Sea mines — tested instrument of deterrence
The world's media for weeks now discussions are asked to state whether Iran to block the Persian Gulf and trigger a global oil crisis. The command of the South American fleet assures the public that would not allow such a development. Military observers counted all of the quantitative and high-quality ratio of the ships and aircraft of possible enemies. With all of this virtually silent on mine arms, and in fact it can be specifically Persian trump card.
Mine FACTOR IN THE HISTORY OF WAR
March 31, 1904 a Japanese mine blew up the battleship "Petropavlovsk". Coupled with the battleship Admiral Stepan died Osipovich Makarov. With the death of the commander of the active conduct of Port Arthur squadron ended.
In August 1941, during the evacuation of Tallinn to enemy mines Baltic fleet lost 12 warships and 30 transports.
In the years 1944-1945 due to the presence of mines in the Gulf of surface ships of the Baltic Fleet almost did not take part in hostilities.
In October 1950, the South American fleet had lost dominance in Korean waters, because the Yankees ran into mines that Koreans put up with fishing junks.
In 1972, the Americans decided to undermine the Vietnamese waters near the port of Haiphong. Mine productions North Vietnam was absolutely blocked from the sea nearly nine months.
Usually, a third world country can not without help defuse mines, instructions, by themselves, in the process of local conflicts, and requests the superpowers.
For example, from March 1972 to June 1974, a group of Russian ships under the command of Rear-Admiral Sergei Zuenko mine clearance in the port area Chittagon, whose waters were mined during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
In October — November 1973, Egyptian Navy in the Straits Gubal Inker, the Chunnel and the Gulf of Suez put minefields in 5 lines. They had to trawl the detachment of ships of the Pacific and Black Sea fleets. Trawling was carried out in the period from July to November 1974. On the Mediterranean coast of Egypt were doing similar work trawlers Western states.
In 1984, during the Iran-Iraq war, someone has installed mines in the reddish sea and the Gulf of Suez. During July — September 1984 were blown up by mines 19 vessels. This caused a significant reduction in the flow of ships through the Suez Canal. Usually once a day passed through the canal about 60 merchant ships, but in August, the number dropped to 42.
Urgent reddish sea were oriented 18 ships from four NATO countries: USA, UK, France and Italy. There also headed a group of Russian warships led by the helicopter carrier "Leningrad". French vytralili 10 ground mines, the British — one and the Italians — not one.
During the Gulf War in January — February 1991 (the "Desert Storm"), the Americans and their allies were not able to land marines in southern Iraq because of the threat of landmines. Iraq has made mining the northern Gulf, particularly on the outskirts of the coastal areas desantoopasnym Kuwait. Iraqi mines detonated on the South American helicopter "Tripoli" and cruiser URO "Princeton" and the destroyer "Paul Fosner" bumped into an old Japanese mine that did not explode.
In trawling these mines was attended by naval minesweepers and helicopters, minesweepers the U.S., the UK, Belgium and Germany. In January — February 1991-th they were vytraleno 112 minutes, in the main Russian production, such as AMD, KMD "Crab". Yet, until the end of hostilities, no unit of Allied troops was airlifted to the saved.
OUTLOOK mining the Strait of Hormuz
Well, what is the prospect of the introduction of mine guns in the Persian Gulf? Let's start with the fact that this represents a bay. Its length is 926 km (according to other sources 1,000 km), the width of 180-320 km, the average depth of least 50 m, maximum — 102 m The entire northeast Preserving the Gulf, in other words around 1180 km — Persian. It is mountainous, steep, making it easier to defend and placement of missile and artillery batteries. The most vulnerable point is the Strait of Hormuz. 195 km length of the Strait. Strait comparable shallow — maximum depth 229 m, and in the wake of the depth to 27.5 m
At present, the movement of ships in the Strait of Hormuz is carried out on two transport corridors width of 2.5 km each. Tankers coming into the bay, walk down the hall close to the Iranian coast, and the counter of the Gulf — in another corridor. Between the corridors is a buffer zone of 5 km. This area was created to avoid a collision of ships colliding. As we see, the Persian Gulf as a whole and the Strait of Hormuz — namely, perfect testing ground for the introduction of all types of sea mines.
