Silhouettes of 15 tanks, 15 ultra-modern machines just stood out in the pre-dawn twilight. The back was a night march, and ahead … front — line of defense of the Nazis. What awaits there Soviet tank company? For her, 26 km forced march was too much trouble, but oh so infantry, if people do not go flat? Do not fall behind if they are from the tanks? Whether accurate intelligence information? If the Nazis managed to equip the turn on the captured gun emplacements? After a few hours, all will become clear.
It's time. Engines roared. Captain Armand tanks surged forward.
Paul Matissovich Arman was not French. He was born in Latvia, but the child lived for a couple of years in France, and the first identity card got there, hence the unusual name. Before the war, was the commander of a tank battalion in Bobruisk.
Anti-tank weapons of the Nazis was not only the armor peas poured machine gun fire. "The machine gun — the worst enemy infantry" — this is written in the instruction, and the tankers combed seen emplacements fire and caterpillars. Infantry all the same behind. Can not be delayed, and will lay zasekut aircraft or artillery. Retreat? Captain Arman was quick to solutions. At the commander's tank flashed boxes: "Do as I do" — and the tanks rushed forward. That's outskirts. Reid Russian tanks, no one expects, and of the Nazis in intelligence reports not. Tanks rushing with open hatches in the lead vehicle — Arman.
Suddenly, from the corner runs the Italian officer, waving his arms, shouting something. "This was taken for his" — Arman realized. Slapped tank hatches. Nazi infantry battalion is not lucky. Rolling wheels on the pavement, flying debris trucks, the surviving fighters are hiding behind stone fences. But the Nazis quickly run up opamyatovalis, flying bottles with gasoline, the rooftops of the surviving pulls a gun. The commander knows that in a town of armor to wage war can not be immediately burned. The new solution — we go on. The tanks are carried through the town, on the outskirts sweep two artillery batteries.
And here is the Italian tanks. Little duel — and three "Italian" glow, the other 5 retreated. Our tanks shooting them would not hurt.
Continue to operate behind enemy lines risky, and of ammunition for the final. Roth again permeates the front line, now working in the area.
Infantry for a day and not the Nazis broke the defense. After the withdrawal of tanks revived the surviving guns, enemy aircraft swooped … Fight failed. Although Armand can be proud … that report to the commander?
But the brigade commander Krivoshein not upset. Not all that bad. The tanks are intact, the loss is small, and most importantly — the coming of the Nazis stopped. And Colonel Ravens reported that the auxiliary direction — success. The busy two nodal railway station.
In the anthracite-black sky glow brightest stars. Turret gunner seriously wounded died — got out to cut the telephone wires. Clangs iron, rushing shadows of portable lamps — is tinkering with technology tanks.
Day ends October 29, 1936.
Yes, yes. It's not a typo. Time acts — in October 1936, the place — the town Seseña, south-west of Madrid. Now it's title says, we do not, and then it was very basic.
How many times have started the second global?
In a strange time we live. People are realizing the most sacred dreams of Hitler, reward each other with the medal "for the fight against fascism." Oh, would update — "for the struggle with fascism." But this is the way.
In the European tradition, considered the beginning of the second World War, the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. The Chinese (remember, this is not just a civilization, one of many, it is a quarter of the world's population) believe the war so called "incident on the bridge Lugoutsyao" July 7, 1937 — the beginning of the open land of the rising sun rage against China. And why not? Surrender in the second world war Japan has signed and to China in particular, no separate capitulation was not, was not and is a separate war.
Americans is almost officially considered the start of World War II Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) — indeed, only now, in their awareness, European and Asian merged into a global war. In this position, too, has its own reason.
But in order to find the exact date of the beginning of the war, you need to understand who drove her and why.
Who fought the war?
In what was still a sense that war? Why the same coalition were often very good apart peoples why one country has performed a predator, the victim, the fighter for justice in so uncompromising a collision? In uncompromising — in the literal comprehension of the word. Not so quite a few wars culminates in complete liquidation of military-economic potential and political and military elite of the parties.
I do not want to cause extensive explanations, then they have no place and no time. But for me, of course — all the same it was a scramble 2-ideologies. And ideologies are very common. 1st — people are made equal. 2nd — people are not made equal. From the second ideology is not indisputable consequence — that once people are not equal, they may be higher or lower than a birthright, and higher can solve their problems at the expense of the low.
Who were the main carriers of the first and second ideologies, let the reader guess pochetaemy.
The complexity of the situation is that people often do not give themselves to report what exactly is the ideology they profess. Thus, the founding fathers of the United States, writing in the beautiful words of the Constitution of the equality of people, were themselves slave owners. After all, negros, in their awareness, people were not quite! Because some country far away did not immediately determine in which they camp.
