Ship for colonial wars

Controversy 2-bald due to comb

In the middle of the naval forces of all countries of the world a special place is occupied by Her Majesty's fleet, because the British sailors — the only ones who have the experience of modern warfare at sea. [1] The chain of sea battles during the Falklands conflict has become a major test for the new thoughts and concepts that are implemented in the Navy during the second half of the twentieth century. Was a successful torpedo attack nuclear submarine sank the Argentine cruiser "Admiral Belgrano". Were successful missile attack naval aircraft (the sinking of the destroyer "Sheffield" and ersatz helicopter "Atlantic Conveyor"), was more exciting shooting anti-ship missiles with a British helicopter. Bombs fell to the Argentine destroyer "Coventry" frigates "Ardent" and "Antiloup." Despite the loss of the amphibious assault ship "Sir Gelahed" British marines invaded the island mislaid in the ocean, so putting an end to an undeclared war. Her Majesty's fleet won the 12,000 km from home shores.

What to say here? Well done!

The main embarrassment was the Falklands inglorious death destroyer Her Majesty "Sheffield" — the ship from getting drowned just one anti-ship missile, which, moreover, did not explode! Read more about this story —

Action 4 May 1982 became an occasion for numerous speculations on the need reservations: indeed, if "Sheffield" had 60 … 100 mm armor protection, "Exocet" crashed to its board as an empty nut. On the other hand, if the sheathing "Sheffield" thick steel plates, the total displacement of the destroyer will increase from 4,500 tonnes to small … hard to name an exact figure without knowing the precise scheme of booking and the values of the curves forming shape of the case. But completely natural result will be a significant increase in the displacement of ship. To maintain the initial running hell "bronepalubnomu Sheffield" will be a more powerful main power plant, which again will lead to an increase in the same volume of housing reserved. As a result, the ship cost will be prohibitive, and the weapons will remain unchanged. In addition, the main opponent of Her Majesty's fleet in those years saw no Argentine aircraft with anti-blast "Exocet" and the Navy: no 100 mm armor will not be saved by British ships from entering S-500 anti-ship missiles "Basalt" flying by 2.5 acoustic velocity.

England hardly mastered the construction of 14 malehankih type 42 destroyers (by modern standards — the frigates) and build expensive "battleships" with obscure martial properties allow for itself could not in principle. Lay a large and expensive ships by reducing the number of units of the series is unreasonable. England — sea power, and it has so far remained in the interests of overseas banks. "Workhorse" of the fleet must constantly assert his own presence at once in different parts of the world ocean.

At a time when the global media relished the sinking of the "Sheffield", the British sailors were well aware that the ship was the case died of neglect. To begin this story is not necessary with an unexploded warhead ASM "Exocet", and with the fact that the crew disabled the search radar in the combat zone. And often there remember that to "Sheffield" (as well as others, many ships) there was no system of self-defense, similar Russian AK-630 or South American "Phalanx"? Old "Oerlikon" manual — that's all that was then means of a close battle for the English sailors.

On the far frontiers of affairs at the British squadron fared no better — the British had superior naval SAM «Sea Dart» (during the Gulf War, "Sea Dart" was the first air defense system, intercepting anti-ship missile in combat criteria [2]). But the never-ending problem with the radio horizon did not give the ability to shoot down the Argentine aircraft on approach — they do slide, rockets and here went on as a low altitude, disappearing from radar screens of English. «Sea Dart» churn remained quite so brazen attack aircraft, reaching a frontal attack with unguided bombs.

Usually in such cases, the cure is a deck-based aircraft — combat patrols constantly loitering in the air can find danger even earlier ship radar and nip in the bud samples enemy. The British were in a 2 light aircraft carrier and three 10-ka deck fighters with vertical take-off "Sea Harrier." In countless battles with the Air Force planes Argentitny British pilots scored 20 aerial victories without a loss on his part. Magnificent result for subsonic aircraft awkward! The British have always recognized that without air support of their loss could be even more terrible and they are unlikely to have been able to gain a foothold in the islands.

A critical shortcoming of British light aircraft carriers of the "Invincible" was the absence of distant aircraft radar — radar "Sea Harrier" in no way could change the traditional AWACS aircraft. Just saying the British carrier-based aircraft was poor and could not do their own problems for the early detection of the enemy. Argentine fighter aircraft undetected broke through a barrier and began a bloody mess — according to some reports, the third part of the British ships were falling bombs (half of which, fortunately sailors did not explode).

