Class coastal patrol ships to the USSR — it's the same "holy place", which is over 10 years old Female from empty. Why is it so happened, well explains the history of the ship of Project 12441 of the "Novik".
In 1991, the project was approved 12440, designed with the latest technology: the gas turbine power plant with 2 propulsion and 2 reheat engines, hull and superstructure, made with the use of composite materials and to meet the requirements of low radar cross section (development of "Stealth" ), the most advanced and promising at the time anti-aircraft missile system "polyment? /? Redoubt" hangar at constant based antisubmarine helicopter.
In the 1994 revision of the project was completed, due to the collapse of the Soviet Union: a huge number of prospective suppliers suddenly found themselves in zabugornyh countries. The project repeatedly upgraded during construction. Improved its driving characteristics and fighting properties, but with them grew and displacement of the ship, which is much higher than initially indicated in the job. "Novik" tightly close to the ships of the marine zone, capable of long-term patrol and escort vessels on the transitions on the seas, but owning sverhizbytochnymi features for fighting off the coast.
In the end, the most advanced on the technical level of the Russian Federation ship was renamed the study was never completed.
A similar story is being developed in the 1970's "Undaunted" project 11540. Zagadannoy as a small anti-submarine ship with a displacement of 800? T it for a few years, "plump" up to 1500, then to 2000, and in the version with the helicopter headed for 2500? T and moved into the marine zone. The result looks like: the service in 1987 came only one "Fearless."
Obviously, high-spirited, well-armed and protected "Novik" just mastered'd even what puzzles in the coastal zone. His critical drawback — the cost. But for the protection of maritime borders and the timely response to local territorial conflicts patrol ships should be plenty.
Therefore closer to the end of 1990 was announced a competition to develop a lighter and cheapest kind frigate, which won the Central Marine Design Bureau "Almaz", the one that designed the "Novik".
20380 Ships of the "Guarding" promise to become the main force of the Navy of the Russian Federation in the coastal zone. And despite the lowest price in comparison with the "Novik" is, without a doubt, one of the most Innovative and technical-level advanced machines of the Russian fleet.
By noticeable innovations include recycled and hull lines with almost a quarter of a reduced hydrodynamic drag, and a helicopter hangar for the first time placed on such a small ship. An important breakthrough may be referred to the use of integrated information systems and weapons control over the electrical equipment of machines.
In the end, the ship received a new class notation in full accordance with the time and international terminology. Now this is not a patrol boat and a corvette.
In comparison to its predecessors project 20380 is at the moment can be called a success. We were lucky to get on board a "lively" — the third ship of the project, anchored at the plant "Severnaya Verf" in St. Petersburg. He is in the terminating stage of industrial tests. The other two, "Guarding" and "savvy", have already been taken by the Navy of the Russian Federation. Another four corvettes laid on the stocks of "Northern Shipyard" and the Amur Shipbuilding Plant, just as ordered 20 ships, and maybe this is not the limit.
The main ingredients of success 20380 — carefully-designed hull design and a unified power system automation. These terms define and combat characteristics and composition of weapons, and the working conditions of the crew, as the reliability, maintainability and the ability to upgrade the machine.
Contours of the iron hull of the ship have been designed from the ground up, and so successfully that the drag at full speed (27 knots or 50 km / h) decreased by 25%. This allowed the use of the least powerful and more than a light main power plant (power plant), the freeing up of more than 15% growth in tonnage for the payload. Hence, impressive for a 1500-ton ship set of different weapons, and even a helipad, a hangar and a 20-ton fuel in store for antisubmarine helicopter "Ka-27".
Improved seaworthiness corvette weapons you can use it in rough force of up to 5 points (two points more than the previous analogues). In addition, the least powerful powerplant is quieter, helping decrease the visibility of the ship in a hydroacoustic spectrum. To reduce noise devices engines were used technology previously processed on submarines.
Power plant consists of two diesel-diesel units DDA12000 designed specifically JSC "Kolomna plant" on the basis of the tested diesel D49 with microprocessor control. Each unit consists of 2-16-cylinder V-type diesel engines and the summing gear and leads a fixed pitch propeller. The total capacity of the two-shaft power plant achieves 24? 000 hp Four diesel generators of 630 kW each provide onboard power network.