What is called "the anti-Hitler coalition," it was a very diverse company. Many people took part in it, frankly, did not immediately and under the influence of a "roasted cock", the major powers, and even "get in the face" for the support of Hitler, as, for example, Romania. Some, being ideologically close to Hitler and even participate in some of his actions (such as pre-war Poland), then for some reason turned into a "lower". Only one government — the Soviet Union — led war against the fascist bloc in fact since its formation until the complete defeat, almost nine years.
"Fascist" as the unit was very defined. First, because he was quite certain ideological basis. And no matter what kind of nationalist group in the country, though what was his natural ally, if only considered their civilization "higher" and if that civilization has not provided the "extra" in the geopolitical deck Anti-Comintern Pact. The name "fascist" — it's not entirely clear ideological yarlychek. German prisoners, say, sincerely surprised when they were called Nazis. Self-designation of the organization, the war which has filled with fire and blood of whole continents, reflects its essence. And the essence of the struggle was not even on the Comintern, and against society people do not pay attention to the national identity.
Nationalism — it is far not always bad. If the country in one form or another is suppressed by other countries or foreign organizations, the liberation movement and is often referred to as a nationalist. The Sage Stick sen believed nationalism the only dr
ug that can awaken the sleeping drug from China, in which it was loaded Western powers priemuschestvenno United Kingdom, and almost everything was right.
And internationalism is different. The ruling circles of the West were not then national blinders — capital has no nationality. But their internationalism called cosmopolitanism'm not going to explain the difference.
Because the content of the step in world history, which is called the second world war, the confrontation is not 2-imperialist groups, as in the first world, and the Russian Union on the one hand and block Germany, Italy and the land of the rising sun on the other, a more complete spokesmen of both ideologies. Later by the Russian Union at different steps of its struggle, joined the nationalists suppressed and destroyed the nations and their senses in cosmopolitans.
Since the beginning of the second world war rather be considered the first major clash of the permanent parts of the warring parties, or a corresponding statement at least some of them. So when it happened that a direct military clash between the Union and the powers of the Anti-Comintern Pact (at first it was called "Berlin-Rome axis"), in other words, the actual beginning of the war?
Why do not we celebrated the anniversary of
Creator — not a historian Professor. The article is quite long since thought of the 70th anniversary of this action, but the anniversary was not seen by anyone. Appropriate literature into the hands of very late, well, read it was not easy.
Here's a good example of: a description of the battle, first given in this article. The newspapers then and in later recollections of this fight was reported, but the Russian tank company was called the Spanish or the Republican. Although the name of the commander could be printed — the same is not stranger?
The level of secrecy was such that in the memoirs of the famous air battles November 4, 1936, hosted many years after these events, the Russian pilots
fighters remember that they helped "republican" bombers, who are in a difficult situation, and the navigator of the 1st of these bombers Kuzma Demenchuk warmly of "government" fighters who came to the rescue of his link.
So why is the Italian divisions and the German air squadrons fought the war openly, and Russian battalions and squadrons portrayed themselves as Spaniards, and even — God forbid — mercenaries? The reason — a prostitutskoy position of Western states. Following the well-known strategy of street punks, they are "separate" warring parties, grabbing hands only one of them. Legitimate, democratically elected government of Spain was officially put them on a par with the coup, and deprived of the right to the purchase of tools, and the help of friends. This was vigilantly watched "non-intervention committee" headed by Lord Plymouth (not to be confused with the "Commission on Bosnia," Lord Owen).
Fighting for survival of the world society, we broke the "laws" that society imposed.
However, due to the inherent hypocrisy of the West could simply "observing decency" in a better look at his eyes. Because the Ravens became the Frenchman Voltaire, Leverage — Palancar Osadchiy — Simon and Tarhov — Captain Antonio.
The most languid time the defense of Madrid was the beginning of November 1936. The Government of the Republic and the military command at the urging of Goreva and Meretskova evacuated from the capital. Operations Chief of Staff of the front of his officers defected to the enemy. 21 Thousand Madrid Communists (out of 25) held the front. Captain Armand dark reported to the council of defense, "Republican tanks heroically rushed to his native Madrid"
While in Madrid was quite famous companion of Xanthi. Without taking an official post, he organizes working groups, is preparing for an underground war. He's on the hottest areas of Durruti himself asks him to be careful. But who is that of Xanthi — a separate issue, and I mention it in connection with his observation about secrecy, "… because the Nazis know that we blew up. From then, the secret? And the Spaniards and our reason or think about such things necessary to keep silent. Well, the Germans, of course, silent, — for which they confess? '.
Unfortunately, and since then has become a tradition. At first, everything was secret, and at the moment no witnesses almost no or almost no memories.
Why we went to war
No need to think, as if Russian Alliance was going to win the war on civilian clothes instead of Spanish. If it was just a plain-clothes War, Russian alliance could restrict your counselors as it was in China in the late 20's. Then there were a war between the pro-Japanese, pro-British and pro-American group of generals, but the nationalist South Chinese government has tried in vain that force, diplomacy combine country.
