January 14, 1991 in reddish sea comes to the U.S. Navy strike group, which included two new warships of the "Arsenal". Grouping takes a position on the beam settlement El Vadzhh (Saudi Arabia) to 1,000 km from the border with Iraq. January 17, at midnight GMT (3 am on Baghdad time), the military machine of the multinational force operates — begins "Operation Desert Storm".
Status indicators systems … guns lit blood-red lights. The commander and senior officer of the ship turned starter keys — rocket stood cocked. Awakened guidance systems of all 500 "Tomahawk" in their onboard computers flowed coordinates of the starting point (the coordinates of targets and digital "pictures" of previously captured areas of terrain along the route are entered into memory "Togmagavkov" in advance).
— Run! — Hundreds of missiles, one after the other, fly up, flames of the torches of their infernal engines vpolohami Reddish reflected on the surface of the sea. Boosters raise the "Tomahawk" on trehsotmetrovoy height. There, on the descending branch of the starting area of 4 km long, are disclosed console wings nominated vozduhopoglotiteli, cut one marching engines. Cruise missiles, guided poluinertsialnoy guidance system lie on the course.
That coast of Saudi Arabia. At a height of 20 meters at a speed of 880 km / h "Tomahawks" are included in the first district of adjustment. Come to life on-board radar, robots kamikaze collate data acquired with the put in their memory satellite "picture" of the underlying relief.
Stai … "battle-ax" with the roar of rushing over deserted stone desert wastelands Big Nefud. Saudi defense sometimes sees flashes on the radar screens, but to establish a stable contact with the low-flying targets fails. Saudis warned of an impending attack and razlyubezno opened its air space for clearance of cruise missiles.
… 40 minutes of flight, under the wing of the territory of Iraq. The fuel tanks were empty half — speed order relieved "Hatchet" crosses over 1000 km / h Rocket pack of fall, and "Tomahawk", invulnerable to the Iraqi HPE alone to follow their goals.
The main danger for the Coalition represent radar air defense system of Iraq, anti-aircraft missile launchers, the centers for the production of nuclear and chemical weapons, military bases and airfields, fuel storage, starting position of tactical missiles "Scud". Missile strikes by at command centers and communications nodes, the control system destroyed by the Iraqi army. Saddam Hussein and his generals had lost control of the situation.
The next wave of "Hatchet" have fallen by the principal Iraqi industrial facilities, power station was demolished and set fire to the oil wells … A week later, "missile blitz" Iraq agreed to comply with all the requirements of the UN resolutions, Saddam Hussein's forces left the area of Kuwait …
Obviously, all this is just a parody of the "Gulf War", in reality, nothing of the sort was not and could not happen in the winter of 1991. Warships of the "Arsenal" does not exist. Yet, the specific operation "Desert Storm" again inspired by the dream of a similar system of missile weapons.
Significantly it is clear that the work in this direction were made in the Soviet Union since the early 70s. On the dusty shelves of archive Nevsky PKB were found drawings of missile cruisers, etc. 1080 — creation of the specific probe similar to the American carrier battle groups as a means of force to resolve political problems in the areas of local conflicts.
On the Russian cruiser supposed to put 200 tactical missiles "Elbrus-M" in 4 50-charging vertical launchers (principally do not get confused — eminent liquid ballistic missile R-17 "Elbrus", GRAU index 8K14 does not have to do any work, etc. 1080 ). As a result, the ship had unusual architecture with 2 separated into forward and aft superstructure and smooth in the middle of the deck. The range of weapons, etc. in 1080 included two artillery systems AK-726 76 mm caliber, anti-aircraft missile defense "Dagger" and two batteries "metallorezok" AK-630. The aft position the planned helicopter hangar and runway. At full load displacement 16,000 tons reached a speed of 32 knots. The only catch — the operational-tactical complex "Elbrus-M" with a range of 1,700 km was not. It was all just a dream.
