Ten of the most incredible mysteries of the solar system. Despite the fact that every year there are new inventions to studying and gaining knowledge of the cosmos, much is still unknown and unstudied.
10. Inconsistency temperatures at the poles of the Sun
Why is the South Pole colder than the North of the Sun? In 1990, the space was launched spacecraft "Ulysses." This is the first device that studies the sun, not only from the ecliptic plane (equatorial), but also from the poles. "Ulysses" was held at a height of over six Jupiter radii, walked out of the plane of the ecliptic (the plane in which the planets orbit the Sun) and headed first to the areas of the interplanetary plasma from the Sun's south pole, and then to the areas of the North Pole. The device worked for more than 17 years, the spacecraft sends information about the Sun, the solar wind and the poles. Since the design life of the machine has long gone, due to it already almost there.
Among the scientific results found curious fact that the South Pole colder than the North. Using a spectrometer onboard the ship SWICS analyzed the composition of the solar wind, fixing the relative abundance of oxygen ions O6 and O7 + +, which is an indirect indication of the temperature of the gas. In this case, Ulysses remains quite safe distance of 300 million km from the surface of the sun. Since the temperature was set poles of the Sun: about a million degrees Celsius. The difference in temperature at the poles is 7-8%, which equates to 80 million degrees.
Scientists are most surprised by the fact that the temperature difference does not depend on the magnetic field of the sun (even when, in the course of the 11-year solar cycle, its pole shift). Physicists believe that the structure of "atmosphere" of the sun's poles are different. But the question remains open.
9. Mysteries of Mars
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Why did the Southern and Northern hemispheres of Mars so different?
The southern hemisphere littered with craters. The surface of the northern hemisphere has a few craters and a large part consists of extensive volcanic plains. Scientists explain such a strong contrast to the cerebral hemispheres of the planet Mars, the consequences of a collision with an asteroid the size of Pluto. According to another version, at an early stage of geological lithospheric plates "gathered" (perhaps accidentally) in one hemisphere and then "frozen" in place. Anyway, the difference between the hemispheres is still a matter of debate.
Is there really a curse of Mars? According to many sources, something paranormal takes down all our ships on the proximity of the planet. Statistics show that about two thirds of all space missions have failed. Russian missiles were being abandoned spaceships to Mars, out of order. U.S. satellites were broken in the middle. British triggers cell phones after landing on the Red Planet have not filed any signal. Maybe that's it — just folk tales. Or corny escaping from the hands of luck. Anyway, most of the spacecraft sent to Mars have been lost.
8. Tunguska phenomenon
What happened near the Tunguska River? Remember, as Fox Mulder made his way through the Russian forest: this time it is not an episode of "The X-Files." June 30, 1908, about seven o'clock in the morning local time, over a huge area of Eastern Siberia in the area between the Lena and the Stony Tunguska River in the south-east to north-west from the Sun flew a large fire spherical outer body. Eyewitnesses described the dazzling bright light that was visible for several hundred miles. In seconds, the blast in a radius of about 40 kilometers of forest were knocked down, destroyed, animals, people have suffered. At the same time due to light exposure for tens of kilometers around the flared taiga. Started a fire destroyed the little that survived the explosion. Solid inrush occurred 80 million trees over an area of 2,150 sq km. Space storm for many years has transformed the once rich vegetation and game taiga into a sad graveyard of dead wood. It was a disaster. But from the impact of cosmic bodies are not formed no crater. What is actually dropped on us from the sky?
There are many hypotheses to explain the Tunguska phenomenon. Some scientists believe that the explosion was caused by the detonation of natural gas, a burning meteor had entered the atmosphere. There are even some strange hypothesis, as the explosion of UFOs. The solution is complicated by the fact that none of the many expeditions did not end the discovery of a meteorite.
7. The slope of the axis of rotation of Uranus
Why is Uranus rotates "on its side?" If other planets can be compared to spinning tops, then Uranus is more like a ball rolling: the equatorial plane of Uranus is tilted to the plane of its orbit at an angle of 97.86 degrees. This gives a completely different from the other planets in the solar system the process of changing seasons. Each pole is 42 Earth years in the dark — and another 42 years under the light of the sun. We also know that almost all of the planets rotate counter-clockwise (as viewed from the North Pole). Only Venus rotates clockwise. Thus was born the theory that the reverse rotation of the planet was due to collision with a huge cosmic body. Maybe Uranus was the same?