Spanish Republic had a lot of fighters, the brave but untrained and unorganized. And the Air Force, for example, numbered 1 to October 2 bomber and fighter. Before the war, the Western countries refuses to sell (even sell!) Gun Spanish Republic. All the same, the Republic could fully cope with the rebellion, and in most of the areas putsch was suppressed, although it took part in almost all the army. Started for the fascists all quite unsuccessfully, the head of the rebellion, General Sanjurjo died in a plane crash, Nazi forces were geographically separated, their is not no way to the Mediterranean. Their main strength was in Morocco and the Strait of Gibraltar was blocked by the Republic fleet. Rebellion was on the verge of collapse.
And then it powers intervened Anti-Comintern Pact. Speed of reaction of world fascism is simply amazing. In the first days are the same at the disposal of Franco was an Italian-German transport aircraft, and the rebel army was in Spain.
More seriously the fact that throughout the Spanish Civil War and operational and strategic Nazis was naturally an advantage. Very quickly began painstakingly coordinated strikes on the most painful, the most vulnerable points of the Republic. Advent in Extremadura (north, south, and from Portugal) linked to the broken terrain of the fascists. Occupation of San Sebastian and Irun cut the northern front of the French border, and the capture of Teruel's Republic of nearly cut in half. Well, of course coming to Madrid … During the war, the Republican always command did not conduct similar operations, as the Nazis did so in the first three months, acting very different forces. For the generals successful management of coalition troops — aerobatics, and it is unlikely such a warlord was Franco. There brains scanned the German General Staff.
In the Nazi army during the baseline period of the war is actually the Spanish, even in conjunction with the Moroccans and criminals from foreign legion was not enough — 90 thousand. And the Nazis from other states made war: the Germans — 50 thousand (Commander Colonel Warlimont), Italians — 150 thousand, 20 thousand Portuguese etc. In particular obnaglev after Munich, they sometimes even the shape did not change. And it had already been put together, the human part. The Italians had combat experience of Abyssinia, and the Germans for their first global ended not so long ago. The Germans and Italians are not obsessed about the complexes of "neutrality" and "non-interference", and hundreds of thousands of soldiers and officers were recruited in Spain fighting experience.
Republican troops and columns of the People's Militia could not help blow the armies of the fascist bloc. The Spaniards did not have one then the command and supply, and the decision to attack from time to time taken in the voting.
But the point is it was not that some another overthrow the legitimate government with the help of foreign-coup generals. Not how many of these episodes were in the story?
Just do not sneeze nazdravstvueshsya.
The fact was that the Russian government is miraculously found out that around the world at some point will have to wage a war against fascism, the West wants it or not want it. And in this case than previously, the naturally better. A Russian government as it found out in 1936 — up to now remains a mystery. No one knew, but it understood. This quality, by the way, is called "insight."
Maybe you think I'm exaggerating? A simple check. Fairly read newspapers illumine 1936, with reports from the meetings and assemblies of workers — and here you will stumble on the performances, which stated openly that "today, the bombs are falling on Madrid, and tomorrow will fall down on the Paris and London!".
That is why, while at the training centers in Archena and Albacete Russian instructors taught Spanish and interbrigadovtsev appeal to the Russian equipment, Russian gunners and pilots had to catch in the crosshairs Italian "Ansaldo", "Caproni" and "Fiat", the German T-1 " Heinkel "and" Junkers ". But, as they say, "this was not mentioned."
First fight, the first company, the first tanker
Even people who understand from time to time think that there were only advisers. Well, yes, there were advisers. Of the 59 Heroes of Russian Union of the Spanish campaign (since the decree of December 31, 1936) had two advisers: Baht — Counsellor obschevoyskovik and Smushkevich — Advisor-pilot. Others — pilots, tankers, gunners, submariners. 19 of 59 — posthumously. A war waged by the same communicators, anti-aircraft gunners, spies, saboteurs, in general, all the spices, and what should be in the army. There were engineers, organizers arms production, ship builders, of course, doctors and many, many more. Well, advisors … here's a quote from the memoirs adviser: "Seeing that the calculation of the coming guns lost commander and gunner, I rushed to the gunners and has promoted open fire … some tanks were lit … attack the enemy choked … Versatile training combined arms commander of the Red Army helped fulfill a variety of military duties. "
In the middle of these "various military duties" better known acts of our tankers and pilots. In defensive battles illumine 1936 — winter 1937 Russian tank brigades and battalions have played an important role. Often referred to the defense of Madrid, MP Petrov battle tank battalion in the area of Las Rozas and Majadahonda, assault strategically principled height Pingarron. The behavior of Russian soldiers and officers, then known as "advisors" or "internationalist volunteers" served as an example of anti-fascists. Were not uncommon cases where the crews lined tanks went into battle with removed from the tanks machine guns. And in the course of the bout at Jarama, as noted by the participant of these fights Malinovsky (then Minister of Defense, Marshal of the Russian Union), "the Republican tanks … With years of complete domination on the battlefield. " And in the battle of Guadalajara counter 18 March 1937 Russian tank brigade decided it final.