In the middle 90's head of U.S. admirals at one point visited the idea of creation cheapest kind of ship with Straseni punching power. In developing the "arsenal ships" Americans have gone even further Russian designers: "To hell with redundant systems! The only military task — firing missiles on the shore. "
According to the Jesuit plan of their own creators, the most important and expensive element of the "arsenal ship" — his rocket gun. As the ship shoot all their own ammunition, "Hatchet", he loses combat value, becoming a self-propelled barge, which makes it silly for the next destruction of the enemy. Ingenious? Assessing the prospects of such an approach, the engineers began to develop the idea:
In-1's, it was decided not to equip "arsenal ship" complex combat information and control system "Aegis" — Cueing ship was due to receive from external sources — AWACS aircraft and satellites gallakticheskih. In addition to the constructive Losers of the whole system, it is allowed to abandon the developed superstructure with massive aerial devices, making the building "arsenal ship" as low and flat.
In 2-x, based on Claim 1, the design was made bet stealth. Stealth technology, the base of which are simple technical solutions (after all, everything is excellent — easy) allowed to make the ship "invisible". "Smooth" deck, which left only the most necessary equipment, wide and low superstructure "from side to side," the gaps with a "sawtooth" shape, the majority of the parallelism of surfaces and lines of the body, coverings, known since the 50's for long before the emergence of programs from "Stealth".
Some of the developers went even further, offering truly unique ideas such as the nose, "breakwater" (which allowed the "ship-arsenal" does not rise to the wave crests), covered with "inside" the board (as a result of reflected radio waves into the sky, and not on the water surface, which in normal conditions gives a complex interference pattern, betraying the ship). All this, in theory, made the "arsenal ship" virtually indistinguishable on the border of 2-environments.
Third, in accordance with the concept of constructive Losers, "arsenal ship" was armed only with cruise missiles (total vertical launchers were 500 "Tomahawk"). Placing some other guns are not supposed to!
Thanks to the "simplification" and the highest of all automation systems crew of "arsenal ship" in the calculations does not exceed 20 people.
The total price of the sea launch platform was in the range of $ 1.5 billion, while the price of a particular ship does not exceed 800 million, the other 700 … 800 million were from missiles "Tomahawk".
So after all in the end? The naval forces of the
United States had a unique ship, which has no equal in firepower? And the creators of "arsenal ship" were awarded the Congressional Medal for his outstanding contribution to the defense of the country?
October 24, 1997 in planning the budget for the 1998 year of the project money "Arsenal" was denied funding. Development group broke up, and the results of their research work, which cost the budget of 35 million dollars (not very large sum by the standards of the Pentagon), gave corporations «Bath Iron Works» and «Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding», engaged in the development of the latest generation destroyer designed by DD-21 ( «Zumwalt»).
So what's all the same reason so ignominious collapse of excellent project? Nedotsenili? Or "Arsenal" was zhertovoy undercover intrigue at the Pentagon? What did the developers were wrong? Let's try now to answer those questions.
Bloody oil. Reality
January 14, 1991 in reddish sea comes carrier striking force of the U.S. Navy, as part of the AUG 2: CVN-71 "Theodore Roosevelt" and the CV-66, "America." Grouping takes a position on the beam settlement El Vadzhh (Saudi Arabia) to 1,000 km from the border with Iraq. January 17, at midnight GMT (3 am on Baghdad time), the military machine of the multinational force operates — begins "Operation Desert Storm".
In the first day of the war aviation multinational forces completed 1,300 combat sorties, the number issued in the first day, "Tomahawk" — 114 units.
During the period of the 30-day campaign aircraft carried out more than 70,000 combat sorties (out of 12,000 sorties had on deck aircraft). During the same period the number of starts, "Hatchet" according to various sources ranging from 700 to 1,000. (Only 1% of the air action)!
Here are some amazing numbers: the weight of the warhead "Tomahawk" is 450 lbs. That is, 30 days cruise missiles delivered to the goals of 0.45 x 1000 = 450 tons of ammunition. At the same time, Deck Wing 1st aircraft carrier, average per day is discharged to the heads of Iraqis 1,700 tons of bombs and precision-guided weapons!
