Last week, the Kremlin twice talk about the state gallakticheskih projects. The President in his address delivered task: "To strengthen the position in space." A day at the Municipal Kremlin Palace designer of ballistic missiles, satellites and space stations Herbert Ephraim, presented the award.
Herbert A. In your opinion, what specifically we need to fix in space?
Herbert Yefremov: We have currently about 110 operational satellites in orbit, the Yankees — about 425. It is necessary to do everything that runs on the urgent tasks, gives practical results. Specifically: need remote sensing satellites, both for civilian applications as well as for the military.
Need topography, navigation, will highlight — with the creation of Russian electrical cards, as long as Russian GLONASS works without maps. In principle, the development of communication services to a greater extent via geostationary satellites. Or, say, weather satellites — they are at the moment I have a cat narevel. These areas and the need to strengthen.
You did not say anything about flying to the moon and to Mars.
Herbert Yefremov: And on Mars and the moon will not strengthen our position, there is no pragmatic problems for us. There is a burning problem. For example, everyone knows that during the five-day war in 2008 (the operation to force Georgia to peace), we were required to obtain gallakticheskie pictures about the situation in Tskhinvali from Israel? There were problems with the aircraft's aerial photography was not Russian intelligence system from space. Still can not speak, but it is.
Not so long ago, even discussed the possibility of purchasing the German SAR-Lupe satellites with radar on board. Do not have your own?
Herbert YefremovYes, of course. But the costs for the purchase of Russian developments, by the standards of officials, are relatively small, and the responsibility above. The program of 500 million rubles to our bureaucrats are not fascinating. What is interesting? For example, a long project base on the moon at the cost of, say, $ 50 billion — yes! A better — even more expensive.
Meanwhile, we have developed a programm "Pragmatic Space": there are good companions "Condor" with radar, an optical version of the "Condor." Bring them into the orbit can rockets, dismounted from combat duty — we call it "weave": UR-100N UTTH (in the West they are called "Stiletto" — SS-19 Stiletto. — Approx. Ed.). Inexpensive and severe.
What is the advantage of old times Russian missiles, most of them young 20 years?
Herbert Yefremov: Firmly and inexpensive. Here, to be precise, most of the young made of UR-100N UTTH for 23 years. But once we were talking, for people far from rocket and space, it is necessary to make a small digression into the history of the creation of a family of "hundreds." In 1963, we should have something to respond to the deployment of thousands of U.S. missiles "Minutemen." But what? We then had to develop missile R-7 SP The queen — all manned launches so far provided missiles in this family. After calculations of Andrei Sakharov and sizes trehmegatonnoy warhead missiles Queens led views: Timeout product weighing nearly 300 tons and a flight range of 8 kilometers. Velikanskih needed for the rocket launch pad sizes, and it was necessary to fill three days. Simply put: the missile is not fighting.
The next step was an intercontinental missile R-16. Yangel made missile, although in the first test people were killed, including Marshal Nedelina.
Royal "seven" ran the day or three, and P-16 — three hours. Progress. But that's only after the discovery of American missiles, we had only 20 minutes for a retaliatory launch. In addition, seasoned missile could not have long to stand on duty 10 days maximum — up to a month. Thereafter, the missile must be disposed of.
Then Khrushchev summoned the Minister of Aviation Industry Dementieva and gave the order: you and Chelomei (he scored the development of cruise missiles) to make a response to America. And there were a series of eminent missile UR-100. They initially primed. Nothing she does not leak fuel (heptyl and amyl) ampulizirovano, rocket is on active duty for decades.
And now, "weaving" is still reliable?
Herbert Yefremov: UR-100N UTTH has a longer presence on duty, and at the moment is in service while maintaining combat effectiveness. We are "hundred" launched mock "Condor" weighing 1 ton with perfect precision!
To start gallakticheskih vehicles "NGOs Engineering" at the time began to work on creating the Baikonur "Free" — a placement of mines missiles UR-100 (there is currently building a spaceport "East"). Just one mine offered to rework the launch of the "ar" with satellites, including the "Condor". To rework battle gallaktichesky carrier rocket requires a minimum of work — are removed warheads and decoys complex enemy, put satellite and a new fairing. In other words, our example program financially expensive for the country.
And that did not suit?
Herbert Efremov: Specifically because of its cheapness it was not necessary. What is a cheap little space center — in its place they built the road and the majestic "East." It can be used for flights to Mars!
No one is exciting and affordable missile. Instead it based on "hundreds" developed "Buzz" — with the upper stage instead of the third stage and the latest control system. But it is several times more expensive, "weave"!
I was told by the customer: the training to manage the resources. I, as the defending projects without rollbacks and cuts, was not needed. Dubbed the righteous, the project approved, but did not take … Everyone wants to fly to the moon!
Herbert A., but that hideous in principle projects of colonization of the Moon? For China, India and Japan design lunar base, there is a Russian project flyby of the moon.
Herbert Yefremov: We are what this is? China, the land of the rising sun, India — for the prestige, and we are already 40 years ago obletyvat the moon!
But it was the robotic probes, not the people.
Herbert Yefremov: What do people in space? A person does not need anything except the Earth. Man so far can not enter into a blast furnace, but it is necessary. Ocean to explore. So called "fundamental project" — is gutted vehicles and occupation tremendous societies. Yes, necessary Ziolkowski, which will deal with the Mission to Mars — but in small amounts.
We have no gas in the villages, roads, villages and of itself becomes less. Chinese, Indians and rovers rovers are needed, they are for their milestones. For us — repetition, we took a long time, these tops.
For the older generations was Gagarin, his grin became an emblem of the era. A smile is the generation of zero bot from orbit?
Herbert Yefremov: The most important person on earth grin. I am convinced that our basic idea: the welfare of our people, and nothing more. And the space has only the welfare to work.
And you can fly to Mars on the residual funds, after the implementation of pragmatic values.
Herbert A. Efremov (b. 1933) — System Designer tool for the Navy, and Strategic Missile Forces Gallakticheskih, Dr. Bauman. Bauman, a Hero of Socialist Labor. In the middle of his developments — intercontinental missiles family of UR-100, gallaktichesky missile system "Strela" gallakticheskie station "Almaz" satellites "Condor" and "Ruslan" anti-complex
es "Malachite", "basalt", "granite", "Bastion", "Yakhont" Russian-Indian "BrahMos". His naming named a minor planetka "Gerbefremov."