Time was won. From about April 1937 to the Republican army began arriving trained instructors Russian Spanish crews.
In general, we will leave. Who is it for now curious? But remember the date — October 29, 1936, and the name — Paul Matissovich Arman. In this battle, also participated Nikolay Voronov, but whether his gunners Russian soldiers, I do not know.
Disk imaging of early action on a tank and artillery I found.
The commander of the first squadron
Leaf through the pages of crumbling on. That's news story about the operation October 28, 1936: "… the government planes … made a successful bombing of the war always. Government aircraft squadron … appeared over the airfield at Talavera … that dropped the bombs, which are broken down 15 planes rebels. "
Who was the crews? Here's the commander of the 1st of them:
"Stocky black-haired funny man referred his name:
— Kahlil Ekrem! — And here is laughing. Explaining added in Russian:
— Turk! "
Halil Ekrem, who is also commander of the flying school in Tambov Volkan S. Goranov became a hero in 1936 Russian Union. And his name was truly Zahar Zechariah. Much later he — Colonel-General, Deputy Minister of Defense of the People's Republic of Bulgaria. In general, the crew was international, Russian were in the minority: only two, and others — this is the "Turk", three Spaniards and the creator of memoirs, a Ukrainian Kuzma Terent'evich Demenchuk. One of the Russian — Ivanov — the last White Guard, last name, apparently, is not real. He bravely fought the war shoulder to shoulder with many Russian and later died in France, the Maquis.
So means October 28, 1936? No, I suppose. All the same crews, however, mixed, planes — "Potez." The squadron commander — Spaniard Martin Luna. We are looking on.
First battle Russian fighter squadrons known enough, it should be in the morning on November 4 and Carabanchel Madrid, and journalists from many countries. Pilots of our I-15, for the first time in his life entered into the real, rather than training, combat, displayed "Junkers" and "Fiat", "what in the quarter came brand new dog," as they say Americans. 30 fighters and Pumpura Rychagova one day not just knocked down seven enemy aircraft, they are deprived of the fascists of the air.
But here, in the end, and find. Thank K.T.Demenchuku!
"October 28 already own the first sortie of our high-speed bombers Sat Were formed three squadrons of 9-10 aircraft each, they formed a group of bombers. It was led by A.E.Zlatotsvetov, chief of staff was P.A.Kotov. Not counting the bombers were made fighter group (3 Squadron-15 and 3 — I-16), and then assault (30 aircraft CAS) … The commander of the 1st Bomb Squadron — EG Schacht, a Swiss, a revolutionary, a 22-year in the Soviet Union, a graduate Borisoglebskaya military aviation school. " He led the first combat mission on October 28.
So, Ernest Genrikhovich Schacht, 28 October 1936. In general, Squadron Commander-2 V.S.Holzunov, arrived in Spain before entering Russian technology, flew bombing fascists on the ancient slug "Breguet-19." As a specialist of the highest class, he was walking in a mountainous area on the most low altitude, and dealt a blow to disappear discreetly so that the enemy did not have time to open fire. And our other pilots since September 1936, flew on everything that can fly, right up to the shelving units during World War II.
With the emergence of Security (they were called "Natasha" and "Katyusha"), the situation has changed in the skies of Spain. The aircraft sat even with a full load just walked away from at least some fighters. On combat missions, they often went without an escort. When such a way in 1940, applied by British bombers "Mosquito", it was called a revolutionary innovation in the aviation strategy.
In autumn 1936 only on the Madrid front of 27 160 Russian pilots were killed in action.
That is, in fact, all that I found out about the first of our troops fight against the fascists. October 28, 1936 — the first flight combat aircraft (SB Squadron commander Major — (?) EG Schacht), and on the 29th — the first encounter with the Nazis on the ground (tank company of T-26, the commander — Captain P.M.Arman).
Maybe the decision to bring into force Russian troops were hidden? It turns out, does not happen. October 23, 1936 Russian government released an official statement in which black and snow-white has been said that in the criteria of the German-Italian rage in Spain Russian Alliance will not remain neutral. That means during the war remain neutral? It means to go to war.
So, 23 October, 28 th and 29
th. Of course, these days are incomparable to the June 22 and May 9, the date of which surpassed all Russian history, but keep in mind they also need!
And then there was a war. In Spain, fought wars, and all kinds of kinds of troops, infantry only presented priemuschestvenno officers, advisors. Less well known, but a more fundamental was the role of our officers in planning and conducting the majority of operations.
And with the 1937 illumine our troops went to war with Japan, the third power "Covenant" in China. There have acted priemuschestvenno aviation and combined arms commanders as advisers, operators and staff, but not only them.