Some scholars disagree, and this version. And some see the reason in the influence of Saturn, Uranus and Jupiter. Further study is required.
6. The atmosphere of Titan
Why does Titan have an atmosphere? Titan — Saturn's second largest moon in the Solar System (after Ganymede, a moon of Jupiter). In addition, it is the only moon in the solar system with a dense atmosphere, and the only satellite, the surface of which can not be observed in the visible due to cloud cover. Titan is similar to Earth, though inferior to it in size. Pressure on the surface of Mars is 160 times smaller than the Earth. On the surface of Venus — about 100 times greater. The pressure at the surface of Titan is just 1.6 times the pressure of Earth's atmosphere. Also, the atmosphere Titanium consists essentially of nitrogen gas (about 95%) and is the closest in composition to the Earth's atmosphere (compared with other bodies of the solar system.) But where did this nitrogen, both on Earth and on Titan? It remains unknown.
Why is the crown surface of the sun hot? The outermost, most tenuous and the hottest part of the solar atmosphere — the corona. It can be traced from the solar limb up to distances of tens of solar radii. Despite the strong gravitational field of the Sun, it is possible thanks to the tremendous velocity of motion of the particles that make up the crown. Corona has a temperature of about a million degrees while photosphere has a temperature of about 6000 degrees. But how does this happen? If you turn an ordinary bulb, the air surrounding it still will not be very hot lamp. The closer you get to the light source, the hotter is, not colder. In the case of the Sun we are faced with exactly the opposite phenomenon, which is contrary to all the laws of physics.
4. Comet dust
As at high temperature, ice comets form dust? Comets — are small icy celestial bodies having a foggy view, orbiting the Sun usually elongated orbits. When approaching the Sun the ice begins to evaporate and form the comet's coma and sometimes a tail of gas and dust. Presumably, the long-period comets fly to us from the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud, which contains millions of comet nuclei.
January 15, 2006 Capsule "Stardust" with priceless samples of Comet Wild-2 made a soft landing on the ground in Utah. Comprehensive analysis of the material was subjected to a comet. Main conclusion is that comets have a much more complex structure than anticipated. The real surprise was the discovery that most of the substances — is clearly a cold material from the outskirts of the solar system, but about 10% was formed at high temperatures. It is not known where did these 10% if the comet did not come into the inner Solar System.
3. The Kuiper Belt
Formed as the Kuiper Belt? Solar System beyond the orbit of Neptune. In this region there are a large number of space objects, the most famous (but not the largest) of which is Pluto. The Kuiper Belt is poorly understood. American spacecraft to reach the belt only in 2015. In the meantime, left to wonder why in spite of theories of objects in the Kuiper belt suddenly decreases at a distance of 50 AU
According to the assumptions outside mark 50 AU there is a lot of space objects, but they are not grouped, so they can not be seen. There is one more strange version: in the Kuiper belt flew a huge celestial body about the size of Earth or Mars, which is actually "bold" all the objects that were found there. This version has no evidence and is only spread rumors about the existence of the planet's X-Men. And the mystery of the existence of the Kuiper Belt and was not disclosed.
2. The anomaly of the "Pioneer"
Why Pioneer ships off course? Apparatus "Pioneer 10" (launched in March 1972) and "Pioneer 11" (launched in April 1973) — is the most famous series devices. They are the first to reach the third cosmic speed and first explored the deep space. At both times, scientists have noted a strange fact: the ships somehow deviated from the course. The deviation was small in astronomical terms (about 386 thousand kilometers after traveling 10 million miles). And the first and the second time, it was the same. Scientists find it difficult to give an explanation for this.
1. The Oort Cloud
Is there an Oort cloud? This is the biggest mystery. If in the Kuiper belt, we can still observe a large space objects, the Oort cloud is too far away (more than 50 thousand AU from the Sun). The Oort Cloud — a hypothetical Solar System, serving as a source of comets with a long period of treatment. Instrumental existence of the Oort cloud is not confirmed, but many indirect evidence points to its existence.