"Guarding" not in vain called invisible, although adherence to the principles of technology "Stealth" — a mandatory attribute of modern ships such class. Topside width from side to side is made of slow-radar-absorbing glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Antenna posts and Missiles are capable of putting on a case. Four-pipe 330-mm torpedo tubes complex protivotorpednoy protect the "Tax Package" nestled in latsportah. In general, the average radial effective scattering surface ship is reduced to three times in comparison with the previous analogs, on the possibility of sighting it anti-ship cruise missiles has been reduced from 0.5 to 0.1.
Shoulder to shoulder
Single combat information management system — this is perhaps the main innovation in the 20380, one way or another affects the tactical characteristics of the ship and the lives of the crew, and the reliability of all the hardware, and even the speed of the modernization of armaments.
"If the system were previously scattered throughout the ship and all the work on their coordination fell on the crew, the ball is now ruled by built-in bridging system, which is concentrated in the description of the current status of all vehicle systems, from mechanics to the introduction of weapons", — says deputy head of the builder Plant "Severnaya Verf" Yuri Alexandrov.
Apart from the government built the ship Bridge System includes two components: a control section and anti-submarine rocket gun and radar control section and light air, surface and underwater conditions. The first section is a three posts located on the shoulder right shoulder on the bridge. Then run the commanders of combat units (CU). The first is responsible for anti-submarine warfare, the second — for anti-ship complex. Outside their offices look prototype: it's huge screens, which displays information about the objectives and the state of combat systems. The same screen is the commander of the corvette, which may at any moment to request any
information about the ship and the officer of the watch also has access to a variety of sources — from the characteristics of the diesel engine to the supplies of provisions.
In the third commander of the puzzles comes warhead coordination of all weapons systems and giving advice to the captain on the application of tools. Basically, as the commander of the ship, and the manager, and the officer of the watch, and the commanders of the warhead work in the same room and can instantly take coordinated solutions and bring them to fulfillment.
The corvette has a system that can coordinate the tools and systems to detect a number of vehicles operating in the division. On the technical side of her work factory employees prefer not to, noting, however, that with each new vehicle system becoming stronger.
Its essence is that the information on the air, surface and underwater conditions, the found targets and ties concentrated in a single center and processed. Then determined the degree of threat targets, a decision about the type of weapon used, then the information simultaneously push off within the group ships, helicopters and aircraft for coordinated action.
The use of such a system particularly reasonable in the compartment with the helicopter, which, being invulnerable for submarines and using active sonar detection means, before the vessel has undeniable advantages in terms of underwater situation.
While the system management division is a very weighty stationary equipment to be placed on the ship, but in the near future, it will be portable: figuratively speaking, all the tactical information will be concentrated in the suitcase admiral.
Section radar control lighting and air, surface and underwater situation is placed in the chart room, next to the bridge.
Target detection means operated by several officers. There is also a card-server that downloads the map navigator marine areas in accordance with the plan of campaign. Thanks to a uniform system of these cards are available at all positions, where it is needed — from the bridge to the helicopter hangar.
Most of all automation systems of the ship is allowed to repeatedly reduce the time needed for decision-making, and facilitate the work of the crew and to reduce their number to 100.
Ready for an update
The presence of integrated information networks in the ship pulls a number of additional benefits associated with the reliability, maintainability and speed the modernization of equipment. According to Yuri Alexandrov, in the construction of corvettes involved more than a thousand industrial and research companies, spread almost all over Russia. As each component comes into the plant, comes the moment of truth: he must show flawless compatibility with all systems of the ship.
Problems with compatibility in shipbuilding is not unique. Fortunately, thanks to modern technology, many electrical components have become smaller and lighter than before. Now you can return them to the manufacturer for revision or else invite professionals to the plant with the necessary spare parts.
United shipboard network, on the one hand, a standardization means of communication protocols different devices. The components are created specifically for the first of them because the possibility of "exclusion" becomes smaller. On the other hand, enterprises, suppliers can test their components in advance by means of computer simulations.