The difficulty was that the usual transport links with China, neither the sea, nor the train, there was — in fact the North China under the title of Manchukuo then belonged to the land of the rising sun. How, by the way, and the whole of Korea, and Taiwan Province of China, and now the Russian Kuril Islands and southern Sakhalin — the empire was big.
Through Xinjiang from Turksib was built car track length of more than 3 thousand km, it served more than 5 million truck ZIS-5, and on the Russian countryside over 5.5 million railway wagons. For urgent cargo airline operated, serviced by TB-3.
In China it was forwarded to incomplete data, up to hundreds of tanks (how is unclear, not by its own progress), 1250 new aircraft, more than 1,400 pieces of artillery, ten of thousands of machine guns and small tools, etc.
In general, there was also a sea route through the ports of southern China, Hong Kong, Rangoon, and Hai Phong (then French). But there are no references to him in the memoirs I just found.
All at once it came to a fight. For example, the squadron V.Kurdyumova. Make a dangerous flight through the high desert (he V.Kurdyumov with all this dead), the seven-16 day to arrive in Nanjing (21 November 1937) was hit over the airport and two fighter bombers. A squadron of bombers Security Kidalinskogo and Machin for the next day was bombed Shanghai airport and Japanese ships at anchor. They opened the score destroyed by Japanese warships, sinking, including the first for World War II Japanese cruiser.
Almost four years of war in China was full of events, but are better known acts pilots. By the way, in the history of our aircraft are not many operations similar raid Bomb Group F.P.Polynina to Taiwan February 23, 1938 or the sinking bomber group T.T.Hryukina winter 1938-1939, the Japanese aircraft carrier (10 tons).
Pochetaemye readers! Many of you have even heard that our pilots have ever sunk cruiser or carrier? Immediately I wish to note that the sinking of the aircraft carrier specifically not supported at this time by other parties, but it looks like a grain of truth in this story is — in other words, our pilots indeed, in June 1938, were after the Japanese aircraft carrier.
In China, acted as military specialists from other branches of service — tankers, gunners and engineers. I do not have numbers, rely on evidence such as:
"The situation is rapidly heated. From there began to arrive in Lanzhou wounded Russian volunteers, mostly pilots'
This phrase — from the memoirs of a pilot DA Kudymova of the battle in the Tri April 29, 1938, in the day of birth of Japanese ruler.
At the moment, the history of this war is actually inaccessible to the reader.
With Finland in the case of the USSR were bad from the time of the revolution. The Finns have killed their own revolutionaries and at the same time several thousands of our people, and not only revolutionaries. In a number of reasons, Lenin had just sighed sadly and congratulated Svinhufvud (Finnish president, the name means "pig's head") with independence. But several attempts Finns round his area due to our (for example, "Olonetsk adventure") were gently but firmly suppressed. Both sides then acted priemuschestvenno of special forces. For example, the raid squad armed with machine guns Toivo Antikainen by Finnish rear of the winter of 1922 was so impressed Finnish war that by 1939, there were a few in the 10-s of thousands of "Suomi" (very similar to PCA). And by the time we are about machines somehow forgotten.
The neighbors are all sorts, but with the rise of fascism in the light of the Finns, in accordance with the idea Svinhufvud ("Any enemy of the Russian Federation should always be a friend of Finland") were also allies of the Nazis, and not of mandatory war was imminent.
Finland has long been preparing for war. For military purposes was spent a quarter of the budget. Germany, USA, UK, Sweden and France are well equipped with the Finnish army. For example, 1935-1938,. Finland has absorbed only a third of the 1st British military exports. By the spring of 1939 had built a network of airports, is 10 times the needs of the then Finnish Air Force (270 aircraft).
In the summer of 1939 Finns spent on the Karelian Isthmus naikrupneyshie maneuvers in their own stories. Chief of the General Staff of the German Army F.Galder inspected the Finnish troops, paying special attention to the Leningrad and Murmansk operational and strategic direction. The German Foreign Ministry has promised in the event of trouble then compensate for the loss of the Finns. Since October, the Finns had a general mobilization and evacuation of the population of Helsinki and border areas. The Commission of the Finnish Parliament by reading in October from a staging area, concluded that Finland is ready for war. The Minister of Foreign Affairs ordered the Finnish delegation to complete the negotiations in Moscow.
November 30, 1939 Russian government ordered the troops of the Leningrad Military Area (Commander K.A.Meretskov) to resist provocation, just once again offering a Finnish contract of friendship and mutual assistance. Russian Union of Finland declared war. 15 Russian infantry divisions, 6 of which were absolutely combat ready, came into the fight with 15 infantry divisions of the Finns. To present the progress of the war I will not, because unlike some other fronts literature on Finnish war is. For example, a 12-volume "History of the 2nd World War," she devoted much as 8 pages. I note only just found out in the course of the war that our troops' need for additional training methods breakthrough system of massive concrete fortifications and overcome tight mined forest and marshland in complex criteria at 40-45-degree cold and the deepest snow cover. " Sorry for the longish quote, but I personally can not imagine even how to go about this "extra training." Yet, methods were found Finns split at a ratio of loss of approximately one to two. Traditional same ratio for such kind of war — one in three. In this case, the major loss was incurred on the secondary sector of the front, where the Finnish skiers clamped on a forest road our division, and not in the breakout band Mannerheim or assault Vyborg.
