The program a couple of times was under the danger of closing. For example, U.S. Secretary of Defense Cheney R. four times gave orders to complete the financing of programs from the V-22, but every time the Minister's decision reconsidered. In all cases, the decision Defense Minister challenged the Congress. The main argument in favor of the continuation of the work was the desire to preserve jobs, as in the production of those VTOL or otherwise involved companies from 63 percent of federal districts of the United States. Also, there have been cases of indirect bribery of congressmen and senators of "Boeing" and "Bell". With all of this, even now there is strong opposition to the V-22, which considers that the helicopter Sikorsky CH-53K, which in 2013 are planning to adopt, is able to more effectively do all tasks assigned to a tiltrotor "Osprey". However, airspeed V-22 is twice larger than that of other helicopters, and it can carry three times the payload great compared with SN-46. "Osprey" on the flight range is 5 times greater than the CH-46 helicopter, which he has to change. Tactical radius of the V-22 "Osprey" — 648 km, which makes it possible to avoid basing tiltrotor in a particular vicinity of "hot spots" or strip the front.
For information about developing
U.S. Department of Defense in the late 1970s developed the preliminary requirements for the multi-purpose aircraft vertical takeoff and landing with rotating screws for the Army, Air Force, Air Force Navy and Marine Corps. The main developer of the aircraft on programmke JVX (Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental aircraft) in 1982, was selected by "Boeing helicopter" and "Bell". In January 1985, the VTOL aircraft was given the designation V-22 "Osprey". In this step, the price applets estimated at 2.5 billion dollars, and all the applets (taking into account the purchase of 913 vehicles) — to 35.6 billion dollars. In the upcoming number of VTOL aircraft procured in turn reduced, at first — to 657 pcs., And in May 1994 the number of planned production VTOL reduced to 458 serial konvertoplanov.
In 1986, a full-scale design. In the framework of the project put tiltrotor Bell XV-15, which in 1977 performed the first flight.
The construction of the first prototype aircraft with vertical takeoff / landing V-22 "Osprey" completed at the end of May 1988, 19 March 1989 took the first flight with a delay of nearly 8 months relative to the target date. In 1990, the third and fourth copies of successfully passed the 1st step of sea trials are performed on the "Wasp" — Dock landing ship.
In connection with the crash July 20, 1992 flight tests of prototypes stopped until August 1993. In 1997 he began flight tests of 4 pre-production V-22. In October 1999, began operational tests. After a 2-disasters occurred during the execution of programs from operational tests 8 and 14 April 2000, all flights ended up at 1.5 years, and only resumed in May 2002.
V-22 tests for the study of the regime of the "vortex ring" on a massive scale, compared with at least any other known rotary-wing aircraft. The effect of "vortex ring" described many times and is not new, unexplored phenomenon. The effect of "vortex ring" is shown at helicopters that fly with little forward speed, but dipping with great vertical speed. With all of this rotor blades start to get into the vortex flow, which was created earlier by the main rotor blades because the lift dramatically decreased.
During the tests revealed "extreme point", in which the machine fell into the "vortex ring". The first sign of "vortex ring" was marked by the vertical velocity in the lower 488 feet per minute and at a speed of 610 meters per minute effect of the "vortex ring" manifest absolutely. The tragedy happened when Marone vertical speed reduction of 670 meters per minute. In additional research, it was found that the tiltrotor mode "vortex ring" is manifested in a greater range of speeds and altitudes than helicopters. With all of this mode is the "vortex ring" occurs and is developing even faster.
Since VTOL aircraft can not land on in "airplane mode", the claim put forward by the Marine Corps, landing in autorotation with mechanical problems or failure of both engines seemed entirely logical. The Marine Corps in 2002 withdrew the requirement. An unnamed defense ministry consultant of the United States in its own confidential report for the year 2003 refusal to perform an autorotation landing was called "unacceptable" because "autorotation allows pilots to save their lives and the lives of passengers" and "is often used in a combat situation."
After the disaster itself and the testing program from the development of tiltrotor subjected to painstaking analysis. The conclusion was that for the development of the new system, instead of the V-22 will need a couple of years and millions of dollars cash costs, therefore it is better to quit program from the V-22, but the extra attention to the study of the regime of the "vortex ring" effect and the impact of land. Theoretical studies conducted NASA. Specialists Space Agency in November 2002 recommended a Perm. research challenges the "vortex ring", and delete landing in autorotation of the requirements for "Osprey". Apart from the scientific and technical problems, the analysis showed the negative impact of programs from "administrative resources" to work on konvertoplanov — different structures, interested in the program V-22, for various reasons, put pressure on the management of programs with a view to speed up the work.
Despite the suspension of flight testing applets, small-lot
creation of V-22 "Osprey" lasted, at first, to work out technical processes. Improved design of the device in parallel with advice from NASA, developed in the study of the circumstances of accidents in 2000. The design brought several hundred configurations, dealing priemuschestvenno, nacelles and refinement of the software. Made to the configuration take into account in the construction of vehicles "in the block" and sets "Block A" have been finalized.
29.05.2002 resumed flight tests, when the number 10 is a tiltrotor flight Patuksen River. Flying machine number 8 began 19.10.2002.
In the program of initial tests, which were launched in 1992, used 5 konvertoplanov — № № 21, 22, 23, 24 and 34. Number 21 — the first serial tiltrotor, modified to 'Block A », № 34 — the first MV-22B« Block A ». On the MV-22B № 34 (construction completed in August 2003) have reduced the weight of the construction, harsh changed the design of the engine nacelles and software.
Park konvertoplanov in 2003 programmke test flown 1,000 flight hours without incident. During the test again inspected the opportunity to create a tiltrotor combat maneuvering modes studied takeoff / landing, refueling method was worked out during the flight. Apparatus number 21 and number 22 did in the days when black flies systems. Also, the unit number 21, flew to Fort Bragg to test the ability of landing of people and cargo weighing up to 900 pounds by parachute. Tiltrotor number 24 in the period from December 2003 to April 2004 simulated ice reconnaissance in modern Scotland.