During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988 the two sides, starting in 1984, stormed the neutral tankers en route to the Persian Gulf. In total, the process of "tanker war" was attacked 340 vessels. Most of them were attacked by boats and aircraft, and in some cases were fired coastal artillery or missile installations. Minelaying conducted very limited. Minami was damaged two ships in 1984, eight — in 1987, and two — in 1988. Note that the restriction of the use of mines was not due to the technical and the political reasons, as both sides argued that the storm only vessels calling at the ports of the enemy. It is clear that the mines produce a similar selection is not in order.
16 May 1987 on the way to Kuwait blown Russian tanker "Marshal Chuikov." The tanker was damaged in the underwater area of about 40 square meters. m Due to the excellent condition of watertight bulkheads ship is not lost.
April 14, 1988, 65 miles east of Bahrain on an old anchor mine exploded standard 1908 South American frigate "Samuel Roberts' displacement of 4100 tons. During the five-hour struggle for survival crew managed to stop the ship afloat. South American frigate repair cost taxpayers $ 135 million
At the moment not enough who hesitates, in the case of a large-scale attack on Iran will start its naval mine warfare unrestricted throughout the Gulf, including, obviously, and the Strait of Hormuz.
Severe Cannon IRANIAN SAILORS
What are the standards of mine own guns Iranian Navy? I'm not sure that it has a list of the Pentagon. Mines, like ships, tanks and aircraft, easier to hide, including the delivery of third-country nationals. There is reason to believe that Iran has a majority of the samples after the war min. He could buy them both in the USSR and in the newly formed republics. Recall how Iran obtained missiles "Squall" from the factory "Dastan" in Kyrgyzstan. In addition, Iran could get mine through Libya, Syria and other countries.
What after all is a modern mine?
One of the better traditional mines made in the SRI-400 (since 1991 — "Gidropribor") became the UDM-2 (universal ground mine), entered service in 1978. It is designed to deal with all classes of ships and submarines. Statement of minutes can be performed from the ships, and with military and transport aircraft. With all of this production is done from an airplane without a parachute system that provides tremendous secrecy and the possibility of setting mines with low altitudes. In case of contact with land or shallow water mine self-destructs.
Mina UDM-2 is equipped with a three-channel proximity fuse with acoustic and hydrodynamic channels and has a multiplicity of devi
ces and urgency.
Length of mines 3055/2900 mm (air / naval variant), the caliber of 630 mm. Weight 1500/1470 kg. Charge weight 1350 kg. Shallow depth of the place of 15/8 m, and the maximum — 60/300 m time of combat duty one year, as, in general, and the other Russian mines.
In 1955 he was accepted into service aircraft floating mine APM. Mina designed by NII-400 under the control of FM Milyakova. It was an electric & mine machine is held in this recess pneumatic flotation device. Mine had a two-stage parachute system, consisting of a stabilizing and main parachutes.
Mina APM ensured the defeat of a surface ship with the impact of his body on one of the four electric & fuses mines located in its upper part. Flotation device, powered by compressed air, ensure retention of mines in this opening with an accuracy of ± 1 m of supplies compressed air provided a period of military service personnel mines up to 10 days. Mina was intended to be implemented in areas with depths greater than 15 m Slow ship, to ensure reliable operation electric & fuse — 0.5 knots.
Improved floating mine MNP-2 was created in 1979 in SKB Engineering Plant. Kuibyshev in Kazakhstan under the control of JD Monakova. MNP stands for mine neutral buoyancy. The adjective "floating" disappeared from the name, because the floating mines were banned by international agreement.
MNP-2 is designed to destroy surface ships and submarines in the harbor or at anchor near the coast, and for the destruction of various types of hydraulic structures. The carriers are self-propelled underwater mines special purpose funds managed by frogmen. Yourself "tools" are delivered to the introduction of ultra-small area of combat or ordinary submarines.
Length 3760 mm mines, caliber 528 mm. Weight 680 lbs. Weight of 300 kg of TNT. The range of diving depths from 6 to 60 pm The residence time of the water in the firing position — up to 1 year.