Vorachivayas an unusual death, "Sheffield", you can see that duralumin body design and synthetic finishing facilities were obviously not a good idea. At the same time, there is a similar maritime history with a very different result — in 1987, the U.S. Navy frigate "Stark", similar in size, "Sheffield", received two direct hits ASM "Exocet": one of the warhead missile fulfilled all the same in normal mode, killing 37 sailors and absolutely Disable vehicle. But, despite the start of the fire and superstructure made of aluminum-magnesium alloys, "Stark" refused to sink and was returned to service after a year.

And it is really indescribable incident occurred off the coast of Lebanon in 2006 — a small corvette 'Hanit "Israeli navy has received from the bank anti-ship missile" Ying-jeou »YJ-82 manufactured in China (warhead weight — 165 kg, as the" Exocet "). 4 killed explorer and corvette displacement of 1,200 tons in general has not received severe injuries. The reason? RCC hit the helipad — Israelis, simply put, lucky. Well, that get hurt, "Ying-jeou" add-in "Hanita"?
The fate of each ship depends on the position of the stars in the sky.

Battle Dragons Her Majesty

Battleships and armadillos in the English Navy as previously absent, and instead they appeared to really burning and the necessary ships — destroyers defense type 45 (sometimes referred to as the type of «D») with beautiful names "Daring", "Dontless" " Diamond "," Dragon "," Defender "and" Duncan ". The most recent large warships made first twenty-first century — Britain is at the forefront of progress.

Total displacement destroyers — about 8,000 tons. The main task — air defense squadron. A truly impressive looks avionics destroyers — t
he generic detection SAMPSON radar with an active phased array with no bad criteria propagation is able to find a dove (target with RCS 0.008) at a distance of 100 km. Unless, of course, doves fly so high — usually radio horizon has not been canceled. Knowingly assume that the "Daring" can shoot down enemy planes, had just taken off from the airfield — at a distance of 100 km of its super-radar unavailable survey targets at altitudes below 600 meters. Energy characteristics of radars to distinguish between air targets even at a distance of 400 km from the side of the destroyer, but this applies only to objects in the stratosphere above 10 km above the surface of the ocean.
In addition to the radar SAMPSON, on destroyers mounted three-axis radar detection of distant air S1850M. The unit is capable of automatically detecting and 1000 for selection purposes in a radius of 400 km.

On the new English ships have everything — from onboard the helicopter to the hospital with 70 beds. But, in an unusual confluence of events, there is some anti-ship weapons and ballistic missiles. Armament destroyers looks very weak against the well-known "Arleigh Burke": at a similar displacement on the "American" placed 56 cruise missiles "Tomahawk". British artillery "Daring" does not shine too — only one 4.5 inch naval gun (caliber 114 mm).

The only severe gun destroyer Her Majesty — anti-aircraft missile system PAAMS. 48 vertical launchers for firing anti-aircraft missiles family Aster. Too little. But what did Clip Available? SAM Aster-15 and Aster-30 have active radar homing head! British scientists (I'm not kidding niskolechko) went saturated method of development — growth instead of ammunition, they did the best in the world of anti-aircraft missiles and stunning means of detection.

Thanks to modern electronics with an active homing missiles and radar Situated British Type 45 destroyers in the world possess the best abilities in the fight against anti-ship missiles, surpassing even here the famous "Arleigh Burke".
But direct comparison 2-ships can not be — the South American destroyer was created as a functional platform, "Burke" the strength no matter what role, so shoot for satellites in low-Earth orbit and ironing shore overseas countries (and not only the shore — range " Tomahawk "with ordinary warhead more than 1,500 km). Unlike zapanibratskogo Yankees, "Daring" — special air defense destroyer, he's older, "Burke" for 15 years, ie a technical point of view it should be much improved vehicle.

Global warship
Naikrupneyshaya in the history of sea power, on which "the sun never set", so far pochetaet their traditions and retains numerous and well-equipped by the Navy. So someone does not like the English know what ships are most needed in the Navy, what dangers may lie in wait for the ship in modern naval warfare and how they beat more efficiently.

In March 2010, the eminent British company BAE Systems has received a four-konrakt to develop a new type 26 Frigate (Global Combat Ship) for the Royal Navy Her Majesty. The concept of the new frigate formulated simply and laconically: "The global battle ship" is designed for the control of sea lanes and to provide commercial and political interests of England. Brilliant proof of the theory of the "main battle ship"!