The ships held two rounds of testing. The main goal — to develop methods of landing on the ship. In January 2003, flying with the helicopter landing "Iwo Jima" was producing unit number 10, and in November of the same year — the ship "Valor" device made number 22. Step IVB initial tests (comparable vehicle and tiltrotor) was completed in June 2004. Tests for 8 days were near the coast of Maryland on the ship "Iwo Jima." During the test for the ability based on vessels that were conducted in 1999, revealed spontaneous krenenie unit during hovering over the deck. Krenenie unit MV-22B managed to avoid through reprogramming of the control system. The final step of ship trials, which bore the title "Phase IVC», held from 12 November 2004 for 10 days on the helicopter carrier "Wasp." During this step were involved tiltrotor number number 10, 21 and 23. During the test, examined the possibility of takeoff / landing ship in the black time of day, and the impact of soaring machine to machine, which was preparing for take-off, examined the possibility of repair and maintenance konvertoplanov on board. Flight tests have gained its own peak in 2004. To test programmke joined machine number 9, the upgraded version of a CV-22B. In Chinatown Lake on CV-22B in March 2004, inspected the comparability of avionics. In April of the same year, the first time after the resumption of flights V-22 "Osprey", practiced aerial refueling: the crew V-22 ITT (Lt. Col. Kevin Gross and Steve Grobsmeyer, test pilot offices "Boeing") in Pataksen River 5 times performed "dry" contact with the tanker. The unit number 22 was equipped toplivopriemnika fixed gear rod (length 3.35 m), and the unit number 21 — a telescopic bar (length in the extended position, 2.74 meters). In April 2004, at an air base Shirvater (Bimbo Scotia, Canada) tests were conducted on the icing: tiltrotor number 24 flew 67 hours, including 37 hours in the criteria of glaciation. Konvertoplanov Park in August 2004 with the resumption of flights flown in 2002, three thousand hours. In August of that year, according to flight test programs when flights are 9 units: 2 unit (№ № 7 and 9) at Edwards Air Force Base, 7 — at the air base Pataksen River. In the period from 29.05.2002 to 31.12.2004 was made 730 flights a total duration of 1,433 hours.
At an air base the Marine Corps New River in August 2004 began the formation of the squadron VMX-22, the main purpose of which was to conduct performance tests, which were entitled "Phase II». Number konvertoplanov statewide squadron was between 11 machines. 7-13 December 2004 Squadron aircrew fly to and from the dock landing ship "Kearsarge," continued the first training session of 2005, but then stopped due to neuvvyazkami bearings. Several konvertoplanov celebrated overheated bearings transmissions because crews did have to fit. After a brilliant bearings changed bearings that were not chromed, emergency alarm ended; flights resumed on February 7.
Initial operational tests (Operation Evaluation, OPEVAL) tiltrotor V-22 was carried out in various places, including air bases and Laika's Chinatown Pataksen River, Marine Corps Base in Arizona and North Carolina, Air Force base in New Mexico and Florida. Marine stages applets tests were carried out on various landing craft on the west and the east coast of the United States. We tested the fitness of a tiltrotor basing on ships, the ability to do combat missions in the interests of marines, to produce low-level flights (including flights with night vision goggles) to make in-flight refueling tanker aircraft from HC-130 transport cargo in the cabin and on the external suspension. In addition practiced formation flying. The main purpose of the tests was to verify the possibility of tiltrotor do the job in the criteria, close to the fighting. Even despite the irregular financing of operational tests, the first step is performed in its entirety, although tiltrotor was found to meet the total to 23 out of 243 operational characteristics to be evaluated.
The "new" step (OPEVAL II) operational tests took place in the period from 28 March to 29 June 2005. They were 8 MV-22B Block A. For the tests used Nellis Air Base, Bridgeport, New River, ranges in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California. Maritime step made in the waters of the Western Atlantic, with a landing ship dock "Bataan." Tiltrotor, based on the ship, doing puzzles at landfills in Mississippi, Virginia and North Carolina.
According to tests MV-22B Block A recognized applicable to the operation and meet all of the major aircraft and tactical requirements. The literature notes that a tiltrotor "Osprey" who graduated from operational tests in 2005, significantly different from the V-22, who participated in the initial step OPEVAL. The total flight time crews VMX-22 Squadron was 750 hours, including the least plaque than 3 months was 196 hours. Completed the 204 flight, including 89 flight (from take-off and landing ending) one hundred percent simulating combat missions.
During the test checks the operation of the system of planning a mission. This system allows you to enter the on-board control system performance tasks using a laptop and reprogram them during the task. Night operations performed less than planned
. The crews used night vision goggles only 6 percent of the flight time, of the 29 flights with the introduction of night vision goggles scheduled applets performed 12 trials (33 hours instead of 133).
The report for the second step of operational tests noted that the tiltrotor V-22 has significant advantages over helicopters, CH-46 (53), it is called upon to change. The benefits are greater speed and range, large payload, improved on-board systems, the smallest run-up to the task, the best navigation equipment, the smallest load crew during the flight, the lowest vulnerability to air defenses. It was also noted that there were four basic addressed prepyadstviya related to aviation safety, which led in 2000 to a loss of 2 konvertoplanov. Two of these problems directly related to the effect of "vortex ring". When performing tasks crews Squadron VMX-22 did not go to regimes that are close to the appearance of this effect. Exclude getting into these modes was possible thanks to the use of a revised strategy sets the V-22 and the introduction of configurations in the steering technique. With all of this, the report pointed to the need to modify the winch to lift people, a meteorological radar system and airborne defense.
Konvertoplanov suitability for flying was assessed by four characteristics: the number of flight hours before failure, which led to the cancellation of the flight (25 hours with 17 hours of the request), mean time between failures (1.4 hours while requiring 0.9 hours), the number of man-hours spent Preliminary work in 1 hour plaque (7.2 hours while requiring 20 hours); park serviceability (from 78 to 88% at 82%). 751.6 per flying hour was recorded 30 faults that were not compatible with an assignment as 552 medium and small capacity.
