History linkornogo Fleet, construction, battle and death, "the Empress Maria" and the battleship "Novorossiisk."
The battleship "Novorossiisk"
Displacement: 25 000 tons.
Dimensions: length — 179.1 m, width — 28 m, draft — 9.4 m
Maximum travel speed: 21.5 knots.
Range: 4,800 miles at 10 knots.
Powerplant: 4 screws, 30700 hp
: Deck — 110 mm, the tower — 240-280 mm, barbettes — 220-240 mm, cutting — 280 mm.
Armament: 13 305-mm guns in the towers, 18 120mm, 19 76mm guns, 3 underwater 450-mm torpedo tubes.
The crew of 1000 people.
June 27, 1909 Italy adopted the Law of the Sea, which included the construction of four dreadnoughts, 3 cruisers, scouts, 12 submarines, 12 destroyers, and 34 destroyers. The law approved on December 2 and then also authorized the construction of the 3 battleships of the project in 1908 — the future "Giulio Cesare", "Leonardo da Vinci" and "Conte di Cavour." Funds for the construction began to allocate money from the subsequent year. Order to build a 2-of them have private shipyard "Ansaldo" and "Oder" of Genoa, and the third laid on the breech shipyard in La Spezia.
In the process of construction "Giulio Cesare" was overloaded by 2,000 tonnes, to increment its draft of 0.9 m This led to a decrease in the total rate of stroke compared with the design on one node, in addition, a height of 2.5 m of head armor belt remained above the waterline only 0.75 m
Construction of the "Cesare" completed at the end of November 1913, and before the official commissioning it passed various tests, being a part of Battle Squadron Vice Admiral Amero Stella d'Asti. When in August 1914 the global war, All three are in the ranks of Italian dreadnoughts were part of the 1st Combat Division Rear Admiral K.Korsi. "Cesare" commanded the captain Martsolo.
At the time of the declaration of war May 24, 1915 all dreadnoughts like "Cesare" were in the main base of Taranto, being a part of the 1st Division of the battleships of Rear Admiral Corsi. Immediately after the declaration of war, Italy started to blockade the Austrian coast. Dreadnoughts in Taranto were in a three-hour readiness, spending in the Gulf of evolution and shooting. Their main task was to fight the enemy dreadnoughts. In any other case, they were not allowed to take risks.
One of the few operations, which involved dreadnoughts, was the occupation of the base of the peninsula Kurtsola Sabbiontsela (Italy). In carrying out the distant cover the invasion force, the 1st Division, which included all three types of battleship "Cesare", 03/13/1916, the defected in Valona, along with battleships like "Regina Margherita" and destroyers, and then again returned to Taranto.
After World War dreadnought of "Cesare" were the most modern and powerful Italian ships, for fleet management has paid much attention to increase their combat effectiveness on the basis of military experience. Battleship passed the first upgrade, which ended in 1922: a tripod foremast changed Four who suffered ahead of the chimney to reduce the impact on the directors of smoke and heat from the boiler nose boiler room. The vertical portion of the former foremast cut roughly level with the top edge of the tube and used as a prop for the cargo boom. At the same time, "Cesare" lost his own nose beautiful scenery — the tremendous falcon was holding in the paws of the ribbon with the slogan of Caesar: "He came. Saw. Won. "
In August 1923, when aggravated case of Greece, the ship took part in the operation on Corfu, and in 1925 became a more significant upgrade: change the artillery fire control system, to the left on the forecastle, to bow towers, installed a catapult to launch a seaplane type "Mackey" M18, which was located on the roof of the middle tower. To lift the aircraft with water and placing it on the catapult for the latest on the upper deck there was a crane that could fall into a horizontal position, so as not to interfere with the firing of guns. On the nose the conning tower turret also appeared on buildings rangefinder.
But while battleships with 305-mm guns passed, and no improvements have not been able to make them worthy competitors of ships built in the last years of the war. Because in 1928, "Cesare" was an artillery training ship.
Once the modernization project was developed by the Committee on naval projects under the control of an engineer-General Francesco Rotunda. He foresaw rassverlovku 305-mm guns, as it can be based on the strength of their convictions, the substitution of machines for range shooting, strengthening the reservation. Simply was the case with the substitution of the main devices that have not once did the British and the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun on its own large ships. Removing the middle of the tower, which became the 30 th of an anachronism, gave enough room to install the latest two-shaft power plant, which was to provide a speed of 27 knots. Horizontal reservations, too, was somewhat increased. "Cesare" was held at the shipyard modernization Kantieri del Tirreno in Genoa on 25 October 1933 to 1 October 1937.
In the process of modernization removed all add-tower, medium artillery, armor piece. Housing absolutely "gutted", extended, installed in it protivotorpednuyu protection, new boilers and turbozubchatye units, reinforced deck reservation and put new superstructure. So, when the battleship first appeared in sight during the show a huge fleet in the Bay of Naples, arranged in May 1938, he had nothing to do with his former views.