In other words, the role of "smart and scary" cruise missile in "Operation Desert Storm" was almost symbolic. Complex and expensive "Tomahawks" can be used for strikes against the main air defense posts, and on the most important military facilities, well protected from air attack. Lay down on them all the puzzles of aviation — very expensive, not very well and unreliable.
Major errors developers' arsenal ship "
Attentive readers may have already guessed where I'm going with this conversation: the price of "cheap" arsenal ship on closer examination it becomes simply enormous.
Price range cruise missile "Tomahawk" is 1.5 million dollars. Yes specifically 1.5 million. Warhead — 450 kg, can be represented in polubroneboynom, high-explosive, cassette or even nuclear performance.
At the same time, the price of 1 hour of flight deck of attack aircraft, depending on the type of machine is 10 to 15 thousand dollars. A price-hour flight malehankih F-16 Block 52 is even less — about $ 7,000
Something we have not considered? The price of the aircraft from time to time is very high — 55 million dollars for the F/A-18 'SuperHornet. " But the F/A-18 is targeted for 2000 landings on the deck. Hence, just count that depreciation for each flight stormtrooper sostavlet 55 million / U.S. $ 2000 = 27500 very substantial sum.
Below are prices of common ammunition:
— That's 227 kg guided bombs, laser-guided GBU-12 Paveway II. Baby worth 19,000 dollars
— Much more severe ammo — languid 900 kg guided bombs GBU-24 — worth 55,000 dollars
— One of the most expensive aircraft ammunition for the "local wars" — tactical flying bomb AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon. Dropped from a great height, 700 kg robot, made by technology "stealth" can proparhat 60 miles. The warhead contains 450 kg of explosives. Gizmos price ranges from 280,000 to 700,000 dollars in zavismosti of "stuffing." But! It's like a couple of times less than the price "Tomahawk".
Clearly, our calculations are very orientation, but simply guessed the general trend — the introduction of cruise missiles, similar "Tomahawk" is justified only in exceptional cases. The rocket is costing much more expensive combat aircraft departure.
Some might add that expensive aircraft tend to fall and break, and pilots occasionally miss the mark by objectives. What did the rocket "Tomahawk" is also not different brains and wit.
Subsequent fundamental point — aviation has much more elasticity introduction to military aircraft have hundreds of songs payload. In the end, the aircraft can strike out of the "duty of the air", which is categorically impossible for a single cruise missile.
In the end, the specific shortcomings "arsenal ships":
— 500 cruise missiles — not very much for a "local war"
— "Arsenal ship" vulnerable to defeat even by what means, and an attempt to equip its massive defense systems results in a loss of meaning "arsenal ship", turning it into an expensive heavy missile cruiser
— as low survivability, 500 large rockets no protection, and the 20-person crew is unlikely to fail on their own to cope with the emergency situation
Considering all the "pros" and "cons", the South American admirals with fear and loathing backed away from the project "arsenal ship": Straseni expensive, not very efficient and vulnerable means to strike the shore.
Yet, at the present time there are several types of warships, which can be a stretch to call the "arsenal ship". For example, the Russian heavy nuclear-powered missile cruiser "Peter the Great". How annoying would that sounds, it implements a completely different concept — cyclopean cruiser "eyeballs" full of fire weapons and electronic systems, to equip nuclear reactors and has a crew of six hundred people. Instead of a single type of cruise missiles — on the decks of "Peter" focused the whole range of our naval arms.
Another similar case — upgraded submarines "Ohio". 22 missile silos instead of SLBMs occupy 154 "Tomahawk". All the same, it does not seem to "arsenal ship" with 500 missiles on board, much less modernized "Ohio" are positioned as a functional nuclear submarines: a torpedo gun and unit for combat swimmers. A similar modernization "Ohio" — compulsory measure, 4 strategic missile submarine "not fit" in the START agreement.
