Now try to see each version separately and look for arguments that will show us that the destruction of the Russian Union was inevitable, since at least the beginning of Gorbachev's perestroika. Let's start with the finishing point, putting an end to the existence of the USSR. In December 1991, Ukrainians voted to secede from the Union of Russian. But those who have not lost memory, knows that after the failed August coup, Ukraine has been virtually independent state. By leaps and bounds was a process of sharing features and functions between the Russian Federation and Ukraine. On the first and last Soviet president Gorbachev Misha no one directing attention. It was a symbolic figure. Yes, under his control were some of the all-union structure: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the army, the navy, the KGB, but Gorbachev not only could not give the order to restoring constitutional order, but the security forces would be unable to carry it out. After Tbilisi and Vilnius events, after a bad August coup, the army and the generals were not able to, well, did not have the desire to make orders Gorbachev. So Makar, after the failure of the August coup to revive USSR it was unreal. Ukrainian referendum December 1, 1991, de jure secured the breakup and exit the main Russian republic of the Union — Ukraine.
I did not doubt that the August 21, 1991, when the emergency was declared, the army and the KGB could restore constitutional order in all areas of the Union of Russian. Does not matter whether the acts of the members of the Emergency Committee agreed with Mikhail Gorbachev or not, but to win the coup was sufficiently strong will, determination and swift action to reverse the separatists in the Russian republics of the Union, including the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin. None separatist, including in the Baltic republics, unable to resist the army, police and KGB. Headless anti-Soviet movement did not represent a serious threat to the central government, even more so, in every republic there were forces that can take over the management of the field. But the State Emergency Committee has not shown sufficient hardness, and therefore the coup emerged.
But let's see what would come out on, if the plotters were able to bring the situation in the country in their hands? Gorbachev's reforms have gone so far that in the late 80's Russian Union was practically zero financial and economic. Across the country pyshnovatym color bloomed banditry, corruption, came fast on the stratification of the population of the poor and the super rich. As throughout the restructuring process was to discredit the Communist Party, it was done with the supreme control of the party. The Communist Party has been stripped of all authority among the population, and could not, even with the help of a "hard hand", to become a favorite of the political and economic transformation of the country. So Makarov, even a successful attempt ouster of Gorbachev and the favorites of the union republics in the long term, nothing changed. Especially since, for the guidance of the "constitutional order" followed by financial blockade of the USSR from the West, which led to an acute shortage of essential commodities in the country, and the subsequent massive mess that would have been put down is unrealistic. It is necessary to state that the Emergency Committee, at best, can be called a failed attempt to save what can save unrealistic?
The referendum on 17 March 1991 in the Ukraine confirmed the desire of people to live in a united country. However, the process of destruction of the country lasted, in other words, the will of the people depended almost nothing. Similarly, the Declaration of Sovereignty of the RSFSR of municipal June 12, 1990 did not have a fundamentally important for the overall flow of stories, though some now believe that it served as a growing separatist sentiment in the national republics. Let neuzh, then, if it were not for this declaration, the republics of the Caucasus, Moldova or Ukraine separatist movement has weakened? It is obvious — no. Decay processes would go with not the lowest rate. The beginning of the end of the Russian project, we can confidently call Gorbachev's perestroika. Were it not for her, the country could save, not to destroy a single national economic complex and not plunge into total poverty absolute majority of the population. The question is not, could have avoided the economic crisis or not — and managed to keep the country united.
Important to note that the Communist Party of the Union of Russian was not just a party, it was the backbone of the country's total. It determined and ideology, and politics, and economic life of the country. CPSU was the pivot on which all rested entirely in the country. No party card was virtually impossible to make any career in the Soviet Union. Now, many believe a similar approach is wrong, but let if a Communist is a benchmark and role model, why he should not take all of the major positions in the state and society? Party really was listed mind, honor and conscience of that era. Was she is — the tenth question. From childhood through pioneering, Komsomol organizations in the Soviet Union cultivated elite of the country, and no matter what a mistake committed by a person at one of the steps of the current path, put a cross on his upcoming career development. Party acted as a representative of the breeder in Russian society.
Mikhail Gorbachev, began an audit of Russian history, knocked the gun base on which to keep all government, Errors and Russian authorities, fictional or real atrocities have become wholly and indiscriminately attributed to only the Communist Party. The past was the inventory liquidation of the future. USSR considered outside the context of historical events that have existed in different periods of time. In the end, in the public mind was fixed viewpoint that's the whole Russian history consists of a string of repression, atrocities, artificially made famine and lack of permanent everything, starting with 1917 and ending with 1991 year. The fact that the Soviet Union was a different, no one directing attention. That periodically between Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev have design differences, and all that binds them, is the ruling Communist Party. But who would think of that?
So Makarov specifically Gorbachev and his perestroika, crazy and out of season to repair the democratization of society, acceleration and publicity ultimately led to the death of the Soviet Union. I can make an objection and say that the financial and economic situation of the Russian Union was so deplorable that at some point would still have left the destruction of the country. I can not agree with it, as under Stalin, Khrushchev, and the situation was not better, but country not split up. Prior to Gorbachev, people believed in the country, the need for its existence myself personally, and after Gorbachev's reforms — no. Government, is no longer necessary for people at some point ceases to exist. And this particular history lesson poorly learned Ukrainian independence supporters. On the Ukrainian restructuring we talk in subsequent times.