The queen Elizabeth I British — Mistress of the seas

Rule, Britannia, upon the sea …
Rule, Britannia …

Among the stately municipal leaders ladies sex British queen Elizabeth I on the right is one of the first places. As throughout her reign, Elizabeth has earned the unending glory and love of her people, the UK successfully cope with many failures, which also opposed the then world's sole superpower Spain, forever taking away her status as a leading maritime power. During the reign of Elizabeth I is deservedly called Zolotym vekom Anglii.

Elizabeth I is known in British history as Gloriana (from gloria — glory), Good queen and the virgin Queen. It has become a worthy successor to his father Henry VIII, who served as a good example for my daughter. Period of her reign is impressive — 45 years. In so far throughout the queen successfully manage all external and internal political puzzles, with a special diplomacy, often using ladies' tricks.

Elizabethan era came in the second half of the XVII century and is considered one of the most successful and exciting periods of British history. The heyday of luxury arts, poetry, theater, music, plays, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare, the greatest monuments of British literature, the unique poetry of Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser, the discovery of unknown lands far away from Europe, and most importantly — approval of the British naval power in the status of number 1 in the world — all these achievements were the years of the reign of Elizabeth I.

Elizabeth, being a moderate Protestant, first self-government stood at the head of the Anglican Church. She had found a compromise between the gaze of constructive and moderate Protestants. The doctrine of the Elizabethan church was placed in the rule book, under the title "39 articles". The queen has repeatedly faced with antagonism on the part of Catholics and Puritans, but always subtly trying to resolve the conflicts.

An important moment in the history of the reign of Elizabeth I was that she had dynastic conflict with the queen Mary of Scotland, with whom it has close ties similar. The latter was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII, as Elizabeth — her granddaughter, and if Elizabeth is born heir, the crown of Great Britain went to Mary. According to the views of Catholic Mary Queen of Scots, is itself a Catholic, and this was rightly of the Queen of the United Kingdom. They believed that the right to the throne of Elizabeth illegal, because my mother and her father were not in holy matrimony. Catholics throughout the reign of Queen newest sought to overthrow it and transfer the crown "legitimate" heir. 1568 marked the beginning of the revolt of the Protestants in Scotland. The queen Mary was obliged to give up the throne and the offspring of Jacob, fleeing from the country. She took refuge in the UK and asked Elizabeth for help in response to the queen imprisoned her in jail in the north UK, where hateful cousin stayed for about 20 years. So cruel a way of contradiction Elizabeth I and Mary were quite resolved.

One of the most difficult periods and immediately turning on the board of Elizabeth I, who brought her fame for centuries, was the beginning of the 1580's, when things between Spain and England deteriorated to the maximum. Spanish monarch Philip intended to put an end to the unrest of the Protestants in the Netherlands and at the same time occupy the UK — the citadel of Protestantism. When Elizabeth had responded positively to the request of the rebels to provide them military assistance between England and Spain virtually the war began. Prerequisites for the conflict can not be called purely religious. The fact that the British sailors punctually plundered Spanish ships, practically doing piracy, and even landed on the coast of the Spanish colonies, which gave them a very impressive profits. Specifically, for this reason, Great Britain began to get the reputation of "storm of the seas", which could not amuse her main rival sea Spain. Certainly, the support of the Queen of maritime criminals and successfully tucked execution of Mary Stuart, was the final straw that triggered the start of open hostilities.

Gravelinskoe sea battle

The place of the first naval clashes in the war in 1588, after which the British queen and her were destined to be the latest mistress of the seas, the peninsula was White. Here for the first time the British stormed the Spanish ships by going to them in the rear. In the town of Plymouth Armada (Spanish Navy) suffered the first loss. The Spaniards lost a battle, but as it turns out, not because of the power of the enemy, and because of their own missteps and a number of unexpected events, but because of the awkward collision of 2-larger ships and fire on the 3rd.

After recovering from the initial failure Armada continued to move in the direction of Calais, where, in the course of the sluggish movements of the Spanish fleet to the British, did not decide to go for a great clash, it was possible to carry out acts of sabotage against them a few. And so, on August 8, began major military action — known Gravelinskoe scramble ensued. To the British, to patrol the surrounding waters, reinforcements arrived, which gave them a numerical advantage. Open battle ensued, and the ships of Vice Admiral Drake and Frobisher opened fire, now no longer afraid to come to the Spaniards at close distance. The Spaniards were in the unprofitable position their vessels are less agile, which excluded the possibility of helping each other. This is also used by the British, and by the evening won a diversified, but still winning. The fact that their impressive fleet out of ammunition, but the seasoned strategists under no circumstances were not going to open the event the enemy, counting on the last caution. As expected, the Spaniards did not dare to resume military actions, besides those of their supplies of gunpowder and the nuclei were at the finale. In the end, they lost 4 ships, and their opponents — not the 1st, having cost only one hundred square meters of human losses, while the Armada 600 sailors were killed, and 800 — were injured.

Assessing the outcome of this battle, the Spanish command came to the conclusion that their forces are not sufficient to ensure control over the strait, and even more to advance to the mouth of the Thames, because the 9 August, the Spaniards headed north. Spanish commanders on August 13 decided to use a roundabout way, and rounding Scotland, heading south along the west coast of Ireland. Such a route has been selected as the drift to the east of UK it was stupid, because Armada could be on the Flemish banks. Return through the Strait of Dover Spanish Admiral Medina Sidonia, for fear of new attacks against the British fleet, also considered very risky. So Makar, a chance to return to Spain before the autumn storms was quite lost.

Other British ships pursued the Armada has a number of days. Armada is rounded Scotland and August 21 was published in the Atlantic Ocean. Spaniards do not really know the area and did not have the navigation maps. Autumn storms, easy-to-Atlantic at this time, dispersed remnants of the once invincible Spanish Armada. Spanish ships and sailors expect unenviable fate. Series of victims of shipwrecks off the coast of Ireland, Spanish or executed on the spot or taken prisoner to the next purchase. As a result of the confrontation with the British royal navy Spain lost 3/4 Mar
ine personnel and more than half of the ships — the colossal loss for long.
At the end of Gravelinskogo sea battle, the UK has become the leading maritime power, retaining the title for themselves during the many centuries that followed.

Sources:, 1Гравелинское_сражение

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