For example, if you are testing a radar station, the computer can play a role as the rest of the ship and its arms and goals that you want to find.
In the end, the modular concept of the ship anticipates the ability to install the latest weapons when they become operational. For example, if the title ship 20380 "Guarding" responsible for the air defense anti-aircraft missile system "Dirk-M", then on "lively", shown at the third light, he was replaced by more modern and incomparably more powerful air defense system "redoubt."
Three blocks of four cells (of 12 cells) can carry 12 missiles with a range 9M96E2 run 135 km and a height of 35 km lesions up to 48 self-9M100 missiles with ranges up to 12 km in different compositions. Defend against an attack from the air, "Reduta" posodeystvuyut man-portable air defense systems "Igla" (starting with the shoulder) and two aft six-barreled 30-mm gun mounts AK-630M.
Serial and different
As befits a newcomer project, the ship met on its own way a lot of criticism. Perhaps the attacks on the address range is not large swimming due to the lack of the earlier class corvettes in service with the Russian Navy. Skeptics should recognize that the tasks facing the fleet, changed, and have a few days of our 10-s corvettes burning more than a few ocean-going destroyers.
Discussion appeared on the composition of arms ship, its security and survivability, but these properties are also difficult to be separated from the tactical schemes, specifically related to class corvettes.
For a couple of years of service to the "keepers of the" problem appeared twice in the main power plant, which led to the comparison of diesel diesel generator with gas-turbine engines, more reliable, and easier, but incomparably more expensive.
At the time of the release of this material in print, "Courageous" could already be in order, if not for the problem with a 100-mm artillery installation "Universal", which has refused to work in normal mode not only on the project 20380, and on Indian frigates Russian production Talwar, Trishul and Tabar.
But the main advantage of the ships of the "Guarding" — resilience. Diesel engines can be modified, gun mounts replaced, but the ships will not be left on the stocks and not turned into unfinished. "No ship repeats previous — confirms Yuri Alexandrov. — "Savvy" in almost all different from "Guarding", "Courageous" also looks a little different. " Specifically, resilience, availability, quantity production, and potentially mass they say that the project is 20380 — this is a big success of the Russian fleet.
The photo captures the second Project 20380 corvette, named "savvy". Behind the 100-mm gun mount can see the cover start-up cell anti-missile system "redoubt."
1. The post commander, occupies the left part of the bridge. For the most part it consists of screens on which the commander can display virtually any information about the state of the ship and weapons, objectives, environment and navigation. 2. Represents the position of managing the navigation screen, steering wheel and control panel power plant (full speed, slow speed, etc.). Ship may, without the help of others to maintain the course, but even on auto-pilot at the helm is always on duty sailor. To the right of the control knob can be seen independent of the communication device that will allow the message to pass on at least some post in the event of power failure. 3. Post officer of the watch allows you to immediately follow up the work of all the ship's systems, the state of the power plant to the supplies of provisions. Officer of the watch is available to an expanded system of communication and can quickly contact with at least a post on how the ship.
CHART OF ARMS 1. 100-mm gun mount A-190 "Universal" 2. Fighting module SAM "Dirk M" (on these ships — 12 SAM launchers cells "Redoubt") 3. Anti-ship missile system "Uranus" (later to be replaced by the "Onyx" or "Calibre") 4. 30-mm six-barrel anti-aircraft gun AK-630M 5. Latsport complex protivotorpednoy protect the "Tax Package" 6. The complex decoy PC-10 7. Underkeel aerial
sonar system "Zarya-2" 8. Sonar system targeting complex protivotorpednoy protection 9. Navigation radar "Pal-N" 10. The navigation radar MR 231-2 11. Optoelectronic device MTC-201 M2.2 12. The radar antenna targeting 5P-10 "Puma" 13. The radar antenna "A Monument" in the radio-housing 14. General three-coordinate radar detection "Furke-2" 15. Lower the sonar "Anapa-M" 16. Station complex electronic warfare TK-25-2 17. Hangar for ASW helicopter Ka-27 18. The landing area 19. Extended towed sonar "Minotaur-M"