On the stocks of sounding emptiness, a band no thicker webs suddenly appear the smooth features, as if on the decal … And it will need a lot of time and energy to the ship, getting stronger in the end, stepped into the water and stood on rovnenky keel, gently rocking on the waves.
Naval shipbuilding — one of the most complex, expensive and labor-intensive sectors of industry. Then realized the best technologies and new developments in related fields such as engine, metallurgy and physics of composites, electronics, rocketry, clear mechanics … Quantitative and high build Navy — specific indicators of economic conditions in any country (geographical embarrassments a la " Mongolian fleet "or Swiss Navy — a rare exception to the general rule). Navy — a sign of power and prestige of the armed forces: the ships are always in sight, they are huge and gorgeous, true Leviathans today.
That's why all the actions related to the Navy, whether launching the newest submarine or purchase of "Mistral" is such a wide public resonance.
In Soviet times, the situation was somewhat different — the military shipbuilding was hazy secrecy, no public debate on this topic has not been, well, no need for this was all already knew that the fleet of the Soviet Union the greatest in the world. As for the secrecy — is to let "potential adversary" breaks the head, how many ships we have 1250 or 1380 (particularly as there were in 1989 in the USSR Navy! Let's be realistic — combat-ready of them were 30%, and it was enough to excess to precipitate at least some of the enemy).
The come era of capitalism, the privatized companies, holding companies and other companies dictating the rules of conduct: shipbuilders are required as loudly as possible to declare all of their own successes and achievements. From time to time, this leads to hurtful consequences: the corrupt bureaucrats and negligent contractors deliberately delaying the construction period and once at times overstate the cost of materials and equipment. Rattling corrupt mixture is applied to the inevitable technical difficulties in the development of modern technology, with the result that, even stronger than the effect on the timing of construction.
With all of this to make the illusion of "hard work", they are on every corner trumpeting the "great achievements", which, on closer examination, are completely humdrum events that do not require extra applause.
Signed an agreement to build a frigate! Applause!
Accomplished tab frigate! Applause!
Frigate launched! Applause!
Held mooring tests! Applause!
The frigate came to the factory running tests! Applause!
Normally, these actions occur at intervals of a year, during which all forgets the title of the ship and last year's conversation. As a result, inexperienced wimp create memories that enlarged the fleet with five new ships. In fact — one, well, he has not yet passed the municipal testing.
It is necessary to keep in mind that history has laid thousands of ships, which, for various reasons, never touched the water. A specific example — the nuclear aircraft carrier "Ulyanovsk" exploded on the slipway at readiness 18%.
And not far away each launched on the ship was completed and adopted by the fleet. A specific example — a heavy cruiser "Lützow", purchased in Germany for the Soviet Navy, but was left unfinished because of the outbreak of the war. Or missile cruiser "Ukraine", quietly rusting in Nikolaev at readiness 95%
"Out to sea trials" is not a sufficient aspect of the readiness of the ship. Running tests can simply fail again and get stuck in outfitting the walls of the plant for another year, as did the Indian aircraft carrier "Vikramaditya".
"Signed delivery and acceptance act. The ship received the Navy "- these are the magic words to hear that you can throw his hat into the air and toast" seven feet under the keel. "
Of course, we should not look down upon the information about the schedule of construction: laying, launching — basic information that could shed light on the fate of the ship and the prospects of the fleet.
No one is asking from shipbuilders Stakhanovist pace — quite a year lay several warships (2nd, 3rd grades, in the standard — 1 rank). If you do everything right, without delay, and the pernicious effects of corruption, after 10 years on the roads will stand strong fleet of 2-10-s pennants. And in 20 years — the mighty ocean fleet.
How to distinguish between bona fide contractors of scoundrels? Very simple — pretty to look at the size of the ship and to compare them with
construction schedule. Adjust the calculations on the basis of international experience and perspectives in the form of technical risks in the application of innovative solutions and innovations (if any).
The picture becomes visible as her hands. If a year after the laying of the frigate should be a message that the ship was launched, and a few years later it was raised above the snow-white cloth with crossed on iskosok blue lines — means a whole team of shipbuilders and responsible for the execution of the contract officials worthy of respect and good bonuses.
If most ordinary frigate launched in 5 years after the laying of a 40% degree of readiness, and for all that the responsible persons of conscience enough to hold forth on the topic of "strengthening the defense of the Motherland" — a situation smells of a criminal case.
Now, outlining the "reference point" of our conversation, and taking into account the provided grading, Praed to the announcement of the results of the activities of Russian municipal holding company JSC "United Shipbuilding Corporation".
So, in 2012, was accepted into the 5 ships of the fleet:
Strategic missile submarine K-535 mission, "Yury Dolgoruky" (Project 955 "Borey")
Displacement overwater / underwater — 14 500/24 000 tonnes.
