Volyn prince — a victim of Biron or secular brawler?

Among historians, there is a controversial professor, but not unreasonably look at the history of how the fate of a string of descriptions of individuals who have made significant contributions to society. Outlook, of course, one-sided and limited, but, nevertheless, is not without shred of unbiased truth, because now we want to offer appeal to a biography of the 1st of the representatives of the Petrine era and its fate during the "bironschiny." The life story of this man is a reflection of the change of epochs, and it allows the analysis to make certain conclusions about the atmosphere that prevailed in Russia in the period of palace coups.

Volyn prince - a victim of Biron or secular brawler?

Artemy Petrovich Volyn cabinet meeting

Artemy Petrovich Volyn belonged to the old generous old, born in 1689, although the precise date is not known. Due to the loss of reliable information about a certain age of the man some historians point to different years. Childhood upcoming municipal worker and rowdy passed in the usual criteria dopetrovskogo home. Designated event along with the cruel God-fearing upbringing left a profound imprint on the personality Artemy Petrovich. But the serious nature of his father, also an everyday gentle prayer is not cooled the ardor of the young Volyn. Artemy temper was not just difficult, it was a clever man, but a sharp and even explosive.

Reaching nearly 15 years, Volyn sails away to serve in the regiment of dragoons and in 1711 participated in the Prut campaign with the rank of captain. Bold, professional guy quickly stand out from the masses, resulting in his remarks Peter A.. The samples represent Artemy Petrovich stupid and rude man, taken by some historians, are unfounded. One is that Volyn was highlighted king, is a confirmation of working. Peter I do not tolerate fools, considering them one of the worst ills of the country. Accommodation regal person was obtained in almost all due to the fact that in 1712, hitting with his commander Shafirov prisoner in Constantinople, Volyn remained committed to the Russian Federation and the emperor.

In addition, Artemy Pavlovich was oriented to the king of Persia as an ambassador. The essence of the assignment was to study the municipal unit and the principal conclusion of trade agreements on the provision of certain benefits of the Russian Federation in the trade. For the effort and brain Volyn was promoted to Adjutant General, which was the highest honor of the court, even for high-born prince. In 1719 Artemy Pavlovich waiting for a new post of governor of Astrakhan. The energetic and youthful governor had put the administrative affairs, held a series of economic events disposition. The activities of the Volyn focused at providing and organizing the Persian campaign.

The credibility of the Artemy Pavlovich was growing with every new business and enterprise. In 1722, his illustrious career, and goodwill on the part of the house have allowed pravitelskogo ask the hand of his cousin Peter I, and get that blessing. The wedding was held with all the on-luxury, but the rise is not too far Volyn suit everyone. Soon the "well-wishers" whispered the emperor that the troubles in the campaign against Persia, there is a noticeable wine Artemy Pavlovich. The governor for a long time rejected the similar version, but was soon proven that bribery and fortune turned on the successful dignitary.

According to contemporaries, Peter A. was furious, and even beat the mean citizen's own baton. It should be said that the love of gain was characteristic of Volyn, it was a fatal flaw in his nature. After such shameful punishment Artemy Pavlovich removed from the midst of political events, but he did not take bribes did not. Avoid serious trial, in general, failed, as ascended to the throne of Catherine was kind to the offending, but deserved bureaucrat. The Empress thought of his wife Alexandra Lvovna Naryshkina and appointed guilty Volyn governor of Kazan and the head of the local Kalmyks. Experience in the administration's Art Pavlovich was enormous, and he coped well with the set puzzles. But even in this period because of its passionate and even a few violent temper was removed from office, which he was to return to assist Cherkassky and Dolgoruky.

Incontinence and frequent fits of anger still forced the government to shift from the position of Volyn Kazan governor in 1730. How unfortunate it did not sound very smart and professional administrator could not keep control of their behavior and often got involved in heinous skirmishes and even fights, and bribery has taken temper robbery. Unusual property to think and consider mixed in this man with a complete lack of tact and some self-control.

Again to the state of Artemy Pavlovich was held under the patronage of his own benefactor davneshnego Saltykov, who, in all likelihood, and advised his candidacy Biron. Levenvold, Biron and Munnich for Volyn were only a means to the merits of the prestigious and profitable post, and he shared political views are quite different. Tatischev, Khrushchev and other hidden enemies "German clique", criticizing the dominance of foreigners and offering their own projects transforming the country, have been frequent visitors to his unpretentious home. Artemy Pavlovich name fool was a big mistake on the part of the famous historian Shishkin. A sharp mind of this man has promoted position at first to discover all the German elite that surrounded Anna Ivanovna, and then the Empress herself. Homage to the mental level, experience and merit Prince was so important that he said goodbye sharp expressions and too straightforward even for a very influential persons. Munnich considered to a certain time of his faithful servant and his "light head" of. Special love wayward Empress, Prince earned for expertly cooked marriage at the Ice Palace, which then strolled legend.