By the shortcomings attributed the lack of power conditioning system, in connection with which the cabin at high ambient air temperatures are very hot. It also indicates that a tiltrotor can not do autorotation landing in the event of failure of both engines at altitudes least 500 meters. Several professionals at the same time, this drawback is not believed critical because, as experience shows, even ordinary helicopter landing, particularly bearing load, in this mode is rarely successful. Despite this, most experts believe the requirement in autorotation landing of mandatory condition for all rotary-wing aircraft.
Evaluation of survival tiltrotor made on the basis of the risk of machine gun and 12.7 mm automatic cannon 23 mm, and different types of MANPADS. The proving ground for China-Lake programmke survival estimates completed 15 flights during which evaluated the ability of airborne laser and radar systems to detect and identify targets that are a danger to "Osprey". According to test results concluded the adequacy of the defense complex V-22 and issued a recommendation to install the rear ramp konvertoplanov Block in 7.62-mm M240 machine gun defense.
End of summer 2005 field test V-22 "Osprey" has stimulated the adoption of programs from series production 29.09.2005 konvertoplanov. According to the adopted program there, in fiscal year 2006 set out to do 11 cars, 2007 — 16, 2008 -24, and in 2012 the establishment was to reach the speed of 48 units per year. Total planned to buy 458 konvertoplanov "Osprey": 50 CV-22 and MV-22, 360, not counting the building was scheduled for 48 MV-22 for naval forces of the USA. At the company's Bell in Amarillo (TX) 08.12.2005 accomplished festive ceremony of transfer of the first Marine Corps MV-22 Block B (166491). This tiltrotor was the 19th, built in 2005, and the first MV-22B, which was intended for the armed forces.
The company "Boeing" has been creating the fuselage, landing gear, hydraulic and electrical systems, is also responsible for the integration of electrical equipment. The company "Bell helicopter stron-Tech" is responsible for the production of the wing, nacelles, empennage, dynamical systems, nadkrylevogo fairing ramp.
First 4 tiltrotor MV-22 LRIP (limited mass primordial creation, Low-Rate Initial Production) collected in August 2000. After the crash, which occurred in December 2000, brought into the design of a huge number of configurations, including changes in cabling and wiring hydraulic lines in nacelles, updating software flight control system.
The next 11 units of this series (9 MV-22 and CV-22, 2), ordered in May 2003, and 11 (8 MV-22 and CV-22, 3) — in February 2004, and 11 (9 MV-22 and CV 2 -22) — in January 2005. In September 2005 it was decided to launch a full-scale mass production. Hundredth tiltrotor V-22 passed to the customer in March 2008.
In March 2008 signed a contract to build 26 aircraft vertical takeoff / landing CV-22 and MV-22 141 for 5 years.
The tragedies and catastrophes
Due to an error wiring 2 of 3 channel gyro tilt control system when the first flight was lost fifth layout. Aircraft vertical takeoff / landing at a height of 4.6 feet touched the left nacelle earth appeared the fire and burned tiltrotor. Two people were injured.
During level flight, the right engine nacelle due to leaking hydraulic fluid builds up on the box. During the transition from horizontal flight tiltrotor mode vertical drop in the engine hit the hydraulic fluid, which was a prerequisite for the fire. 4th layout VTOL aircraft fell into the Potomac River. The fall of the following members of the U.S. Congress, which organized the demo flight. 11 people on board were killed, flying V-22 "Osprey" rebuked for 11 months. VTOL V-22 in theory capable of making vertical takeoff / landing at the 1 st engine, but in this case the fire damaged the clock propellers shafts. Critics applets they say that over the 17 years of flight tests ups / landing with one working engine never materialized.
With 2 "Osprey" with Marines simulated a quest for the evacuation of the black clock. V-22 in the same ranks to land in Marone, regional airport of the State of Arizona. The pilot of the driven machine has reduced forward speed, afraid to face with the lead helicopter, up to 72 km / h, a leading tiltrotor at all it was down to the great vertical speed (about 610 meters per minute
). At a height of 75 meters lift right screw sharply decreased, while the left created a screw lift is not changed. As a result, a tiltrotor turned over and fell to the ground. Killed 19 people on board. The official version of the catastrophe was called getting into the "vortex ring" due to the excess of the rate of vertical drop. There is a version that could be the catalyst for the tragedy slipstream made leading konvertoplanov, but this version is not deeply studied, because in this case the question posed ability to land on a group konvertoplanov. Vertical speed reduction 'Osprey' after crash restricted 240 meters per minute at a forward velocity of 70 km / h (this restriction is common for helicopters).
At the airbase New River (North Carolina) when landing after a night training flight at the time of the transition from flight mode vertical drop on konvertoplanov number 18 due to friction and vibration compromise the integrity of the hydraulic lines. Down came two of the 3 hydraulic systems. Immediately a few light bulbs on fire alarm in the cockpit. The pilot turned off / on the alarm system, in order to ensure its proper operation. The flight control system due to bugs in the software began to shake the car to cross the channel. The crew of 8 attempts have been made to return control, but they are not crowned with success. Unmanaged device fell into the woods near Jacksonville (North Carolina) from a height of 490 meters. Four people on board were killed. According to the results finalized after the disaster, in nacelles changed gasket hydraulic lines.
In the south of Morocco during joint exercises in the end disaster "Osprey" killed two marines who were on board. Two more were wounded.
Due to the failure of hydraulic vertical takeoff and landing were performed in the Washington area coercion landing.
End of August 2003
On the V-22 "Osprey» № 34 while flying at an altitude of about 2 thousand meters pulled manhole which has made the right vertical tail huge hole.
At the airbase Pataksen River during takeoff "Osprey» № 28 formed a powerful vortex, which raised the debris that struck the windshield glazing VTOL aircraft parked next to number 21.
