — for example, on vicegeral, he was proud of such services, although it could take place anywhere on the far outskirts of powers, Vyatskie lands. Does not fix things kind in the offspring of Ivan IV — Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich.
A little more than kin prominence of Dmitry Mikhailovich took under Tsar Boris Fedorovich. Pozharskie the courage to even begun to engage in parochial litigation — with the princes Gvozdyovs and Lykov. Managed to recover some of the ancestral estates.
Like all nobles, or words long "service people by descent", Dmitry Mikhailovich from his youth until his death was to serve as the capital's majestic sir. He began his service with the smallest ranks just under Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich (1584-1598 gg.). Then his subsequent Russian hi sir — Boris Godunov (1598-1605 gg.). How then has it young Pozharsky and his mother Mary were of the king "in the approach." Maria Pozharskaya took a prominent place in the suite of the princess Xenia — the daughter of Tsar Boris. The energetic mother helped promote offspring. Later Pozharsky realized opal, alienation from the throne and the transition to the ordinary army service. All these twists and turns in the life of insignificance and nevliyatelnogo kind of events to remain inconspicuous contemporaries. Sovereign yard long included an unlimited number of titled nobility, much higher nobility, and influential Pozharskys.
In Troubles time Prince Dmitry Mikhailovich joined with acquired under Boris Godunov rank of attorney or, perhaps, steward, second in importance only to the great men and okolnichy. If roughly translated into the language of modern military ranks, the steward was a cross between a colonel and a major-general. Careers at that time is not bad, better than most Protz, but lackluster. Neither the Boyar Duma, nor magistrates: it did not happen, did not get the governorship.
But in the troubled years it has become one of the most noticeable figures Metropolitan country. When Basil Shuya (1606-1610 gg.) Pozharsky finally raised himself to the position of voivodship. By today's standards — was released in general. He has fought vigorously act to protect the capital of the Polish-Lithuanian and Russian gangs of rebels. Near Kolomna (1608) Dmitry M. produces at night fast attack on the camp of the enemy troops. The enemy scattered in panic throwing army coffers. Dmitry M. indicates himself as an experienced and decisive military leader, he earned a bona fide increase in the service of military labor.
Here then, in the midst of the Troubles, the most natural way manifests military talent Pozharsky. Starting with the Kolomna of success, we trace the main facts in his fighting career.
A year later prince defeated in a fierce battle rebel detachment Salkova. Excellent pre-revolutionary historian Ivan Ye ZABELIN reports that Pozharsky for awards before the throne was awarded the new lands, and in the charter of, among other things, stated: "… against opponents stood firmly and courageously, and many of our services and dorodstvo showed hunger and around impoverishment … suffered almost all the time, and the thieves nor the beauty and confusion which is not coveted, was standing in the firmness of his own mind firmly and steadfastly, without any shatosti … "
In 1610, as a Commander in Zaraysk, Dmitry Mikhailovich gave resist violent mass traitors who wanted to surrender the city to one of the False Dmitry. Locked in a massive stone citadel and not let it go the element of betrayal, Pozharsky survived, and later forced the rebels into submission.
Russian servitors know deciding to govern the country without the help of others, gave the Tsar Vasily Shumsky Poles, and then the invaders themselves invited to Moscow. It was a terrible, unbearable humiliation for Russia. In the southern town to help the newest authorities were called on Ukrainian Cossacks. Against them up Pozharsky and authoritative Ryazanets Procopius Lyapunov. Together they cleared Ryazanschine from the Cossacks and headed to the capital.
Pozharsky kept up there first.
In March 1611 an uprising broke out in Moscow: Muscovites could not tolerate violence, looting and harassment of the Polish garrison. The battle for the city is unusually dignified ferocity: the Poles attacked the Russian barricades, and their defenders shot of the crowd invaders from guns and cannons. Suff
ering heavy losses, the Poles decided to light Moscow, but would not lose it. Terrible fire destroyed a large part of the Russian capital. The last bastion of resistance was the redoubt (wood reinforcement), built on the orders of Pozharsky, near the Church of the Virgin on Sretenke. The Poles could not take the redoubt, or arrange around the fire: the men were shot and Pozharsky aptly counterattacked. But at the end of their commander fell almost live "from the majestic wounds," and then things just fell uprising.
Soon came to Moscow regiments of the First national militia, gathered from various cities of the Capital of the country. Year with excessive They stood on the ruins of the capital, fighting the invaders. Dmitry Mikhailovich could not participate in this struggle: he is not allowed languishing injured.
Fall 1611 was the most terrible times in Russian history. The government lost, perished. He is represented by a gang of traitors, ensconced in the Kremlin and trying to govern the country with the help of foreign fighter. Thieves Cossacks burned the town and villages, looted, killed. The Swedes captured the entire Russian North by majestic Novgorod. The troops of the Polish king stood near Smolensk and sent rescue the garrison. The last effort was standing on the ashes of the capital zemskaja small army, well, in that chiefs have managed to quarrel.