Operating depth 400 m
Armament: 16 intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-based P-30 "Bulava", 6 torpedo tubes 533 mm.
Patrol ship "Dagestan" (Project 11661K "Gepard-3.9")
The first ship of the Russian Navy, armed with rocket complex "Caliber-NK".
Total displacement of 2000 tons.
Weapons: Missile System "Caliber-NK" (Ammo — 8 cruise missiles designed to destroy surface or ground targets at ranges of up to 300 km), anti-aircraft missile system "Palma", universal gun mount AK-176 (caliber 76 mm).
Small artillery ship "Makhachkala" (project 21630, the code "Desperado")
Special agent for enhancing the surface forces in the Caspian flotilla near sea zone and taking into account the particular criterion of the delta of the Volga.
Displacement of 500 tons.
Armament: universal gun mount AK-190 (caliber 100 mm), multiple rocket launcher A-215 "Grad-M" with 40 runners (caliber 122 mm) anti-aircraft missile system ZM47 "flexible" (4 launch container MANPADS "Igla ").
Anti-seal boat U-191 (project 21980, the code "Rook").
Anti-seal boat U-349 (project 21980, the code "Rook").
Cutters are designed to counter terrorists and saboteurs in the wate
rs near and Fri-based approaches to them, and to assist the Border Service of the Russian Federation in solving safety and protection of state border of the Russian Federation. Displacement boats of 140 tons. Armament: mnogokaliberny machine gun, grenade launcher 2 DR-64 and DP-65 MANPADS "Igla".
3 more ships undergo performance tests, and means of adopting — the coming thing to come:
Missile submarine strategic focus K-550 "Alexander Nevsky" (Project 955 "Borey").
Multipurpose nuclear submarine K-329 "Severodvinsk" (Project 885 "Ash").
Corvette with a guided missile weapon "Courageous" (Project 20380). Tests of the ship incident marred the offensive — during mooring in the harbor of Kronstadt corvette collided with oceanographic ship "Admiral Vladimir." Fortunately, there were no casualties or damage.
In 2012, it was launched on 4 ships:
Missile submarine strategic focus "Vladimir Monomakh" (project 955, the code "Northwind").
Corvette with a guided missile weapon "Resistant" (Project 20380).
Designed for operation in the near sea zone and combating enemy surface ships and submarines of the enemy, and for artillery support landings during amphibious operations.
Total displacement of 2200 tons.
Armament: 8 The Kh-35 "Uranus", the universal gun mount AK-190, 2 anti-aircraft AK-630M, 8 anti-submarine torpedoes caliber 330 mm.
Large landing ship "Ivan Gren" (Project 11711).
Displacement of 5000 tons.
BDK "Ivan Gren" is intended to address a wide range of tasks — from assistance in conducting amphibious operations to transport various goods in time of peace in the interests of the Defense Ministry. BDK "Ivan Gren" can transport the modern Russian military equipment, including weapons promising marine and coastal troops.
Capacity: 13 main battle tanks or 300 personnel of the Marine Corps.
Armament: caliber artillery systems, 76 mm and 30 mm, 2 units of multiple rocket launchers. On board a helicopter Ka-29.
Rescue ship "Igor Belousov" (Project 21300).
Displacement of 5000 tons.
Special vessel "Igor Belousov," created for the evacuation and rescue crews from lying on the ground emergency submarines, high-pressure air supply, electricity and life-saving equipment for submarines and surface ships. Additionally, the vessel can search for this emergency facilities two, including in the international marine rescue teams.
In 2012, seven ships were laid down:
Missile submarine strategic focus "Prince Vladimir" (Project 955 "Borey").
In view of certain features of the modern Russian nuclear-powered ship "Prince Vladimir" has some differences from the last 3 SSBN "Northwind". It is not a secret that to speed up the construction of the "Boreas" were used ready-made sections of unfinished multi-purpose submarines and submarine of project 971 "aircraft carrier killer" Project 949A (similar lost nuclear submarine "Kursk"). In the end, all the "Borei" differ among themselves — but only in the best possible way. In particular stands out "Prince Vladimir", carrying on board is not 16 and 20 ballistic missile "Bulava"!
Diesel-electric submarine B-262 "Stary Oskol" (Project 636.6 "Varshavyanka").
Multi-purpose frigate distant maritime zone "Admiral Golovko" (Project 22350).
Third ship of its own type. Total displacement of 4500 tons. In the coming 10-20 years the ships of project 22350 will probably be the base of the surface forces of the Russian Navy.
22350 frigates prerebalansirovany towards strengthening weapons on board the ship will be installed universal missile system 'Caliber-NK "cells for 16 launchers, SAM" polyment-Redoute "anti-center" Tax Package ", a 130-mm gun mount A-192, and SPAR "Broadsword". Aircraft Armament — the Ka-27PL.