In VTOL V-22 during a flight over the state of North Carolina on the left propeller came off of the blade, they cut the left wing of the plane. The crew had to make an emergency landing.
During the flight to "Osprey» № 10 due to a malfunction in the flight control system software appeared fluctuations. Upon investigation, the accident at the greatest value tilt in flight in the helicopter were imposed limit of 10 °.
Due to failure of the oil system V-22 "Osprey» № 43 performed an emergency landing.
Vertical takeoff and landing fulfilled ahead of landing on the landing craft "Iwo Jima" after the crew heard an unusual noise during the flight. The premise of noise was to break the oil cooler fan.
April 2004-January 2005
During this period, was performed 6 enforced landings associated with the alarm. In all cases, a prerequisite for the alarm was getting into the oil system delaminated particles brilliant cover bearing gear screws.
On the V-22 number 53 due to hydraulic leak ignited engine.
During the flight to the CV-12 is down-icing system, for 10-15 minutes flight was in the criteria glaciation. Chunks of ice to break away from the surface of the airframe, were damaged tail, engine and other design elements. "Osprey" has made an emergency landing in Prescott.
At the air base at New River land gazovke came spontaneously increase engine power. Tiltrotor scored 1.8 meters, then fell to the ground. One wing panel is damaged. Repair cost about one million dollars. The premise of the incident was a mistake in the installation wiring systems management engines.
When transatlantic flight from the United States to England (tiltrotor were to participate in Farnborough Air Show) on one of the 2-hoo "Osprey" braked right compressor motor. V-22 landed safely in Iceland. A week later, there was information about problems in the compressor motor of the second V-22.
Flights konvertoplanov V-22 Air Force and Marine Corps temporarily stopped due to software problem found in the work of the microprocessor. This failure could result in loss of maneuverability in flight.
Leaking hydraulic power water has become a prerequisite for a fire engine before takeoff. There is evidence that in December 2006 at the New River Air Base took a severe fire MV-22.
During a deployment to Iraq one of the 10 konvertoplanov MV-22B performed in Jordan coercion landing due to a malfunction of morals which are not reported. The unit continued to perform after the repair of the flight, but the crew broke off the job and returned to Jordan to re-repair.
Tiltrotor MV-22, part of a squadron VMMT-204, due to a fire that appears during a training flight at Camp did Lune coercion landing. Nacelle fire came in the 1st of the engines. "Osprey" has received severe damage, but no one on board was injured. The premise of the incident was to flow in the hydraulic motor filter. In the screen-exhaust device hit the fluid cause a fire. According to the results of a flight accident completed improvements on all V-22 Block A, leaking hydraulic filters on the devices in Block excluded from the design stage.
Operation and implementation of martial
Tests tiltrotor in the Marine Corps began in the first half of the 1980s on the basis of the squadron VMM-263. 03.03.2006 decided that the squadron VMM-263 is the first aircraft in the Marine Corps konvertoplanov rearmed. First V-22 "Osprey" (serial number 73) squadron passed in April 2006. Until the end of 2008 was re konvertoplanov 3 tactical (VMM-162, VMM-263, VMM-266, Air Base New River, North Carolina), training (VMMT-204) and test (VMX-22) Squadron. Crew training 71 Squadron special purpose military and the U.S. Air Force (Air Base Kirtland, New Mexico) was supposed to conduct the squadron VMMT-204.
VTOL aircraft MV-22, the first Marine Corps squadron were armed with VMM-263 «Thunder Chickens» in 2006. In June 2007, she headed for the initial state of readiness. Earlier, armed squadron consisted CH-46, about a third of the flight personnel had the experience of combat use of helicopters in Iraq. In the pilots Squadron comes two ladies.
Two devices MV-22 squadron members of the VMX-22 (konvertoplanov crews managed companies "Boeing" and "Bell") in July 2006 completed a non-stop flight across the Atlantic to take part in the
Farnborough Air Show. VTOL aircraft in preparation for a trans-Atlantic flight by flight do with the air base of New River (the place of dislocation Test Squadron VMX-22), at the Miramar air base in California. To overcome the route length of 3990 km was spent 9 hours. Revolving trip took 8 hours. Flights took place at the height of 4,3-4,9 km at speeds of 440 to 550 km / h Tiltrotor specifically before the flight to London were transferred to Goose Bay, Newfoundland. During the trip across the Atlantic V-22 "Osprey" accompanied with 2 refueling aircraft KC-130J.
10 MV-22B from the squadron VMM-263 of the Marine Corps in October 2007, was transferred to Iraq. Squadron to the Gulf of Norfolk delivered landing craft "Wasp", the last part of the way to overcome tiltrotor 'own power. " Before deployment to Iraq were conducted intense exercise in the criteria of the desert air base in Yuma, Arizona.
In Iraq, the squadron was on the air base of Al-Asad. Initially, Al-Assad was oriented 10 MV-22, later they added another 2 cars. Squadron VMM-263 entered into the Third Marine Air Wing. In al-Assad was the headquarters wing. In October-December 2007, the crews of the squadron VMM-263 in the criteria equivalent to the fighting, have flown 1,650 hours, transported 315 tons of cargo and 6,800 people. Total Time Spent per squadron in Iraq was carried out 2.5 million jobs, transported over 700 tons of cargo. Suitability konvertoplanov to fly was in the range of 50 to 100%, but, according to Lieutenant Colonel Rock, squadron commander, only one or twice to perform the task failed because of the lack of VTOL applicable to flights. Usually 7 of 12 MV-22 is applicable to flights. The average service time is 1 hour flight was 9.5 hours. Average kazhdomesyachny raid on a tiltrotor was 62 hours (this figure before deployment to Iraq was 50 hours).
