Ships Coastal «Freedom» and «Independence»

XXI century opened the ongoing rivalry lurking in the middle of the big states in the form of construction of impeccable marine military equipment. Not the last word belongs here, and designers of the North American States, working on the request of the U.S. Navy in the construction of ships.
In the near future in America was designed, assembled in industrial stocks and the ship was running tests of the coastal zone (ODR) is the newest generation Independene — the lead ship of type II, designed by the LCS (littoral ships operating in shallow areas). The tests carried out have caused a number of severe errors military shipbuilders.

LCS project

The project is the creation of the LCS (littoral ships operating in shallow areas) is now the main subject of the term, the task of the U.S. Navy, which requires immediate commissioning of more than 50 high-speed and maneuverability of ships based local that ossnascheny shock, defensive weapons and radio equipment made by the latest technology. They are created to conduct local fighting in the coastal areas.

"Father" of the idea and the "generator" of the following action was head of the Naval Operations Staff of the United States Navy Admiral Vernier Clark. Admiral position such that the littoral ships are needed where there is no point in introducing such an ocean ships for tactical or monetary judgments.

The intertidal zone

This will include fighting in the shallow waters. But in the Russian naval literature, and of the current practice of the Russian Navy actions, such term is used more in a figurative sense. Littoral region of the bottom of the sea or ocean to be flooded at high tide and the formation of shallow water at low tide. From the standpoint of strategy of the Navy in the "classics" — is quite a small area, so to control the situation in it to build a new class of ships. Western naval strategists definiruyut littoral zone as an area crossing aqua elements and the coast, including the Preserving the sea, a line of coast, coastal slope, which is under water. In their concept, all these objects are able to reach a width from a few meters to several kilometers. In the Russian naval theory, this part of the area is designated as a "coastal marine area" (from the English. «Litoral» — waterfront).

Because with our position, the ships of the U.S. Navy and the type Independene Freedom must be considered from the perspective of the strategy acts ships near sea zone.

The concept of operations of ships near sea zone

How to think in South American military planners, the concept of using ships near sea areas are quite ordinary and is just a 2-major directories.

First, the introduction of the designated use. This is an application against the surface of small and medium-sized ships, submarines, small, coastal artillery, mine mobile and stationary systems. So makarom to perform these tasks require combat warship class DD (X), which could, if necessary, act on the second directory, just to use as a landing ship for special forces units or serve as a basic vehicle for launching cruise missiles .. Such a wide range of capabilities of the littoral ship means its spirited transformation in the kind of sailing facility, which will be needed to accomplish the tasks of combat.

The peculiarity of the creation of such ships was the principle of the modular assembly with the embedded option called "Open architecture" which allows you to use the latest technology built on a par with modern building materials.

The tender for the establishment of littoral ships

The enthusiasm for this project showed 6 companies, as a result of selection conducted by the Commission of the U.S. Navy, there were three candidates: the "Dynamics", "Lockheed", "Raytheon" — known in the U.S. company. Every concern got my hands on an agreement, "Dynamics" at 9 million dollars., Other whales military industry — 10 million dollars. A year later, the outline of the littoral ships were submitted to the Commission.

The "Dynamics", meant the development of a warship by type trimaran. Advantages of such type of ship, along with the highest sea-going qualities were as high speed (over 50 knots) and the operation of the ship with a small crew of about 25 people. Under the plan creators, it is intended to meet the challenges of:
— Anti-pirates and terrorists
— Anti Coast Guard boats, even when attacking a gross manner
— organization of search activities and destruction of enemy submarines, located in the coastal zone
-for Mine Action
-assist other ships

The "Lockheed" meant the development and implementation of the construction of the hull under the name "sea Blade", op was an option of combining traditional forms of the ship with one of the "glider". Such a form of construction used polusportivnye speed boats that set speed records in the trans-Atlantic crossings. To merit of success when making your reservation by military planners navigators "Lockheed" fulfilled all the requirements of the customer, in particular the conditions under vaimozamenyaemosti and versatility, with all this, putting a modular equipment to your own standard.