At the Tehran Conference in late 1943, Stalin insisted on the partition between the allies of the Italian Navy. The question of the transfer of the Italian ship was resolved exclusively in the process of preparing a peace contract with Italy.
By decision of the Tripartite Commission of the USSR in 1948 was the battleship "Giulio Cesare" Construction of the First World War. December 9, 1948, "Cesare" forever left Taranto. February 6 raised the ship naval flag of the USSR, and two weeks later he came to Sevastopol. Order of the Black Sea Fleet from March 5, 1949 the battleship was given the title of "Novorossiysk".
The ship was handed over to the Italians Russian sailors in very poor condition, which, given the nature of his previous operation, it was completely natural. Within 5 years, from 1943 to 1948 year Battleship, among other ships of Italian fleet was not being conserved, with a small team, and without proper maintenance, rusting and overgrown with barnacles. However, immediately before the transfer of Russian Union he was a small repair, concerned about the main electromechanical parts. The living conditions of the crew does not meet any climatic characteristics of the Black Sea region, nor the community service of the Russian Navy. Staffing galley equipment only provides wardroom officers, and the team had only galley pots for cooking pasta (also broken) because
when parked at the base of Italian ship crews lived in barracks shore and on board their diet consisted only pasta, dry wine and olive oil.
First time (up to the usual galley equipment) supply of seafarers provides several army field kitchen, practically around the clock dymivshimi on deck. During the cooler, especially in sub-zero temperatures outside air into the cabin under the forecastle deck, which had no insulation, the personnel was under continuous condensate drizzle of heavy sweating. For the rest were two-and three-tier beds, placed almost next to each other in the walk-through crew spaces.
In the middle of May 1949 the battleship North put in the dock. With all this spices were amazed how grace underwater hull form and temper its fouling. Actively grown a shell variable waterline only area, and the rest, covered with a paste of unknown composition, almost overgrown.
Already in July, "Novorossiysk" took part in the maneuvers as a squadron leader. Over the next six years on the ship was uniformly made a significant amount of work on repair and modernization of the partial substitution of military and technical means. From 1949 to 1955 year battleship was eight times in a factory repair. According to him serving officers and sailors, even changed the turbine — new Kharkov plant, so that a sea trial "Novorossiysk" showed the speed of 27 knots. Generally the ship was given a lot of attention, as he, despite his advanced age, was the strongest for artillery weapons in the Russian navy. Instead of the planned modernization to the Russian 305-mm gun with a barrel length of 52-gauge decided to stop Italian and even started setting up ammunition for them, because at the time of the transfer there was only one staff ammunition. (Because of the unreliable part of the interior of the explosive shells, in anticipation of new, was taken to the shore arsenal).
From May until the end of October 1955 "Novorossiysk" a couple of times out at sea, fulfilling tasks for combat training. October 28, 1955 the battleship returned from the last campaign and took his place on the "linkornoy keg" in the Marine Infirmary (water depth of 17 m and 30 m viscous sludge). Apart from the crew on board were reinforcements — soldiers who were transferred from the Army in fleet, temporarily placed on the battleship.
At 01.31 on October 29 under the ship to the starboard side of the nose was an explosion, according to equal 1,000-1,200 kg of TNT. Alarm was declared, the ship began nakrenyatsya and 04.15 overturned through the left side. Hundreds of people, built on the deck, fell into the water and body were covered with battleship.
In this position ship remained for several hours, having rested in the hard ground masts. Exclusively at 22:00 body completely disappeared under the water. A huge number of seamen were left in the air bubbles bays capsized ship — because it was their place on combat alert. Of them managed to save only nine people. After a cut in the aft part of the bottom hole went seven people, another 2-sailors were rescued divers brought them out from under the poop deck, loosely fitted to the ground. In general, repeated catastrophe "of Maria" — happened to her is very similar to the 1st world war.
Total killed in the crash of 604 people, including emergency party with other ships of the squadron. Background of the explosion and the true time is not clear. In a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party closed in May 1956, it was officially announced that the ship led to the death of the crew and the lack of discipline Tipo panic reigned on board. Despite this, many believe that the ship was blown up by Italian commandos. In fact, until 1949 "Novorossiysk" bore the title of "Giulio Cesare" ("Julius Caesar"), and went into the Italian Navy. There is evidence that on that day outside the raid was not protected, and shumopelengatornye station did not work. During the second World War, the Italian saboteurs who served with Prince Valerio Borghese, took a rather dark glory. "People-frog" as they were called, penetrated into the harbor in a special two-seater torpedo packed with three hundred pounds of explosives, and directed her to a potential victim. In other cases, they strengthened the mines to the bottom of enemy ships. In the middle of the other versions: unexploded mine since the 2nd World War. Although the views of the majority of professionals, the nature of the explosion was not like the bottom mine explosion.
Disaster There was a state secret, and in the Russian media disk imaging it was not a word. As a result, the disaster suffered Navy Commander Admiral Kuznetsov — he was removed from office, stripped of the title of admiral and sent into retirement.
In 1956, the battleship was picked up and taken apart for scrap.