Another would be a step in that direction, and would have lost our home and fell into the abyss, do not ever be revived. But it happened differently.
Remained rich town that are not occupied by the Poles and unwilling to submit to the latest power. Namely, Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod. The local townspeople, negotiators and artisans who had faith enough in God's help, rather the will and energy to make the latest attempt to liberate the country. 2nd Home guards began collecting Nizhny Novgorod, led by sales person Kuzma Minin. In search of reinforcements, Zemstvo passed through the Lower Balakhna, Yuryevets, Kineshma and Kostroma and Yaroslavl. In Yaroslavl militia stood for four months, accumulating money and pulling forces. If you came from the lower small detachment, in Yaroslavl, formed a real army. There's also appeared and the "provisional government" — the Council of the earth, and along with it the orders (medieval ministry), mint … Almost Yaroslavl became the Russian capital at the time.
Council documents lands began with the words: "By order of the Capital of the country of the boyars and the governor, and the governor and steward of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and his companions …" We the Russian Federation was not then the emperor, but one of its functions, and specifically the role of commander in chief, took over himself Prince Pozharsky. He was persuaded to lead the new militia persistent Nizhny Novgorod and Smolensk gentry in the first Zemsky is the core of the army. Pozharsky not yet recovered from his wounds, he was afraid of new changes, but, after lengthy negotiations, took command of the militia. Prince led them to Yaroslavl, creating a colorful crowd of a disciplined fighting force. He was preparing to strike a decisive blow.
Pozharsky almost done against the will of the chief of last handful of fighters for the Russian. He was known as an experienced commander, but more than that — as a true and honest man, not prone to treason and greed. For such a leader of the people were ready to go. Trusted him when the trust was certain. Other commanders, and more than even the nobles who involuntarily lost Dmitry Mikhailovich …
In July 1612 the vanguard of the Second national militia arrived in Moscow. By August 20, the main force pulled up. To the west of the city swift march moved most powerful body Hetman Hodkevich. Collision with him was to decide the fate of the Russian capital.
What I saw prince Pozharsky, to be back in Moscow? Dark conflagration, sooty church, rare stone chambers, stained ash. Here and there, businesslike Muscovites chopped new "mansion." Soldiers of the First national militia dug for themselves huts, took home the survivors lived hungry. Only the wall of snow-white town of China-town and the Kremlin, though crippled by artillery fire, evict majestically above the chaos of ruins …
Available Pozharsky was quite small well-armed, to truly combat-ready aristocratic cavalry and the serving of Mongolian cavalry. The bulk of the troops were peshtsy collected from the forest for pine. As an experienced governor, Prince knew that the Russian infantry that time "in the field" occasionally showed resistance. But in the defense of many who could not break it. Give-10 of the Russian archers is not something that a stone wall, and at least a few carts with code no luggage, and they will keep the enemy a hundred. At the same time, devoid of seekers, they can move to the small enemy forces. And Dmitry M. decided to construct as reference Fri wood planing also dig ditches. Defensive strategy infantry he planned to connect with active, offensive operations cavalry. This strategy has brought him success in the three-day battle stubborn.
August 22 Pozharsky stormed the Polish cavalry at the Novodevichy Convent. The Poles entered into battle a large force, and the Russian cavalry retreated, but got caught on redoubt at Arbat gate. Here Khodkevich threw in the coming reserves. All the same, knock Zemstvoists from his position Hetman could not. Polish garrison Kremlin rushed to attacks. They were repulsed with great damage to the invaders. Poles decided desperate attack on the front. Stubborn resistance with hardened fighters Hodkevich led Zemstvoists falter, the final battle was not obvious. But an unexpected hit squads of the First Home guards who came to the aid of their comrades who decided the case: the Poles withdrew.
On the night of 22 to August 23 Poles by Russian apostate captured redoubt now serving. Defending his Cossacks from the first militia could not fight back …
Day hetman was preparing a new blow. Pozharsky was clear that the second attempt a breakthrough will be made by the Moskva River. He ferried some troops to help first militia, who occupied positions there.
August 24 afternoon, Dmitry Mikhailovich, anticipating the coming of the Poles, he stormed. Evenly Poles pushed the attacking troops, but to break the defense of the main forces could not. The first militia regiments least unitedly resisted the pressure of the invaders. After a long struggle, they passed the main redoubt, left the other lines, and a task almost Hodkevich was solved: he made his way to the center, to the Kremlin. But the garrison outposts in an instant counter-attacked and blew the Poles from their own wood krepostitsy. Returned to battle other teams retreated …
Martial acts on time ended. The troops on both sides suffered terrible losses and deadly tired. Pozharsky found this perfect moment to seize the initiative. He sent for the Moscow River detachment of several hundred fighters led by Minin. Sudden attack not so long ago just to keep the Russian invaders caught off guard. Soon, their morale was broken, and the battle was the turning point. Hodkevich fighters retreated, losing operation, becoming a disorganized mob. Part of the convoy Hetman had to quit the field. The next day began a general retreat from the enemy's corps of Moscow.