And the last project "," Raytheon "proposed solving the problem of creation of littoral ship on the basis of small missile boats« Skjold »(Norway). There concern "Raytheon" was responsible for the creation, implementation and interaction of the vehicle systems, and the project of construction of the hull taught by another special engineering team. This project was different in that the boat was created hovercraft, because he has not approached the U.S. Navy.

The introduction of other types of ships

While the War Department and legislators engaged cardboard questions, preparing for the launch applets on littoral ships, maritime administration of approved different versions of the introduction of modular systems for non-standard types of ships.

One option was the introduction of the most experienced ship with small waterplane area under the title «Sea Fighter», which surely acts in different emergency situations. One of the main requirements for developers using the framework of this ship was to be modular configuration of the vessel, and the ship itself should be a base for receiving / helicopter landing, also "malomerok", including and "machine-drones." The ship first in June 2003 was launched for sea trials. At the end of the month, showing his best side, the ship was introduced in the U.S. Navy.

Tactical properties «Sea Fighter»

Displacement -950 m
Length — 80 m
Width — 22 m
Draught — 3.5 m
Range of sea passage -4400 miles
Crew -26 people.
Power section — combined, in the installation of gas and energy comes two diesel MTU 595 and 2 LM 2500 gas turbine engine

The remaining equipment Sea Fighter

2 swivel "jet" are used as engines of the ship, placed one in each hull catamaran. In synchronous operation of all units of the ship the ship's speed up to 50 knots.

Ship to equip two decks for hel
icopters landing on the stern-mounted receiving an outlet for all kinds of underwater and surface detectors and other devices that solve a wide range of tasks, from intelligence — to sabotage the mine.

Purpose and testing of the ship

The ship with a small area of the waterline Sea Fighter is designed to address two major problems-uh. This is a study of the real system of internal resources such ships and launch of a modular construction of ships, including the staffing of weapons. The plan was to use the so-called container version of acquisition of vessel on the principle of modular electric circuits. With all of this, each container is an electric range of different types of enemy opposition.

Initial tests Sea Fighter immediately gave positive results. The experimental results were taken into account in the program of development of both types of LCS. In the near future, the management of the U.S. Navy intensively study the issue of participation of ships of Sea Fighter in planned operations, the U.S. Navy, as well as the introduction of these ships in the areas of economic interests of America and in addressing issues relating to the internal problems of the U.S. aqua expanse. When operational necessity frisky troop movements by such ships, transfers wax in areas of public interest the United States.

The results of the tests

In 2004 fevrade supervisory authority of the U.S. Congress approved the draft submitted by the U.S. Navy to purchase the ships of the coastal zone for the needs of the South American fleet. In May of that year, the Navy Office of the United States announced the results of the tender, in which concerns "Dynamics" and "Lockheed" received contracts at the cost of about 80 million and 47 million dollars respectively. "Dynamics" will build ships, code designation LCS 2 and LCS4, but "Lockheed" will build ships, code designation LCS 1 and LCS3. The total contract price for the construction of the ships will be 540 and 425 million dollars respectively. In general for the construction of all types of ships such izderzhat Americans are ready for more than 4 billion. bucks.

First June 2005 started the construction of the cerebral type of littoral ship LCS 1 Freedom, built in 2006. In November 2008, he was inducted into the U.S. Navy.

In January 2006, the "Dynamics" started construction at the shipyard Tri Inderpendence, in April 2008, its construction was completed in January 2010 it was raised by the naval flag of the U.S. Navy.

After that programm building ships of the coastal zone has been curtailed. Initially called the background of rising prices under the contract, then the applets have been closed due to lack of funding by the U.S. Congress.

The hard-built littoral ships LCS3 and LCS4 concerns "Dynamics" and "Lockheed" in the process of dynamic tests showed unsatisfactory results, it was revealed many flaws and defects.

Based on materials from the website

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