One of the design options frigate type 26. The standard displacement of 5,400 tons of the ship. Crew -130 people. Range smoothly — 7,000 miles at a speed of 15 knots (From St. Petersburg to the Panama Canal!). Endurance — 60 days

Functional warship, vigilantly watching over the assigned order in the square of the oceans, — node network control of underwater, surface and unmanned aerial vehicles. The new frigate should be able to carry out demining operations waters, to be able to role in humanitarian and counter-terrorism missions, fight piracy and to prevent any provocation. Hence, the main requirements — easy, cheap and effective.

Until now, there was debate about the ability of equipment frigates percussion instrument — supersonic anti-ship missiles and cruise missiles for attacks on ground targets. The sticking point in the dispute, apart from the technical difficulties, a fluctuation in the need for similar systems: the possibility of the need for a massive anti-ship weapon is very small — usually this kind of work adopted trust Aviation (deck or base), and beating on the shore of a small number of cruise missiles in general is stupid From the military point of view — in the days of "Desert Storm" coalition of international forces released by the bank in 1000 cruise missiles "Tomahawk", which was just … 1% of the items dropped on Iraqi troops ammunition.

Naturally, the accuracy of the "Tomahawk" is higher than that of svobodnopadayuschih bombs, but even this fact is unlikely to be able to cover a 100-fold difference. Oh, and, of course, the price — the cost of "Hatchet" regardless of the modification is between $ 1.5 million and above. A lot of them are not shooting. For comparison — the price of 1 hour of flight F-16 is $ 7,000, the price-driven laser-guided bombs GBU-12 Paveway about $ 19,000. Aviation makes the job faster, better and much cheaper. In addition, the aircraft can do blows from the "duty of the air", and released "Tomahawk" back in the container does not start zapihnesh. In short, the need to find at a tactical missile frigates guns rightly questioned.

And yet, in England are being developed supersonic cruise missile CVS401 Perseus. In the dreams of developers "Perseus" is able to develop triple the speed of sound, the rocket launch weight — 800 kg, range — up to 300 km. The missile has two flight profile — solutions for low-altitude anti-tasks and flying at high altitude when attacking ground targets. In addition to the ordinary warhead weighing 200 kg, in the missile attack provided a sudden plot device: for a few moments before hitting the RCC goal of the side compartments "Perseus" released two more controlled bomb weighing 40-50 kg … Yeah, a British scientist did not fantasy refuse. All of these great ideas are still far from reality — "Perseus" exists only in the form of computer graphics, and its development is, of course, not a value. But in 2012 the outline of the future "Global warship" excellent signs to 24 vertical launchers in the bow in front of the superstructure, on the other hand, the design of the "Global warship" changed a couple of times.

The air defense "Global warship" will be presented to the Marine version of the SAM «Sea Captor». It is closer to reality systems in the metal (the first plan the standards set by the ships of Her Majesty in 2016).
Total on-coming "Global warship" under the complex is foreseen 16 vertical launchers, four rockets each, total — 64 missiles. Fighting abilities «Sea Captor'a" correspond to anti-aircraft missiles "Aster-15." Range engage aerial targets — 25 km, of the indisputable advantages — active radar seeker.

The main means of detection of air targets will hopefully ARTISAN 3D radar AFAR. British sailors plan to get the first radars of this type in 2012. Noteworthy that the radar is designed for installation on
older Type 23 frigates (type «Duke») to extend their service until the 2020s., When adopted will go frigates type 26 ("Global warships"). For all the undoubted advantages of their own, the ability to concede ARTISAN 3D radar super-SAMPSON, installed on British destroyers. The only advantage ARTISAN 3D — a low cost, which is fully consistent with the concept of "Global warships" as a ship for colonial wars and control of the sea lanes.

Artillery Systems "Global warship" contain:
— one bow gun caliber from 114 to 127 mm, presumably 5-inch South American Mark-45 or 4.5-inch British naval gun.
— two anti-aircraft machine "Phalanx" 20 mm caliber. These systems have a close battle appeared only on the last reported outline the "Global warship", they were not previously planned.
— two automatic guns DS30M — Worthwhile system, the base of which is 30 mm gun Mark-44 "Bushmaster II». Rate is low — only 200 rds. / Min, which is compensated precision shooting (radar guidance and weapon mounted on a gun carriage) and the presence of armor-piercing projectiles with heat-treated core.
— 6 rifle-caliber machine guns, two of which — the odious M134 "Minigun".