The end of World War II, the first step
From our part of Spain were removed immediately from the Brigades, the fall of 1938, there were only advisers and trainers. The Spanish government made it under the pressure of "the Committee on Non-intervention '. Of course, soon, in March 1939, the Republic fell. Russian advisers were evacuated at the risk of life (and that was for them without risk?). Before that, in February, the United Kingdom and France recognized the Franco regime, and broke the case with the national government. But Republic has detained and then Madrid, and the entire central Spain!
This is, perhaps, an even greater infamy than the Munich deal. Russian alliance could not do anything. All the way to Spain were closed, the Nazis, using the domination of the Mediterranean Sea, drowned our "Y-" (transports with the gun).
In Asia, in the summer of 1938, the war spilled over already and for our area at Lake Khasan
, and although the Japanese vyshybli fast enough, not all the actions of our troops was excellent. The air war in China perceived more debilitating form. In 1939, a group of our pilots to lose three quarters of its own composition. China suffered defeat after defeat, the Japanese army were inexorably to the West, the Japanese fleet on the Yangtze podymali, despite the massive raids Russian bombers. On our Far Eastern (well, and western) border guards of the NKVD and carried on an uninterrupted, daily, though quiet, war. Living in the country of the rising sun invaded the countryside of Mongolia.
Hitler proposed a truce in the midst of the brutal Soviet-Japanese battles in Khalkhin-and in Central China was sudden for all, especially for the Japanese. Apparently, Hitler calculated that, razdelyvaya without interference with the "corruption of the cosmopolitan West" will win more than the Russian Alliance wins, finished with Far Eastern ally of Germany. Psychology nationalist from time to time simply moves! But we had no choice. Even a limited war on two fronts was then we can not accomplish. And here is such a gift! As a result, our home for the first time in decades in down and remains completely defeated the army harsh external enemy. At the same time showed some great military leaders of the last generation, were not part of the "Spanish" or "Chinese" cohort.
It is worth noting — because outside of an easy victory at the end of the war we have at the moment somehow underestimate the Japanese army. This is a grave mistake — just the residents of the country of the rising sun met in 1945 with the best fighters of the XX century. And at the Halkin-Gol in 1939 could turn around in different ways!
Living in the country of the rising sun, deeply offended and outraged by Hitler Zhukov, thinking about a cute objects anger. But our ties with the Chinese government is very complicated because of the warm, according to the views of Chiang Kai-shek, relations with the Chinese Communists. In April 1941, with Japan has been awarded a contract of neutrality. In May 1941, Stalin was at a reception in honor of graduates of military academies in the Kremlin told about the inevitability of war with Germany.
In 1941, our troops were withdrawn from China. Left behind expanses of Eurasia, dotted with the graves of comrades.
What lies ahead?
"We lifted the coffin to shoulder level and stuck in the top row of niches. We watched as the working swiftly, deftly spatula bricked hole.
— What sign do? — Asked the warden.
— Labels do not need any — I replied. — He will lie until no inscriptions. Where necessary, write about it. "
This time was not ripe.
Enemies and Friends
But here is what is especially important — and this is the main role of wars 1936-1941 gg. — At this time began to fall apart, and all sorts of masks. People began to realize themselves and others.
How do you think I should do a real Communist revolutionary, when the Nazis come to the capital of your country? It turns out that he has to raise an armed rebellion. You say that the creator has moved down a bit on anti-communism. No, everything is easier. This is the setting of the notorious Judas Trotsky, so called "Clemenceau thesis." He believed that it is in such criteria is easiest to take power. It sounds unbelievable, but it seems more improbable is the fact that in Spain there are people who have completed this annotation. Trotskyist organization POUM in May 1937 revolted. Fighting in Barcelona and other towns of the Republic claimed almost a thousand lives. Thousands were injured, frustrated principal coming in Aragon, whose goal was to help the Northern Front, because of what was lost Bilbao. Because for the Spaniards, Trotsky became the devil incarnate, and killed him in 1940 specifically Spaniard.
By the way, the British Trotskyist Orwell, in this moment had been in Spain, expressed in a couple of years, our original vision of the world in a dystopian "1984", and the ratio of power to the Trotskyist people — the worst in the satire "Animal Farm."
But his vision of the world based in the same experiment, and is expressed in the book "For Whom the Bell Tolls" of a Hemingway. By the way, one pensioner Capital has only recently could tell something about how it was written by and about whom. How unfortunate it did not sound, "the world's oldest saboteur" Ilya Starinov not so long ago died.
