In the late 80's. last century to "Admiralty Shipyards" for the Russian Navy has built two small submarines special purpose project 865 'Piranha' development SPMBM "Malachite". Refinement of these submarines in the country on the path of collapse, has proved to be troublesome. But in the end, these small ships full of water displacement 319 tons and a crew of 3 people were very nice. They had low levels of physical fields, good maneuverability and significant depth of immersion (200 m), are ordinary were in control. Boats were armed with 2 torpedoes and mines in containers, transported 6 frogmen. In the memory of millions of Russians, these submarines were due to film Alexander Rogozhkina "Features State Fishing", in which the heroes tape "evacuated" to "Piranha" with the Finnish coast forgotten there crates of vodka. Unfortunately, the role of the "smuggler" was the last in the life of the project MAT 865. In 1999, both boats were sent to the scrap heap.
But designers SPMBM "Malachite" have left the theme of small submarines. They have developed a whole portfolio of projects MPL displacement from 130 to 1000 tons
At small sizes, these subs are carriers of various weapons, including torpedoes and mines, and on the larger boat types P-550, P-650E and F-750 would be the location of cruise missiles "Movement-PL» (Club-S) or BRAHMOS class "Underwater boat-ship "and" submarine boat-land. " In other words, under certain circumstances, they can make even the strategic tasks. Modern electrical equipment allows them to detect targets on time and with anticipation to storm the enemy. Low levels of noise and electric fields contribute to very low visibility.
MPL Project 865 'Piranha'.
The highest mobility is obtained due to the introduction of low noise propeller rotating nozzle and a spare propeller system of 2-outboard control columns. With this boat can practically spinning in place.
Another important feature of small submarines — the highest degree of automation of command, control and operation of ships. And this is not the case. "Malachite" — the world's favorite in the field of comprehensive automation submarines. MPL crews are made up of only 4-9 people, which made quite a comfortable living. Apart from the regular team of boats taking up to 6 frogmen with full equipment.
MPL of this family can be equipped with modules with auxiliary air independent (anaerobic) power plants (VNEU), which are significantly increasing the range of the submarine. This is worth a special mention. Specifically for the "piranha" in the late 80s. last century St. Petersburg Special Boiler Design Bureau (ICBC) was created airindependent, in other words independent of the items to the atmosphere, power plant "Kristall-20" power of 130 kW. This VNEU with chemical generators (ECG) for energy uses hydrogen and oxygen. The process of installation, at first glance, simple. With the assistance of hydrogen and oxygen, which is carried out through a special membrane that act as the electrolyte, the electron current is generated and appears distilled water. Transformation of chemical energy in the electron occurs without combustion, without any mechanical action and that the submarine is especially important, silently. Efficiency actions VNEU with ECG achieves 70-75%. In 1991, after extensive testing VNEU "Crystal-20" has been accepted by the customer — the Ministry of Defence. But soon followed by the collapse of the USSR, then neither Innovative energy installation or submarines, equipped by them, were not suitable.
The method of tapping module VNEU MPL U-550 is converted to a microstrip T-650E.
Meanwhile, according to the calculations of professionals Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute. AN Krylova, autonomous underwater submarines with ECG 450% greater than that of conventional diesel-electric submarines. And in the near sea zone on an aspect of the "cost — effectiveness" VNEU boats with dignity and to have a nuclear-powered ship. The latter event is fundamentally important as modern naval concept of divine deployment of submarines priemuschestvenno not on oceanic communications, and off — their own or others'.
Can not say that in Russia forgotten about air independent systems. ICBC much effort and money to develop izderzhalo VNEU second generation "Crystal-27", created for the submarines of Project 677 "Lada" and their export version "Cupid." Specialists ICBC found a unique way to equip submarines hydrogen. This gas is not stored in the tank and not in liquid form, and in the intermetallic compound (alloy metal with a high content of hydrogen), which has sharply increase operational safety. But due to lack of funding the installation failed to bring.
At MPL U-750 are mine with cruise missiles.
For the creation of anaerobic systems with ECG in 1998 came from CDB ME "Rubin" with Rocket and Space company "Energy". As a result, a model set RG-99, which provides embedded in a special compartment "Lada" or "Cupid" and provide a boat length dive to 20 days. Installation promised to be a common and economical to operate. But one event confused: cryogenic storage of flammable components — hydrogen and oxygen are placed in containers in the same compartment. After the nuclear disaster Underwater boat "Kursk", who died as a result of the explosion of watery fuel leaked from the warped torpedo, the interest of the installa
tion RG-99 dramatically abated. And this project was almost closed. And the whole issue by VNEU was assigned to the ship's Central Research Institute of Electrical Engineering and Technology, where due to the lack of research on anaerobic appropriations installations are of a more theoretical nature.