Back in 1951 there was a decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, number 4482, in which a work plan for the SRI-400 with 1952 cut in the development of reactive-pop mines "Flounder." By decision of the management of the institute sent a group of officers designers NII-3 Navy, headed by BK Lyamina.
During the work on this topic Lyamina was created first in the world of the near-bottom jet-pop mine, which received the title of the ASO. It was adopted by the Navy Council of Ministers Decree № 152-83 of 13 January 1957.
As a stripper in a mine ASO applied passive-active acoustics that detects and systematized goal gave the command to separate the warhead and rocket motor launch, deliver a warhead to warhead section to the surface of the water at the surface target location.
Dimensions mines ASO were: length 3.4 m, width 0.9 m, height 1.1 m Mina posing with surface ships. Weight 1300 kg mines. Weight explosive (TGAG-5) 300 kg. Mina could be installed to a depth of 100 m width of the zone response fuse 20m
But the width of the response of the ASO has been recognized by the lack of control of the Navy. In the coming-based mines MRC was created anchor reactive-pop aviation maloparashyutnaya mine RM-1. On the arms it was adopted in 1960 and became the first universal Target mine-missile providing defeat as surface ships and submerged submarines.
In 1963 he was adopted by the benthic anchor pop-reactive mine PM-2. Mina created by NII-400. Its diameter 533 mm, length 3.9 m, weight 900 kg, the weight of 200 kg of explosives. Depth setting mine 40 — 300 m Blaster active acoustic. Mina was put out of torpedo submarines.
Anti-submarine mine-TMR-1 rocket became the first Russian mine-homing of broadband rocket. Initially it was intended to destroy submarines submerged, but could hit and surface targets. PMR-1 was created in 1970 in the SRI-400 running LP Matveev.
Statement of mine made of torpedo submarines or dropping over the stern from the decks of surface ships. PMR-1 is a mine anchor consisting of a compound between a reactive-charger and device-mechanical units, as the anchor.
Rocket-battery compartment is a solid-fuel missile, at the head of which are the explosive charge and the electrical equipment of military channel. In the department of mechanical instrumentation located control system power supply, mines and tilting mechanisms installing it on this recess, the drum with a rope, and more.
After reset mine under the influence of negative buoyancy sinks and when the depth of 60m run time unit. After working part-time is reset casing connecting the two offices, then given to the anchor, and begins winding minrepa. After a set time bomb is in the deployed position.
At the entrance to the enemy submarine in a terrible area mines cut one direction-finding system that works on the principle of sonar. Electric acoustic equipment determines the direction of the boat, and includes a sighting. Hydraulic tilt mechanism induces reactive battery compartment on the target, and then issues a command to start a jet engine. Explosion of the charge made by non-contact or contact fuze.
The highest speed of the rocket and small time traffic — from 3 to 5 — preclude the use of anti-countermeasures or evasive.
Overall length 7800 mm mines, diameter 534 mm, weight 1.7 tons, the weight of the charge of 200 kg. Depth setting mines from 200 to 1200 m Life 1 year.
In the late 1960s, in the SRI-400 was created several versions of mines TMR-1: MPR-2 TMR-2M, 2nd of PMR.
American min more exciting samozaryvayuschayasya mine "Hunter". It can be installed from aircraft, surface ships and submarines. Once positioned on the bottom of the mine digs into it with the help of special devices, and the outside is only the antenna. Mina could be in "deep sleep," state till 2 years. But at any moment can be activated by a particular signal. Case made of plastic mines. After activation, dual fuse detects enemy ship and released on his homing torpedo Mk-46 or "Stigrey."
Note that the design and mass production of lightweight model "Hunter," even without a homing torpedo on the forces of any country, much less Iran. Well, most of the bottom of the Gulf muddy, making it easier burying torpedoes. Visually it impossible to find any diver, no special unmanned vehicles — the seeker min.
Statement of all the above types of mines can lead Iranian planes, helicopters, boats and ships are different. With the assistance of mine guns and artillery and missiles shore installations and ships, aircraft and Iran has the potential to completely cover the shipping in the Persian Gulf. At the technical level, this is entirely feasible, we need the political will.