So here is our intervention in the war against fascism raise the profile of Russian Union to such a height that we love even the Western intelligentsia (no matter how offensive at the moment that word). As a result, Russian alliance got a lot of friends, not only in the middle of the world's poor. Namely, by this time is the beginning of cooperation with our intelligence more intelligent and unselfish agents who came to us from ideological judgments.
"Ahead of the 50 years of undeclared wars, and I signed the contract for the entire period."
And when the Chinese peasant in uniform who fought and priemuschestvenno with Japan, I saw that there officers who are not beating a fighter, do not acquire concubines, not soldiers are trading rice, do not shake the sight of bucks, not love nor Japanese, nor the British and do not fear — in its centennial struggle for freedom in China have hope.
And the "enlightened West" … Sometimes, anti-aircraft guns that U.S. warships thrashed by Russian bombers, covering the Japanese convoys on the Yangtze. Japanese tanks of American Steel went on the South American gasoline. The word "Munich" characterizes the Anglo-French policy in Europe. Least it is clear that their policy in Asia was called the "Far Eastern Munich." But France and Britain threw a tantrum for the whole world, not just wage war came when the Soviets pushed back by a few km from the area of Hitler's ally second own capital.
The point is not that we have considered the then from the class action, a Marxist position. The ruling circles of Britain and France believed that the simmering world conflict is a form of class struggle, and that Hitler and Mussolini, despite the anti-Western rhetoric, are their allies in the elimination of proletarian internationalism. The apotheosis of such policies was the end of 1938 — beginning of 1939, when the Nazis were bred Anglo-French "politicians" to the Russian borders of the Union. So unsafe animal release into the arena along the corridor of the lattices. But fascism was not unsafe and very unsafe beast! And the defeat of the British and French in 1940, the shame and humiliation of Vichy and Dunkirk were the natural result. Rarely in the history of the human price paid for stupidity and cynicism of politicians is that of frisky and effective. West did not like the Popular Front government (not far communist) — and he gave Spain the fascists. West did not like the Soviet Union — and he gave the Nazis Europe! It is interesting that the West's policy still did not figured out Churchill and even had the audacity to rebuke in his memoirs, Stalin for a temporary truce with Hitler!
These "subtle calculations" of the West, and you can follow at the moment. Take the war in Bosnia and compare with the war in Spain — the match one to one. Expanding NATO to include Central Europe and promoting this company to the borders of the Russian Federation, the British and French-Americans sincerely believe in their own capabilities to save on NATO's own control. Well, time will tell. One big difference from the situation 30 years — in the world there is now Russian Union.
Hard to say in favor of whom completed the first step of World War II. Yes, we defended our borders and even a little propelled them to the West. We have readdressed the Japanese. But the allies did not get it.
Although there were victories, all of whom we have supported were defeated. We have lost many brave and trained military professionals.
And the saddest thing. Our enemies better than we enjoyed the respite. Russian management believed that the troops will be able to manage the commanders of the last generation who grew up in the criteria of modern war. Commander of the Air Force became a hero of the Spanish war and the Chinese Lieutenant General P.V.Rychagov, and the important features of the Western Military District led by Colonel-General D.G.Pavlov organizer, some recognizable operations in Spain, warm supporter of tank and mechanized corps.
Yet, even before the war, Stalin apparently felt some anxiety. At a certain meeting the high command of the army in December 1940 was held operational and strategic game. For the blue side (western) Zhukov played a horseman, and for the reddish — tanker Pavlov. The result was a sudden, on the delicate expression Zhukova, "for the east side of the game is full of dramatic moments." Stalin was unhappy, but, apparently satisfied Pavlov held view that the teachings of all happens. In addition, a report on the application of Pavlov's mechanized forces at the meeting was bright, well-argued and drew worldwide attention.
There were some harsh contradiction between Stalin and control the Air Force. Shortly before 22 June 1941, they even spilled out when the lever is in the military conference offended Stalin, saying that it forces pilots to fly coffins. This has been particularly frustrating sense, because you can in anything incriminating government Stalin, but only the most rabid critics may say that it did not want to give the army what is necessary, or that Stalin was not fussed about aviation.
But in June and July 1941 the Western Front had been destroyed, all our tanks were lost. And not because of the low combat capabilities of technology as from time to time write, and because of organizational failures — troops have lost their agility, our mechanized corps were immediately out of fuel and ammunition.
It is not a "bulletproof armor of our tanks." In the BT-7 armor was waning, than the main tank, the Wehrmacht T-3, but the gun is more powerful, and they hit each other mutually.
Read the memories and Zhukov, and Halder, everything is written.
It was like a defeat, hosted by "east side" Zhukov at the operational and strategic game for half a year earlier.