Meanwhile, the whole civilized world had gone too far in advance. Submarines with VNEU now commercially built in Germany, France, Sweden, Greece, Spain, the land of the rising sun, and South Korea. Get accustomed to them and the Americans, who are often invited to "discover" and submarine exercises with anaerobic plants from the zabugornyh fleets. And for the introduction VNEU them a lot of time is not useful. They just buy the necessary technology. But we know who they are unlikely to sell.
Small Iranian Navy submarine.
Recreating the designers and manufacturers working on VNEU, — A matter of great state significance. Development of the newest plants based on anaerobic VNEU "Crystal-20" and "Crystal 27" probable. And the placement of such engines in the first step on the small submarine, of course, will be conspicuous landmark in the development of the Russian submarine.
But back to the MPL. Overriding "their environment" — coastal waters, shallow water and island. But they are very good divers. The depth of their dives ranging from 200 to 300 m Cruising range is 2,000 to 3,000 miles, and autonomy — from 20 to 30 days. For example, we present the tactical and technical elements of the larger Underwater family boat — type P-750. Her normal displacement — 960 tons (1060 tons — airindependent with module installation), length — 66.8 m (70.4 m) diameter housing — 6.4 m, total underwater speed — 17 knots, range — 3,000 miles, range of continuous underwater speed — 280 miles (1,200 miles), depth — 300 m, autonomy — 30 days, the crew — 9 + 6 frogmen.
Of particular interest is the structure of weapons. In this submarine four 533-mm torpedo tubes from which you can not just shoot torpedoes, and cruise missiles. Recharging the sea torpedo tubes are not available. But they are constantly ready for immediate use for the single and salvo firing. At MPL has also 8 torpedo tubes 400 mm anti-submarine torpedoes. S-750 is capable of taking up to 24 minutes in the bottom outboard minnosbrasyvayuschih devices (LSG). And, in the end, on the boat can be up to 4 vertical launchers with cruise missiles, including the type of 3M-14E complex Club-S, designed for strikes on coastal targets which are at a distance of 300 km. In other words, these subs are applicable not only to repel attacks from the sea, and were themselves able to face the enemy's location. And in general arsenal P-750 is superior armament of many larger submarines. To equate these boats in Class "small" even a bit awkward. After all, the average Submarine "Pike» III series Lofty Russian war era was 705 tons submerged displacement, maximum dive depth of 90 meters underwater speed of 2.8 knots. And armament consisted of 10 torpedoes and 45-mm cannon.
"These boats (meaning MPL — approx. Edition) may, within 2-3 years to make up the combat, the Baltic, the Black Sea Fleet and the Caspian Flotilla — highlighted in an interview," RIA Novosti "Vice-Admiral Viktor Patrushev. — Four to six of these submarines are one hundred percent overlap are closed or semi-enclosed areas, like dark, Baltic and Caspian Sea. It is surprising that up to now the Ministry of Defence does not direct any attention to them, although their advantages are obvious though what naval experts. "
Indeed, in the Baltic and Black Sea fleets of diesel-electric submarines is almost gone. Their number is estimated in several units that do not make the weather in the maritime theater. And in the Caspian none at all, although this sea is very volatile region, and the situation there can change rapidly. For example, Iran does not cost anything to throw back their vehicles, small and midget submarines of the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.
Small submarines Ula Norwegian Navy watch the movement of Russian nuclear submarines in the Barents and Norwegian Seas.
MPL on the Pacific Ocean and the Barents Sea are able to do puzzles exploration surrounding the Russian waters, provide wiring secretive nuclear submarines in active service. They are in fact an indispensable for building anti-submarine barriers in coastal waters. Here it is necessary to refer to the experience of NATO. Specifically, small diesel-electric submarines Ula Norwegian Navy are best Zahav PLO in the Atlantic. They watch over the movement of Russian nuclear submarines and the first to transmit data about them to the appropriate service headquarters and NATO.
Victor Patrushev directed attention to an event that took advantage of MPL inflated enthusiasm among representatives of a number of navies Near East and South-East Asia at the International Maritime Defense Show in St. Petersburg. On the eve of the IMDS-2009 Head of the Department of the Navy "Rosoboronexport" Oleg Azizov, answering the question of the magazine "National Defense" (see number 6/2009) as to why the small Russian submarines so far "do not sell" on the international market, said "In my opinion, the reason yavna. Our homeland has provided experience in the design, construction and operation of small submarines. But it is not a secret that in the current time of the Russian Navy submarines in its composition has not. Their mass construction is suspended. " In other words, the absence of MPL in the Russian Navy harms military-technical cooperation between Russia and other states.