Within 6 weeks of the continuing 30-minute readiness to fly around the clock supported three crew and two tiltrotor. Tiltrotor in the night from 24 to 25 December 2007 took off after the receipt of the order in 15 minutes. Purpose to the job was the delivery of marine in the infirmary (the fighter suffered an acute attack of appendicitis). Crew (second pilot — Sarah Fabrisoff, lady) task was performed safely. Marines were taken to Al-Assad from the point, which was south of the base 125 kilometers. Flight took place at an altitude of about 2.7 km to the introduction of infrared survey frontal hemisphere and moves the indicator with the map of the area. On the flight from take-off until landing, it took 56 minutes.
Apart from the crew of the transport problems were worked out combat training tasks on the transport of infantry Iraqi army, with all this in-flight accompanied by a tiltrotor helicopter Bell UH-1N and Bell AH-1W squadron members in the U.S. Marine Corps HMLA-773. Under fire from the enemy tiltrotor VMM-263 fell only twice. Once fired from a small-caliber machine gun shooting, in the second time — of the RPG-7.
After Squadron VMM-263 sent to Iraq for 12 konvertoplanov MV-22B from VMM-162 and VMM-266. The squadron was based on a rotational basis in Al-Assad. Konvertopolany used to transport goods and people as well as for the implementation of the "armed reconnaissance" when the enemy was detected from the air, and its destruction was in the forces produced konvertoplanov landing.
In May 2007, the squadron VMM-263 returned to the United States to a place of constant dislocation at the air base of New River.
In April 2009, after 18 months in Iraq tiltrotor MV-22B had been withdrawn. Squadron «Fighting Griffin» VMM-266 left Iraq last. For a half years in Iraq, VMM-266 flew 3,040 hours, transported 15,800 passengers and 189 tons of cargo.
According to Colonel Matthew Malherna manager programs from V-22 Command aviasistem Navy U.S. success in Iraq introduction konvertoplanov eclipsed all expectations. Tiltrotor under fire from the ground fell sporadically, no machine has received battle damage, but the March 24, 2009 the entire fleet konvertoplanov flights were discontinued after technicians Squadron VMM-266 on one of the machines was found weakening of bolting to the swash plate right nacelle. Inspection carried out after the pilots were marked by "sharp" noise and excessive vibrations during everyday flight. Inspection 84 "Osprey", all the units are in operation, has permitted to find such deficiencies by another 4 konvertoplanov who were in Iraq, and one passing regulations for the air base the Marine Corps Cherry Point. Flights resumed after the end of the inspection, but the time of the inspection was increased daily for an hour.
Implementation konvertoplanov in Iraq has caused excessive wear on certain parts of the structure. It was assumed that the first will be subject to wear and tear of the propeller blades, but the Iraqi desert sand is so fine that does not actually have a negative impact on the blade, but stuffed in blocks-by-wire control system and other electrical equipment, causing a rather short-circuit or causing false alarms about the tragedy. According Malherna, these failures came as a surprise. Engines Rolls-Royce «Liberty» AE1107C, installed on the MV-22B, supplied with hydraulic filters Engine Air Particle Separator (EAPS), suctions out vozduhopoglotiteley foreign particles. Tiltrotor sent to Iraq were revision, during which the filters are supplied with sensors that disable the filter when a leakage of process water, as these leaks have already become a prerequisite for a fire at an air base in New River. But the software in some cases the filters are switched off during take-off because of invalid alarms alarm sensors from the massive vertical air currents. As a result — the engines AE1107S "Liberty" is unreliable because of their falling into the sand. To prevent leakage of hydraulic proposed transfer hydraulic lines in places that are less susceptible to heat from running engines.
Shortage of power and low reliability of engines in the criteria for the heat does not come as a surprise. Less than 7 months of service in Iraq on the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing MV-22 changed more than 6 engines. Colonel Malhern during a meeting with representatives of the industry did not rule out the ability of the coming change existing engines engines created for the CH-53K helicopters. Company Rolls-Royce lot of time has been criticized because of the low reliability of the engines mounted on the V-22. With all of this some experts believe that low reliability is not associated with the construction of engines, and from the power plant is being operated on konvertoplanov. The engine T406-AD-400 was developed on the basis of turboprop engines installed on aircraft C-27J and C-130J, and well-proven in operation. Experts called the premise of low reliability of the engines hit the outside of the particles at takeoff / landing, which differ from konvertoplanov inflated dusting. Dusting helicopter at take-off or landing is the norm, but for the tiltrotor this effect is enhanced. Rotor helicopter drops the air flow is reversed, while the screws tiltrotor make two streams, one of which i
s thrown back, and the second is thrown in the direction of the fuselage. Flow directed toward the fuselage, leading to an increase in "zapylyaemosti" engines and spins the load placed on the outside of the suspension. In this regard, a tiltrotor MV-22 carrying cargo on the outside of the suspension only in exceptional cases.
Fear caused relatively rather weak defensive weapons — a 7.62 mm, mounted on a ramp. This fear, as it turned out, were in vain. The crews of MV-22B from ground fire went through a sharp acceleration and climbing. Crew commander of the 1st of konvertoplanov said: "The speed from 0 to 320 km / h I can increment in just 10 seconds." Survival is also promoting the visibility of the smallest speaker V-22 "Osprey": if the helicopter off the ground audible at a distance of 16 km, the tiltrotor — 3 km.
