The end of the French Revolution

18-19 Brumaire Year VIII of the Republic (9-10 November 1799) in France there was a municipal revolution, as a result of which has been stripped of power manager, and was created a new interim government led by the 3-consuls — Napoleon, Sieyes and Ducos Morden. This event is considered the end of the stateliness of French Revolution (1789 — 1799).

Of early afternoon of 18 Brumaire (November 9) to the house on the street Shantaram (home of Napoleon Bonaparte) senior officers began to arrive the French armed forces. Among them were military leaders, who knew the names of all of France: Moreau, Macdonald, Bernadotte, Lefebvre and others almost immediately in Tyuliri was assembled council of elders (the French upper house of the legislature), chaired by Lemercier. Council was assembled under the influence of rumors about the Tipo prepared Jacobin komplote, dismissed their favorite moderate Republican, Director Sieyes. He developed his own project of the municipal unit and entered into an alliance with Napoleon.

At a meeting of the Board deputy Cornet said about "the grim komplote Jacobins," then Rainier proposed a decree on the transfer of the legislative body to Saint-Cloud, and about the purpose of the society is popular Bonaparte commander of the garrison of Paris and surroundings. Bonaparte received the right to take all measures which are necessary for the safety of the republic, all citizens were ordered to assist him whenever you are with him. To the people of the Council of Elders had to make a special manifesto in which decreed measures were justified by the need to pacify the people aspiring to tyranny and ensure that internal peace in France. The uninitiated in komplot deputies were taken by surprise and did not object. Rainier offers were accepted unanimously.

At 8 o'clock in the morning to the house of Napoleon's carriage arrived, and officials from the Council was presented to General highest possible. Gathered senior officers was announced that Bonaparte takes the high command. Bonaparte with his own brilliant retinue arrived at the Tuileries, where the generals were waiting there in advance strapped shelves. Everything went smooth and easy. Not only managed to attract komplotu most of the members of the Directory. The President of the Directory Goya showed ingenuity and came to Napoleon, hastening to Moulin, and then together with him to Barras (he was an accomplice komplota, but eventually ended up among the losers.)

In the palace of Napoleon Bonaparte gave a short speech before the Council. He identified his loyalty to republican principles. Two directors — Sieyes and Roger-Ducos, the preparatory persuasion, resigned and openly supported the movement. Barras, finding themselves without the support and all the abandoned, making sure that the game is lost, without objection signed prepared in advance and brought Talleyrand text of a statement of resignation. The other two directors — Goya and the Moulin were taken into custody and also lay down the possibilities. As a result, existed at the time the executive has been destroyed. The directory has to exist. Bonaparte ordered his loyal generals to take all of the principal objects of the capital: Lannes was entrusted to the Tuileries, Murat — Palais Bourbon, Marmont — Versailles, etc.

The Council of Elders and the Council of Five Hundred (the lower house of the French legislature) had 19 Brumaire gather in St. Cloud. In the 12 hours day or both houses of the legislature gathered in St. Cloud, the Council of Elders — in one of the rooms of the palace, the board of five hundred — in a greenhouse. Per day since the beginning of the event, members of "sobered up" and began asking questions. Why disbanded Directory? About komplote what is it? Why Napoleon granted so the highest possible? Each of the tips were many participants komplota. Thus, the Council of Five Hundred ran Lucien Bonaparte. But they did not manage to take control of their hands and conclude a coup. On the contrary, in the midst of Deputies grows stronger commitment, especially in the Council of Five Hundred, which was dominated by the Jacobins, to change the course of events. They offered to resume-universal oath of allegiance to the constitution of the year III.

Bonaparte, Sieyes and their approximate at this time housed in spacious offices in the ground floor of the palace of St. Cloud, waiting for news of victory. But reports have been disappointing. The deputies took the time to form a new government and expressed doubts about the necessity and even the legality of decisions of emergency yesterday. Actions are suddenly taking a terrible color scheme. Gen. Augereau even recommend Bonaparte quickly add up their capabilities. In case of defeat Bonaparte and his supporters threatened the death penalty.

Bonaparte, having lost patience and went into the meeting hall of the Council of Elders. He gave the word, and he gave a longish speech, in which repeated that he did not Teran, not Caesar, Cromwell, and that it only serves the Republic. Bonaparte broke off and began to have clear information about komplote, evidence of names. Napoleon came away from direct answers, only referred to Barras and Moulins as instigators. This only increased the doubts of Deputies. Having failed, the general left the courtroom and went into the hall, where the Council five hundred. Then it met a lot worse. The deputies shouted: "Down with the dictator", "Outlaw him!" Etc. Napoleon was surrounded by a mass of angry, confused, pushed him, ripped clothes, and it is almost rescued General Lefebvre, which with the cry: "Save our general!" gave the order to bring Napoleon's grenadiers of the hall.

Murat has retained the full presence of mind offered to act aggressively, like a soldier. Napoleon hesitated, could not venture on anything. Some time he was in a state of confusion. The ranks of his followers rapidly thinning. The defeat was near.

In the evening, that the situation has become critical, Napoleon returned to his ordinary energy. He together with Murat and Lucien was riding troops and shouted that he wanted to destroy that in the Council of Five Hundred gathered conspirators. The fighters met him sympathetic speech and Bonaparte gave Murat character. The detachment of grenadiers with drums under the Murat and Leclerc moved to the Boardroom five hundred. Opening the door clicked Murat: "Throw all this pack out!" Among the deputies did not have heroes, they offered no resistance, and the hall was cleared rapidly.

The coup was completed — the legislature (the Council of Elders and Council five hundred) were removed from the history. Some deputies the men drove back to the gym and they dictated adopted a resolution to develop a temporary consular commission composed of Bonaparte, Sieyes and Ducos Morden and 2-committees entrusted with the duty to prepare the constitutional laws. On the walls of the buildings were sticking ads, compiled by the Minister of Police Fouché, who shall urban residents on the occurrence of the principal events. The ads Parisians said Bonaparte exposed counterrevolutionary komplot in the Council of Five Hundred, that he was attacked, but the general saved and the legislative body has taken all measures for the approval of the "triumph and the glory of the Republic."

18-19 Brumaire coup met no resistance, neither the authorities nor the political parties nor the people. Napoleon Bonaparte almost just took power into their own hands. "The last Jacobins" were disappointed policies of the Directory were not going to defend the murderers of Robespierre and Babeuf, co
rrupt officials and speculators who profited from needy people. They did not want to fight for that kind of power. They just went to the side, keeping neutral. A small part of even supported the adherents of Napoleon. People also remained "silent spectator". Directory mode completely rotted and fell naturally, without putting up virtually no resistance. Some directors themselves to take part in the coup, hoping to extract the benefits.

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