Multi-purpose frigate distant maritime zone "Admiral Makarov" (Project 11356).
Third ship of its own type. Total displacement of 4000 tons. On the technical side, frigates, etc. 11356 is a deep modernization of the guard-project etc. 1135 "Thunderbird" with modern avionics and weapon.
11356 frigates are more common and a cheap candidate frigates 22350 — almost all new and Innovative ships whose construction required a significantly longer time than previously thought. This event led to the emergence of an ersatz-based frigate project perfectly familiar technologies and technical solutions. Construction 11356 frigates will allow faster saturate the Russian Navy ships new remote marine areas, in addition, they are provided specifically for the Black Sea Fleet's operations in the Mediterranean and the fight against piracy in the Horn of Africa — will agree to use for this purpose a large warships very wasteful.
Corvette with a guided missile weapon "Loud" (Project 20380).
Corvette with a guided missile weapon "Rumbling" (a modified project 20385).
Universal Dock amphibious assault ship "Vladivostok".
Total displacement of 21,300 tons.
Fleet Air Arm: 8 attack helicopters Ka-52 anti-submarine and 8 (multi-purpose), Ka-27 or Ka-29.
In February last year the shipyard STX France in Saint-Nazaire started cutting metal for the first Russian UDC type "Mistral". For the true moment of the complete assembly of the first block of the bow of the hull.
The modular construction of the "Mistral" allows the construction of different sections of the ship at once at different shipyards. December 2, 2012 in St. Petrburg on the stocks "Baltic plant — ship" started the ready fodder sections UDC "Vladivostok" — all, according to the agreement, Russia will be built in the feed section 12 assault helicopter carrier (about 20% of the vehicle design).
Ships under construction
Obviously, this list is far from complete — it did not include that build the ships that are in varying degrees of readiness — pledged or sent down to the water a couple of years back, but so far not received the Navy. Among them:
— multi-purpose nuclear submarines with cruise missiles "Kazan", incorporated in 2009 to improve the draft 885M "Ash";
— small missile ship "Grad Svijazhsk", founded in 2011;
— frigates of Project 22350 and 11356 — two of each type of ship;
— Project 636.6 diesel-electric submarines ("Varshavyanka") and 677 ("Harmony") — two boats of every type;
— small survey vessel "Victor Faleev" (Project 19910);
— basic minesweeper project 12700 "Alexandria", founded in 2011.
Were also not taken into account the special funds of the Navy, for example, founded in late 2012 Transport floating dock "Sviyaga" (Project 22570 "Apartment") and marine support vessel "Academician Alexandrov" (Project 20180).
We built and built and, in the end, lined up!
Even while maintaining the pace in today's military shipbuilding, the promise of the Russian government on the completion of the domestic fleet with 50 new ships in 2016 looked completely close to reality and achievable. Second positive thing — despite all the skeptics f
ear, the dynamics of shipbuilding past couple of years has not only survived, but has become even better — this year the fleet was ready to ship 5 total displacement of more than 20 thousand tons! For comparison: in 2011 this figure was 3 tons — progress is being made.
So sharp increase in the pace of construction has left, in the main, due to the transfer of the Navy strategic missile submarine K-535 "Yuri Dolgoruky". Doubly satisfied event — the Russian Navy received the first nuclear-powered submarine, after a long break since 2001, when the Northern Fleet adopted a multi-purpose K-335 "Gepard".
In 2013, we can safely predict a two-fold increase in the number of received the Navy ships: the second strategic "Northwind" — K-550 "Alexander Nevsky" and the multi-purpose K-329 "Severodvinsk" has long been built and are tested. From adopting separates them just one step. Let's hope that there will be, in the end, completed "Admiral Gorshkov" — the head of Project 22350 frigate. Takes an active construction of new corvettes and small missile ships, and in some places far away, at the other end of Europe, spark electrodes French welders, collecting landing ship "Vladivostok".
Criticism? Yes, in this story there are a couple of unpleasant moments. Timing of construction of ships as before cause not enough optimism — a strategic missile submarine "Yury Dolgoruky" was built almost 16 years — since November 1996 failed the test head diesel-electric submarines of Project 677 "Lada", it seems, it remains forever in trial operation. Magnificent New Year "gift" made the Ministry of Defense — performance of a construction contract in Russia 2-"Mistral" postponed from 2013 to 2016.
What will be next — time will tell. One can only congratulate you on Happy New Year 2013 year and wish more good-quality news in a new year.
and acquiring the contour and definition,
while he sleeps, the mighty giant,
jig bit shaded bars.
when a thunder of applause and orchestras he
Startled, off the ground
— The one from which we can not break away …