Operating experience of the V-22 "Osprey" in Iraq has generally been considered successful. But, despite this criticism note the following facts:
— aircraft vertical takeoff and landing were used in areas where there was a low activity of the enemy, and it is a tiltrotor in Baghdad did not fly;
— a huge part of takeoffs and landings made on runways with a hard coating;
— the vast majority of jobs — transport flights between air bases;
— Iraqi expedition can not be equated to "test under combat conditions";
— comparable low reliability, which is inherent in all the latest models, the V-22 "Osprey" is a cop-out, as this tiltrotor is not "new" machine: the first flight was made in 1989, and the creation of a batch was established in 1999 — V -22 "older" military transport aircraft C-17;
— low reliability of the units, assemblies and parts made of composite materials, predicted well in advance, so as to deploy MV-22 in Iraq sent there parts in the amount of 100 million dollars, and to help the squadron VMM-263 in the maintenance of the real part has seconded 10 of the most experienced professionals "Boeing";
— to avoid falling into a vortex ring modes developed innovative planting technique: vertical takeoff and landing was part of the landing on aircraft and switched to hover in the vicinity of a particular land before the touch, this technique is applicable only in lowland areas (such as the deserts of Iraq) but it is unlikely that this technique will bring to an urban or mountainous areas where visibility is very limited;
— Data on konvertoplanov no offensive weapons, although the Boeing Company in 1999 it announced successful testing of the ventral machine-gun turrets. But from its setting on the serial devices abandoned in connection with the construction of the entire apparatus of overweight — the rejection of this weapon has permitted to save about 450 kg. Accommodation machine guns in the cockpit cargo-impossible because of small square windows of the cab and the screws on the wing tips;
— machine gun mounted on the ramp has a small field of fire and lacking in caliber to serve it during the flight uncomfortable;
— because of the helplessness of airborne weapons may not be covering fire 1st tiltrotor others, for example, during the evacuation under fire, the type of strategy that is used by helicopters CH-53, having on board armed with 12.7mm machine guns;
— in connection with the probability of occurrence of vortex ring regime ruled Simultaneous planting 2-V-22 "Osprey", if the distance between konvertoplanov does not exceed 75 meters;
— aircraft vertical takeoff and landing are vulnerable to fire, even from rifle-caliber guns, as all three lines of hydraulic systems are laid side by side together in parallel;
— winch for lifting people missing.
The reliability of the anti-icing system causes fear. It is not designed to work in the criteria for significant negative temperatures (which are peculiar to mountainous regions of Afghanistan in winter). Anti-icing system, which consists of more than 200 pieces, designed to operate an aircraft in the criteria that are close to the formation of ice on the elements of the design, but not in the criteria when it is inevitable. As the colonel Malhren, anti-icing system tribute was never properly worked, and system failures are of a permanent nature, but because of contact with the wiring of water or anti-icing system of mechanical failure caused the highest centrifugal loads created by rotating propellers. Malhern summed up: "The system itself is good for themselves, but some of its elements — are unsatisfactory."
According to the results of operation of the V-22 "Osprey" in Iraq, Government Accountability Office (GAO, Government Accountability Office of the United States) in its own report noted that konvertoplanov demonstrated the versatility required of him, but the price of the flight hours in two times higher than estimated, is also not Failed to check the machine's ability to do certain tasks battle. In this light, the role of the V-22 in combat operations in the province Gelmland for applets is generally considered critical. It is noted that the criteria of high mountains and heat tiltrotor demonstrate excellent flying characteristics.
Tiltrotor MV-22B «Osprey» 04.12.2009 enacted specific role in combat operations in Afghanistan. 2 tiltrotor MV-22B included in the squadron VMM-261 operated in a combat group of the Marine Corps, "Raiders", providing a landing unit of the Third Battalion of the 4th Marine Regiment from helicopters Sikorsky CH-53 in 3 pt landing in Helmand province. Landing landing was made without enemy fire from the enemy. Total airlifted 150 Afghan army soldier and 1,000 U.S. Marines. In the upcoming MV-22B lured to transport troops in the interest of, to perform the same tasks as for medium-lift helicopters.
In November 2009, 10 konvertoplanov from the VMM-261, stationed at the air base of New River (North Caledonia), were transferred to Afghanistan. Combat readiness of the park "Osprey" in the middle is 82 percent, but the combat readiness in Afghanistan uniformly managed to bring up to 80 per cent, was tasked to bring it to 90 percent.
The Air Force planned to buy 55 aircraft vertical takeoff and landing CV-22, but later reduced the number of units purchased up to 50 pieces. It was assumed that the first four CV-22, intended for use in crew training, adopted the 58th training squadron (Kirtland Air Base) will arrive in 2004, and in September of the same year 6 cars 8th Squadron (AFB Halbart Field ) achieved an initial alert, the supply of the whole Party should finish in 2009. In 1998, the programm has been revised to speed up deliveries — all the machines on a brand new plan had to be transferred to the customer in fiscal 2007. Receipt of CV-22 on the armament of the U.S. Air Force is very delayed due to 3-disasters also delay programs from flight tests.
In March 2006, the Air Force received the first CV-22 was created to carry out combat missions. In 2007, a tiltrotor entered service Eig
hth Squadron special operations forces. 06.03.2009 Special Operations Forces Command of the Air Force and the United States reported to the achievement of the initial state of readiness Eighth Squadron special forces, armed which had 6 STOVL CV-22B. The initial state of alert was declared after the 4 CV-22 was teaching in joint exercises United States and 15 allied to the United States of Africa in Bamako, Mali. V-22 "Osprey" performed non-stop flight to Africa and back, using aerial refueling. Meanwhile demonstrated the ability of independent operational deployment to all regions of the world. Four CV-22 on the African continent were in a month. During the exercises tiltrotor tossed special forces soldiers from Senegal and Mali.
MV-22 "Osprey" — multi-purpose aircraft vertical takeoff and landing, which is in step design meant to operate in the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps. Later, the United States Army to the V-22 VTOL aircraft lost enthusiasm. The main customers are the tiltrotor Air Force and Marine Corps aviation. STOVL variants, which are created for the Marine Corps and Air Force, are almost identical. The basis for all subsequent modifications — MV-22B Block B. CV-22B, a modification to the Air Force, from the MV-22B is different, priemuschestvenno, on-board equipment. MV-22B and CV-22B are similar in design to the airframe by 90 percent, according to the power plant — a 100 per cent, electrical equipment — by 40 percent.