Something reminiscent of the "arsenal ship" Aegis cruisers, "Ticonderoga" and Aegis destroyers, "Arleigh Burke". How unfortunate it did not sound when not far from considering them more differences than similarities. Of the 90 starting cells destroyers only 7 vosmizaryadnyh modules can be charged, "Tomahawks" (less than 56 cruise missiles). Moreover, the priority task of these ships — defense, hence the standard ammunition destroyers looks like this: 74 SAM "Standard", 8 anti-submarine torpedoes and rocket-only 8 "Hatchet."
Common answers to complex questions
For sure, I'm starved readers their numbers, because at the moment to let a little of the lyrics. The very title of the CSG — carrier battle group — the fruit of imagination of Russian translators. The original title of this structure — carrier battle group (battle group, which
has in its composition aircraft carrier) without any arrangement or accent — "shock" or "defense." Indeed, the AUG is multifunctional, it has a tremendous impact and defensive potential, has the highest mobility and ability to control the sea and air situation in acres of miles from their own warrants.
The only unique component AUG — aircraft carriers, and all its constituent destroyers, cruisers and submarines are standard at least some of the Navy, because the question "What is the AUG?" — Is incorrect. Or rather read about the cost increase of the Navy at the inclusion of aircraft carriers.
AUG — it's only strategy, the outcome is closely interaction of its constituent ships. AUG summarizes the ability of all its constituent surface ships and submarines, with all this, all the members of the CSG components get new features and repeatedly increasing their fighting properties. Ships and aircraft deck cover each other, creating a defense in depth on all fronts.
Hence, it should be the answer to another question — why, along with the "invincible" aircraft carrier walks everywhere countless escort (4-5 destroyers and cruisers URO, and several multi-purpose submarines). The weakness of aircraft carriers?
You do not. U.S. Navy working exclusively in the "bundle", and really — what is the ships go in alone, if you can form a squadron of decency? This benefits all. The aircraft carrier is strengthening air defense and antisubmarine in the near field, and escort ships — a cover carrier aircraft. As the Russian proverb says: "One is safety."
Maybe, with the development of air defense systems in the near future will be very risky to appear on the battlefield in the cockpit. Does this mean the demotion of aviation?
The trend is already well traced at the moment — all the puzzles often manned aircraft duplicate drones. Simple RQ-1 Predator 10 years participates in the operations on the ground in Afghanistan and Iraq. "Predator" began his career with a simple reconnaissance missions, but at the moment the new modified MQ-1 has already been savagely beaten Taliban "Hellfire".
July 2, 2011 fighter-bomber F/A-18 «Hornet" has landed on the deck of an aircraft carrier "Eisenhower" in the unmanned mode.
Finally, do not forget that 70% of the population lives no further than 500 km from the coastline.
The Russian Way
If you want to become our home, "the mistress of the sea", monitoring the situation in all five oceans. If you want to become the birthplace of our "world policeman", projecting its power in all parts of the globe.
If they need constant monitoring of the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier groups in the oceans (as it was in the Russian's) — in all these cases will be the construction of ocean-going fleet, the backbone of which will be carriers. All other options and "asymmetrical response" a losing. Were not bad Russian missiles P-700 "Granit", but … they need to gallakticheskaya Marine reconnaissance and target designation system, the exploitation of which it requests that the floor billion dollars a year (in ethanol), the reality is completely able to any high level of 1 billion!
Read more about this dilemma —
If our homeland is ready to limit its own "defensive" concept of development of the Armed Forces, the reader will forgive me for subversive idea, but maybe the Russian Navy should not have so much as a means of massive aircraft carrier? Construction of 1-2 aircraft carriers stupid, America there are 12 units, much more. Moreover, in this case, the whole point is lost ocean-going fleet, the aircraft carrier is not unblemished profanity. Eliminates the need for the construction of cruisers and other large ships. In order to show the flag and support of the world community in the fight against piracy quite a few classes of ships, "frigate" and "destroyer", and to provide strategic nuclear deterrent — a dozen submarines of the "Borei".
In the end, the wish that the Russian war? The answer has always been gromozvuchnoe — "No!"