Immediately to the development plans of the internal changes that are so necessary, by the views of Volyn and his associates, in Russia, Artemy Pavlovich engaged in the siege of Danzig in 1733 as commander of the detachment, in 1736 received the title of Chief Master of the Hunt, and in 1737 is the second minister in Nemiroff. Failure Volyn was only in the fact that it has become a tool in the fight against Biron Osterman, and the instrument is very unpredictable and narcissistic. Prim and restrained the Germans could not take a hot character and vices of the Russian prince, despite his bright head. Soon it became cumbersome and unsafe even for the mighty Biron.

The fact is that apart from the rest suffered Volyn and excessive ambition. Approaching the Empress and understanding it, to say the least, lack of education, which was particularly noticeable in deciding cases of local significance, the prince became more claim to be the first person in the country. In 1739, he made perhaps his most important mistake — submitted a letter to Anna Ivanovna, to expose him as a patron. Trying to reports on Biron was aggressively suppressed, and Volynskii fell out of favor. Byron refers to policies and vengeful and vindictive attempt betrayal own protege not forgiven.

From now on, the influential Teuton begins to rapidly stimulate the quick-tempered character Volyn, what helps him the court jester Trediakovskii. First of next year, provocation fails. Tred
iakovskii referred to the public Artemia Pavlovich Rusak, alluding to his political views and an ambulance disgrace. The severity of jokes expressed that by associating with one of the prince beloved hunting prey species Empress Trediakovskii expressed his assumption about the fate of the upcoming Prince, emphasizing its importance for small pravitelskogo yard. Ambitious prince failed to remain measured and not counting swear words, according to one myself, but for other means of its own servants, beat prankster. The fight took place at the residence of Baron Biron of Courland, which was the basis for his righteous indignation and complaints Empress. In its own appeal Biron pointed out that Artemy Petrovich became not only unbearably rude, but unconscionable pugnacious, as a result of the last removed from the cases.

But stop the Baron was not going to because Anna Ivanovna, according to unconfirmed reports, still nourished some sympathy for the wayward competitor. Byron decided to use the discontent of the Empress, and reminded her of the sample moralistic and didactic tone, even the guilty citizen, but the ruler of all hesitated. Then, at the request of a German were conducted audits and reviews on a post Volyn, resulting immediately identified numerous thefts. Sin was a natural, and acting imperial laws were supposed to inflict guilt over the tribunal. Prince placed under house arrest, but he behaved as before, trying to expose their own opponents.

But Artemy Pavlovich, as already mentioned several times, was never fool and soon realized that the situation is developing in the wrong direction. Influence the course of events, he could not, and wait for help was not coming from. Soon began torture. One of the servants of the prince, named Basil Kubanets apparently bribed, gave testimony about a certain komplote and that the organizer has been specifically his sire. Soon, many of the coming environment is also recognized under the brutal torture of guilt and intent to overthrow the Empress. In his testimony even appeared information that the Volyn he decided to ascend the Russian throne. As the evidence used and the works of Prince, based on Utopia T. Mora. Despite the fact that he prince in komplote not admitted, he was found guilty. The sentence was very cruel. Artemy Petrovich was decided to land at stake, for the previously cut out tongue.

Empress varied and at the time the sentence, which once again proves that it was a favor to men of ill-fated. Her decision was made under pressure from Biron and only on the third day. Anna of all the same to commute the sentence, replacing the count amputation of the hand and head. Some historians they say that the substitution of the 1st kind of the death penalty on another brand is not grace, but in this case it was particularly condescending. Planting of the offender for the count was the most violent murder and murderers so obsessed with this kind of torture that could delay the process for several hours. Especially prized executioners capable introduce woody count so makarom that more time execution victim remained alive. The fact that the mighty Biron will find craftsmen so terrible acts empress know, because the substitution was specifically mercy.

The execution took place in public in the area are satisfying market. Artemy Pavlovich went to perdition with your head held high, but cut out the language to ask for forgiveness because the old Russian custom of the people he did not have. His head was cut off a memorable day in the Battle of Poltava, to which was executed June 27, 1740. The light head is a devotee of the Russian Federation, but the cantankerous Prince fell with a thud on the wood platform. It was a moment of triumph "bironschiny" on Russian soil.

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