The center of the occupiers held a few months. In November, the militia stormed China Town. Soon the Polish garrison surrendered to favorites … And then majestically past the peak of the Troubles.
The Russian ship had begun to go reefs.
After the liberation of Moscow and the enthronement of the emperor Mikhail Fedorovich (1613-1645 gg.), The first of the Romanov dynasty, Pozharsky was credited with the highest "secretary to the Duma" rank — nobles (1613), and the huge earthen ownership. For him, a man quite inconspicuous in the ranks of glittering capital nobility, Boyarsky rank was unattainable dreams. We can say, during the Time of Troubles in the fight against the Colonels, he jumped into the marshals …
Dmitry Mikhailovich was honored as the "great hero," the commander, "master of braneh." He as previously participated in combat operations, performed basic administrative tasks. In 1615 Pozharsky broke Orloff settlement sparkling fighters known Polish adventurer Lisowski. With a team of 600 people against the 2000 Pozharsky threw the enemy, captured 30 prisoners, banners and drums. In autumn 1618 Pozharsky, unhealthy, almost live from the wounds of old times, sits siege commander in Kaluga, the Poles are concerned incursions and ultimately forcing the enemy to withdraw from the town.
And even in the Smolensk War 1632-1634's prince, jaded "black disease" (heaviest disease), being the sixth 10-ments are still performed gubernatorial services …
At his own expense built the Kazan Cathedral on Red Square, which was destroyed in the Russian times and rebuilt in the 90-ies of XX century. Prince sacrificed to the needs of many churches, namely, by taking their money and gave the priests expensive liturgical books.
He died in 1642, a large halo of glory, before the end of exhausting its own duty to the fatherland. "It is not necessary to particularly sharp-eyed eyes to make out what exactly were always full of motivation Pozharsky. Not for personal purpose, he stood and objectives of a party he had served, and he stood for a common cause and zemskoe served him clean, straight and honest. It was these simple things and his actions and gave him an unusual personality for as long value that was well understood in the Lower and there indicated a desire to find a governor who would be "treason did not appear" that would not cling to any party, looking where profitable for honor or for self-interest, as did the majority of the then majestic princes, nobles and the governor. " So writes about the Russian governor IE ZABELIN. And the estimate is probably closer to the truth of all the other facts.
Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, except tactical talent, belonged to another, even more rare and urgently required only in exceptional circumstances. For the conduct of ordinary fighting it is not needed, but the flamboyant star breaks civilians during wars, rebellions, all sorts of troubles. This unique talent is to become a soul forces opposing the rebels always and inexorably to persevere and sacrifice for the sake of restoring common home. If a significant part of the population sees in inveterate order value, specifically those leaders lead it to victory. If An old order of society supported by a small number of people, such leaders allow their shelves to give the final battle of the revolution and honor the head lay on the battlefield. Always and at all times they are a bulwark of faith, morality, duty to the monarch and the fatherland.
Our homeland has generated a lot of generals who hold similar talent. So, with unusual courage and dedication confronted thieves Cossacks contemporary D.M.Pozharskogo — Governor Boris Lykov. A constellation of similar military leaders emerged during the civilian war. Better known among them General of Infantry Alexander P. Kutepov real leader of voluntary movement, and Lieutenant-General Vladimir Kappel Oskarovich, the hope of white armies Siberia. Strong will and sacrificial service of the Russian Federation expressed as Major General Mike Gordeevich Drozdowski and Lieutenant-General Sergey Leonidovich Markov. All four were given life for a snow-white affair.
Dmitry Pozharsky thoroughly enjoyed possibilities of reducing the order of the leader. In the memory of posterity, he was at first as commander of the national militia, otbivshim Moscow in 1612 at the Polish-Lithuanian invaders. The rest of his wins were in oblivion. Moreover, the XIX century historian Nikolai Kostomarov showed Pozharsky, as a brave patriot, at the decisive hour had raised the banner of struggle for the fatherland, but devoid of the outstanding features of the commander, the commander of a common or garden. Over time, this estimate was abandoned due to a mismatch of reality, and I think this article gives a pretty facts directly contradict her. The truth is that Pozharsky shown himself to be a terrific tactics at different times, just his star has risen particularly in 1612, in the fierce battle for Moscow.
Two centuries after the fiery stripes Russian Troubles appeared on Red Square monument to Minin and Pozharsky. Lofty Nizhegorodets indicates Dmitry Mikhailovich, "Look well, the country is on fire, if we do not save it, no one will rescue!" Two generous person willing to stand up to defend the homeland, to take over her hardships and wounds, and if we must, and die.
Countries and people there are within the age of maturity, dryahleyut and die. While the society is rich in such people to old age it is far.