You see, nothing innovator in terms of artillery systems not all exposed standards for many decades used on Navy ships of many nations of the world. But a wide range of systems of various calibers leads to the conclusion that the ship is not designed promising for some harsh marine duels or artillery support troops. Puzzles artillery entirely domestic — Somali pirates shot boats or a warning shot to himself intruder (poacher, smuggler).

About antisubmarine armament future frigate clear not much — of course, it will be a standard for the British 324 mm lightweight homing torpedo Stingray (starting from the ship or with anti-helicopter). The main means of detecting underwater targets will fade away with the Sonar 2087 towed antenna.

Aircraft Armament frigate — Spacious helipad, capable of handling even the huge transport CH-47 "Chinook", a hangar for storage of aircraft and one helicopter could easily "Lynx" or "Merlin". Both types of machines have long been used in the navy — plain "Lynx" set the record flight speed in the middle of production helicopters (400 km / h) and is a firm favorite on the number of ships sunk (during the Falklands War, "Lynx" sunk by anti-ship missiles «Sea Skua» Argentine submarine and patrol ship, and in Iraq in winter 1991 killed minesweeper T-43, 4 border boats, landing craft and missile boat). Heavy "Merlin" with the take-off mass of more than 14 tons is often used as a landing, rescue, care or multi-purpose helicopter.

In the inventory, as usual, will remain anti-torpedo «Stingray» and anti-ship missiles «Sea Skua» [3]. With regard to the latter, the British sailors are convinced that shooting at very small surface targets is possible in at least some local conflict. Let out on boats languishing supersonic anti-ship missiles irrational and very wasteful. Even easier to shoot at least some nerd who was in the wrong place and the wrong time, small rockets from a helicopter, much less a helicopter flies high and sees itself much further the best naval radar. As it has been repeatedly confirmed in practice. By the way, we've already mentioned the fact that the functions of anti-surface targets more effectively perform aircraft.

Certainly, readers will be especially curious to find out what special means to be equipped with "Global warship." In 1-x, the frigate equipped with room for boarding party (36 commandos and frogmen). In-2-by-post website BAE Systems, frigate will be equipped unmanned aerial vehicles (for example, by helicopter RH-8 Fire Scout) and automatic surface and underwater vehicles, similar to existing Gavia or Pluto.

Small bathyscaphes useful for tasks to find and destroy the mines, underwater communications services (SOSUS systems or deep communication cables), and in the future — they will be able to do the role of automatic submarine hunters on the enemy. Here the main task — to teach a similar machine to work well in stand-alone mode and to act well in all cases of force majeure (for example, in case of accidental contact with the fishing net).

It is also planned to equip the ship hydrographic and hydrological equipment, systems, non-lethal weapons (water cannons, sound cannons, projectors). The price of "global combat ship" is estimated at 250-350 million pounds ($ 400-500 million).

1. Obviously, experience of modern naval warfare had another side to the Falklands conflict — Argentina, but even the smallest degree. After the death of the cruiser "General Belgrano" Argentinean Navy warships were withdrawn from the combat zone. In the attack on the compound of the British ships engaged only naval aviation. And to pay tribute to the skill of the Argentine pilots — owning only six new aircraft "Super Etendard" (the rest of the Argentine aircraft was flying stuff — outdated subsonic attack aircraft A-4 "Skyhawk" and fighter-bombers "Mirage III»), they have gained excellent results .

2. On the role of the first ship, intercepted ASM criteria in combat, claiming the South American guided missile cruiser "Sterret." According to some reports, while off the coast of Vietnam, he caught a flying from coast PKR Russian production. That's just one catch — officially RCC "Sopka" Vietnam is not supplied. Maybe it was some kind of design in China, or radar operators were wrong, taking the low-flying MIG missile.

3. Sea Skua — British short-range anti-ship missile, designed specifically to equip helicopters. Starting weight — 145 kg. Limiting distance run — 25 km. Weight polubroneboynoy Warhead — 35 kg. The perfect tool! Despite the subsonic flight speed (0.8 M), and so moderate performance characteristics, these little ones drowned in military conflicts more ships than any other missiles.

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