VTOL 'Osprey' makes taking off and landing in the helicopter and fly horizontally like an airplane. The transition between "helicopter" and "airplane" mode by turning the engine nacelles filled with a huge three-bladed propeller diameter and mounted on the ends of the wings. Vertical takeoff / landing when the engine nacelles are made at an angle greater than 85 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the machine. Sustained flight likely if the nacelle located within the boundaries of 0-85 degrees. Flight "on aircraft" is set at zero angle of the engine nacelles. "Osprey" is designed to take off and land with one engine running. VTOL aircraft are not capable of doing these operations on aircraft.
"Osprey" has a high wing, which has a small corner of the reverse sweep and twin-finned tail. At the ends of the wings are mounted rotary engine nacelle having a three-bladed propellers.
Wing caisson type with a constant chord (2.54 m) and 2 spars. Wing almost completely made of composite materials grafitoepoksidnyh. The lower and upper skin panel have a seamless design. Three-section of the wings socks are made of duralumin alloy and have a honeycomb filling "Nomex". The wing is mounted on top of the fuselage at the 2.31-meter radial bearings made of stainless steel. The support provided by a reversal of the wing along the fuselage of the aircraft in case of placement of vertical take-off and landing on the deck of an aircraft carrier.
The fuselage of semi-monocoque design has a rectangular cross-section. Fuselage length V-22 — 17.47 meters. The fuselage is in fact one hundred percent made of composite materials, the weight of the fuselage V-22 — 1800 kg. The sides of the fairings are made that serve to retract the main landing gear, and equipment are located in the fairing air conditioning and fuel tanks. Three-crew cabin is located in the nose of the machine. The cab has bronekresla which can withstand contact 12.7mm slugs also to overload 14,5 g in the vertical direction and 30 g in the longitudinal direction.
In the cargo-passenger cabin may be transported 24 fighter in full gear. In the front part of the fuselage on the right side made two-piece front door (the lower section folds down to the outside, top — up inside). On the lower section has an integrated ladder. At the rear of the cab there is a ramp is lowered.
Twin-finned tail completely made of material grafitoepoksidnogo of Hercules AS4. The stabilizer (8.22 m2 area, wingspan 5.61 m) is mounted on the tail fairing. The total area of 2 vertical fins of 12,45 m2.
Chassis — retractable, tricycle, with a nose support. Landing gear has twin wheels. Nasal surfaces clean in the front compartment of the fuselage by turning back the clock. Major support was removed in the fuselage side fairings. The chassis has a structure which is designed to fit a rate of 4.5 meters per second. The wheels supplied with the main pillars of disc brakes. Track width — 4.62 m.
Materials of construction: fraction of composite materials in the airframe — 59 percent.
At the end of the wing to rotary gondolas installed gas turbine turboshaft engines T406-AD-400 (AE1107S) of Rolls-Royce. Most continuous power per motor 6150 HP (4400 kW). Nacelles are rotated in the range of 0-97 degrees. AE1107S an annular combustor 14-stage axial compressor, a two-stage power turbine and two-stage gasifier turbine. The engines are equipped with a digital control system FADEC company Lucas Aerospace and analog (emergency) electrical control system.
To reduce the visibility of the V-22 in the infrared range of the nozzle engines equipped with exhaust shield-devices company AiResearch.
The engines are equipped with three-bladed screws. These vanes are made of composite materials based on glass fiber and graphite. The diameter of the rotor is 11.6 meters.
The screws are connected between a synchronizing shaft which is laid inside the wing. Nacelles are rotated hydraulic motor with helical drive.
There are 13 tanks of fuel bays. In both parts of the front fuselage fairings on a tank-bay (the total mass of fuel being placed in these bins 2,860 kilograms), the back of the right fuselage fairing has one-compartment tank (925 kg fuel). In the wing box placed 10 tanks of compartments: 2 outer are used as consumables (305 kilograms) in each of the other eight tanks located on 227 pounds of fuel. Fitting centralized refueling pressure is on the nose right wing, the upper surface of each wing has one fuel cap. In the forward part of the fuselage on the starboard rail mounted refueling system during flight. To perform ferry flight auxiliary fuel tank 3 can be installed in the cargo compartment.
To control the helicopter during flight mode use control system and collective pitch repeated propellers. Lateral control in cruise flight at the expense of the differences 2-outer elevons. For the longitudinal control is used single-section stee
ring wheel height (4.79 square meters) for sensible — 2 elevator located on the vertical keels. The control system control surfaces-wire, drive — hydraulic.
Lift consists of 4 sections elevons (total area — 4.12 m2), an outer pair of which is used to control the slope.
By means of a handle repeating steps (knob) mounted in front of the pilots seats, engines and control levers mounted to the right of the pilots seats. On arms control engines flywheel is changing the angle of the engine nacelles.
On the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing is the 2nd major-independent and 1 spare hydraulic system (working pressure of 350 kgf/cm2). Electrical system consists of a 2-AC generators (power 40 kVA), 2-AC generator (power 50/80 kVA), rectifiers, inverters, battery. Socks fins and wings are equipped with anti-icing inflatable protectors. The front edge of the vozduhopoglotiteley engines, coca screws, blades and windshield glazing booths equipped with electric heating.
Modifications CV-22B and MV-22B have similar main-board electronic systems. In the flight control system has a triple redundancy. Radio communication equipment consists of a radio communications system ARC-210 (V) having channels of satellite (SATCOM), UHF and VHF communications. UHF channel is locked loop. In the navigation equipment includes instrument landing system VOR, receiver satellite navigation system GPS and tactical navigation system TACAN, radar altimeter and inertial navigation system with triple redundancy.
The cabin has 6 mnogofuknktsionalnyh colored indicators that are compatible with night vision goggles. IR Vision System frontal hemisphere AAQ-27 Mid-Wave-length Infra Red (MWIR) is installed at the bottom of the forward fuselage.
Cargo-passenger cabin and cockpit have a system of protection against weapons of mass destruction (the air is filtered in the interior creates unnecessary pressure).