We also lost and aircraft. Part on the ground, partly because of the wrong, apparently, tactical training. What was the revolution in aviation strategy in 1936, expired in 1941. We all remember the tragic episode of the "Living and the Dead", when the languid bombers killed without fighter escort. The reality was as tragic. Here is a quote from the memoirs of Manstein fighting on the Western Dvina, "In these days of Russian air force exerted every effort to damage the air raids have got our hands on the bridges. With the unusual persistence, a small squadron of flying height of one after the other with the only result — they knocked. In just one day our fighters and anti-aircraft artillery shot down 64 Russian aircraft. "
For example, fleet air defense was on top, and the defense of the country — would be a shame as it sounds, do not. And Stalin immediately obvious povinet less than the commander of the defense of the country.
Rightly or not, Heroes of the Russian Union of Pavlov and levers and a few generals paid with his head. This was then a measure of responsibility for their work.
But the school is the first step of the second World War was quite good. Almost most of the top managers of the Armed Forces 1940-1960's passed through Spain and China: Malinowski and the Ravens, and Batitsky Kuznetsov, and many, many more.
And reading the story of the Stalingrad battle, I was taken aback — how many there were participants in the defense of Madrid! The same Ravens Baht Shumilov Rodimtsev Kolpakchi. Surely, this is a coincidence.
"He was wounded near Madrid in the first,
And at Stalingrad fifth time. "
Again, back to the question that has repeatedly stumbled, why all this is in fact not clear, almost hushed up?
At first — that the West has not announced the aggressor us (he still announced later). This reason is quite severe, the antidote to this day found. Indeed, under the Russian bombs and tank tracks found themselves not only the Germans and Italians, on the thin end of the Moors from the "Wild Division", and Spanish. And not only convinced fascists. If you were to fascist country, want, do not want, and go, voyuy! On the mobilization of not wriggle. Battered and peaceful population. And as the world's media were then estimated in the same hands, and that at the moment, it is possible to imagine themselves as the acts described Russian troops. So that's why, and tried as the ability to close the information.
At the moment — the next period of secrecy, disgusting enough. If the "ignore" the state of war in which the Soviet Union was on October 23, 1936 before the Russian stateliness, it is possible to imagine some things distorted. Just one example: the vast teachings of the Red Army in 1937 was attended by representatives of the German General Staff. If you do not know that we are with Germany at that time fought wars, let the opponent's area and relatively small losses, it is an invitation to look exactly — as a sign of friendship emotion. And it was absolutely not true. And it's not just the exercise in 1937.
Why I wrote this article? Our kids do not already know about Alexander Matrosov and Zoe Kosmodemyanskoy that much we talk about Thor, Ku Li-Chene or Lizyukova. So tell them! Only one gun was left to us in the fight against untrustworthy, lying and ignorant TV with intellectually inferior to textbooks — is our own stories. Told them that the Russian government declared war on global fascism October 23, 1936, and that the freedom fighters complied with the order of the Russian government.
We still remember about Stalingrad and Berlin, but almost forgotten about Hassan Elnya, Khingan, Barvenkovo and greenish Brahma, and know nothing about the Guadarrama and Wuhan, Hankou and Teruel.
So told his children that all governments of the world, only Russian control in 1936 realized that the world needed to stop fascism at any cost, and the Russian Alliance threw everything he was then, in the fight. The best pilots and scouts, tankers and submarine, artillery and commandos fought and died in the burning towns and on the polar plains, arid mountains and rice fields in Europe and Asia, and can be, and not only there.
Brave, strong, moderate, cheerful and businesslike people. The war against fascism began for them for a long time before June 22, 1941, and for many at the same time and complete. Not always a reddish star, from time to time under the red-yellow-purple symbol of the Spanish Republic or snowy twelve-star Kuomintang, or no character differences — they selflessly gave their lives for someone else and their freedom.
The fate of the Hero of the Russian Union of Ernst Genrikhovich mine I only know the "mind. 1941. "
Hero of the Russian Union of Paul Matissovich Arman died in 1943 at the Volkhov front. The war against fascism was the seventh year for him, and for two years he did not live to see victory.
In the Great Russian Encyclopedia mentions of them do not.
In general … remember who was the commander of Armand during the first Russian tank battle with the Nazis? Brigade Commander Krivoshein? So that's where our excellent reporter Victor Temin was necessary first to take a picture of the Victory Banner (he had a hobby — the first pictures of the victorious flags, and he did it on Hassan, and Halkin-Gol) — that he turned for help to the commander of the 1 —
Krasnograd th Mechanized Corps, Lieutenant-General S.M.Krivosheinu. Specifically, his tanks were exploding through the Tiergarten park to the Reichstag. And soon, the main Soviet newspaper "Pravda" published three pictures V.Temina. At first it was as easy to guess Victory Banner over the Reichstag, and the second — a rest at the Reichstag tankers general Krivosheina.
That is what held the stately war against fascism from the first to the last day or her, and it was necessary to ask when the war started and when it was over.