Board defense consists of APR-39A (V) — Receiver warning about electrical exposure, AVR-2A — Receiver laser warning, AAR-47 — warning devices on missile launches. Sensors receivers AVR-2A and AAR-47 installed in 4 sectors of the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing. Devices chaff of ALE-47 shooting and thermal traps are located in the side sponsons fuselage used for shooting handheld or one of the 6 pre-programmed automatic modes.
In the forward part of the fuselage CV-22B is a functional radar APQ-186, which provides flying at different times of day in different weather conditions. Sector antenna scanning station ± 40 ° in azimuth, from -40 to +23 ° in elevation. Also on the CV-22B carries two more stations ARC-210 (V) and a multi-purpose tactical terminal (Multi-mission Advanced tactical Terminal, MATT). Board defense CV-22B enhanced 4th additional blocks of shooting traps that are set on the sides of the fuselage behind the nose landing gear compartment, and the rear side sponsons. On the CV-22B receiver warning about electric irradiation APR-39 is replaced by a set of integral counter in the radio SIRFC, which is capable of automatically pelengovat, organize, and display on the map radio sources (operating radars). CV-22B STOVL to counter missiles, equipment thermal GOS has a system of staging directed infrared interference AN/AAQ-24.
Basing on aircraft carriers
To reduce the space that occupies a VTOL aircraft on a ship propeller blades are folded along the wing, and the wing unfold in a clockwise direction along the fuselage. To fold the rotor blades and turning the wing needs 90 seconds.
At the lowered ramp M240 machine gun 7.62 mm. In the future tiltrotor can be armed with a 12.7-mm machine gun on the turret.
The company BAE Systems in January 2008 signed a contract with the commanders of special operations forces of the Air Force United States to integrate into the design of the V-22 "Osprey" remotely operated defensive Remote Guardian System (RGS, radial firing system). RGS system with a machine gun GAU-17 Minigun 7.62 mm mounted under the fuselage tiltrotor on the outside of the suspension instead of the mount cargo. The turret is put forward after takeoff from the fuselage and removed before planting, to release / cleaning takes 2 minute. Is used to control the turret joystick aiming camera is a means to screen. System RGS, designed for flight and ground tests for the first time has been set to "Osprey" in February 2008.
— Length when folded — 19.23 meters;
— folded width — 5.64 m;
— fuselage length — 17.48 m;
— wingspan and rotating propellers — 25.78 meters;
— diameter screws — 11.6 meters;
— height with nacelles mounted vertically — 6.74 meters.
Weights and loads:
— maximum take-off during a vertical take-off — 23,860 pounds;
— maximum take-off during take-off with a running start — 25855 pounds;
— the required load — 8460 kg;
— on the outside of the suspension — 4540 kilograms (in the case of double hinged system — 8150 kg).
Supplies of fuel tanks located in the interior:
— CV-22 — 7710 liters.;
— MV-22 — 6513 liters.;
— in the cockpit in 3 additional tanks — and 1630 l ..
— best rate of climb at sea level — 975 meters per minute;
— the maximum speed — 463 meters per minute;
— service ceiling — 7.62 km;
— service ceiling at the 1 st motor — 3140 meters;
— range with 24 commandos on board without refueling — 720 km;
— ferry range with refueling — 3.9 thousand km.
The crew tiltrotor — 3-4.
— control cabin — 2-3 people;
— cargo-passenger cabin — 24 paratroopers and borttehnik (12 placed the wounded on stretchers.)
Two radio stations and an integrated set of anti SIRFC in the radio interference with the transmitter.
Modification of the CV-22 tiltrotor intended to spoof helicopter MH-53J Pave Low, and of refueling aircraft MS-130p Combat Shadow MC-130E Combat Talon is capable of special operations military and the U.S. Air Force. In its own requirements for this modification, the U.S. Air Force specifically mentioned with the ability to produce long tiltrotor flight time of the day in the black and in the criteria of meteorological conditions at low altitudes with high precision navigation with maintaining the route of flight and time of access to the data point. CV-22 can deliver to evacuate from the area, either in his 18 special forces soldiers in full gear. It is noted that most of the jobs konvertoplanov CV-22 will do the NIGHT MODE or / and in adverse weather criteria.
Apart from the basic structure of airborne radar equipment are foll
owing the terrain and the shooting of two units of thermal traps.
The naval forces of the United States have developed their own requirements for the modification of the V-22 "Osprey", which received the designation HV-22. Tiltrotor designed to provide vessels and ships at sea, and to carry out search and rescue operations. VTOL HV-22 should change the search-and-rescue helicopter HH-3. U.S. Navy in April 2004 changed the designation of "their" modifications to the tiltrotor MV-22, as in Marine Corps aviation.
For naval forces have been working on SV-22, which was intended for anti-submarine vessels in the far and middle zones.
U.S. Navy and Marine Corps presented the stringent requirements for these aircraft based on the aircraft vessels (landing ships, docks, landing helicopter). Specifically, the requirements regarding the size of the unit (accommodation below deck and hangars for samoletopodemnikah). Since the diameter of the screws and wing span V-22 elected on the basis of the requirements of security when you are in take-off configuration on the flight deck of the small gap between the peninsula and the add-drive screws on one side (32.5 cm) and cut the deck and turn the screw on the other (12, 7 cm).
U.S. Army studied the question of the ability of the acquisition of 231 UV-22 tiltrotor intended to conduct electronic warfare, transport, carry out search and rescue operations in the criteria of enemy opposition. Tiltrotor UV-22 were also to change planes RC-12, RU-21, OV-1, and some others.
Army has mentioned the ability of the machine to raise loads weighing 4,600 pounds (2,086 kg) for 4 hours to make the flight at an altitude of 30 thousand feet (9144 m) at a speed of 400 km / h These requirements imply the creation of a larger than for the Air Force and Navy aircraft weighing about 18 million kg, Curb thicker engines. The U.S. Army in the spring of 1983 revised the requirements and left the applets.
There are reports that interest in the MV-22 showing the air forces of Israel, which imply a tiltrotor use to carry out search and rescue tasks, and in the interest of special operations forces.