For the first time since the end of the war cool Naval an advantage of the United States, according to the views of a number of professionals, after some time, may be challenged by the states. Let's evaluate the hypothetical claims of Russia and China in the role of the heavyweights in the world's oceans from the standpoint of industry capacity. Effectives and shipbuilding programm Celestial discussed in the "military-industrial complex» (№ № 20, 21 for 2012), and the materials for burning dilemmas of the Russian Navy weekly published in virtually every room.
The viability of the navy has always been directly linked to the development of civilian shipbuilding and maritime transport. In the middle of the classics who held this position, for example, the Yankees Alfred T. Mahan. But we are quite remember the USSR, when the country was performed once a year to 550 thousand deadweight tons (the amount of transported payload) transport vessels and 300 thousand tons of the total tonnage for the needs of the Navy. And in the period from 1996 to 2006 for the domestic market were produced in total less than 320 thousand tons.
What's all the same to warships, over a specified period they were built 18 — a multipurpose nuclear submarine (MPLATRK), one submarine with nuclear ballistic missiles (SSBNs), a large anti-submarine ship (BPK), a patrol ship (SKR ), four missile boats (RCA), four minesweepers (TIH), a small artillery ship (IAC) and 5 landing craft (DKA) — total displacement of only 50 thousand tons, of which half are submarines (submarine). So makarom designated number in tons are soft-spoken indication of stagnation in the Russian shipbuilding.
Modern Combat ship — Sverhtehnologichny product that requires for its own creation efforts of thousands of individual companies and industries a variety of industries. Very principled and high-tech fraction represented by the work of research institutes and institutions (NIU). All this should be based on training, uninterrupted funding and support perfected companies among themselves, forming a single, integrated system. And if it falls out of some component, high-quality and mass production impossible. Still needs to be done immediately slip of the tongue: see any of the above parts on the scale of one article is simply unrealistic. Because at this point will be discussed on the main enterprises owned United Shipbuilding Company (USC).
The situation in the western region
On this day of the USC comes to more than 1080 shipbuilding companies, but most of them civilians engaged in middle-sized orders or supply devices. We motivate specifically shipyard — shipbuilding factory (CVD) capable of delivering new fleet of combat units. These will include and ship repair factory (SRH) as allowing to carry out modernization, thereby makarom new abilities on the ship.
As part of USC are three regional sub-holding of the West (in surrounding St. Petersburg and Kaliningrad), Northern (Severodvinsk), and Far East (Vladivostok).
The structure consists of Western Baltic Shipyard "Yantar" in Kaliningrad, Admiralty Shipyards, Mid-Nevsky Shipyard, Shipbuilding Plant "Severnaya Verf" in St. Petersburg, the factory "Red Sormovo" in Nizhny Novgorod and three ship-repair company — Kronstadt Naval Shipyard ( KMOLZ) number SRH 176, SRH number 82 (on our disk imaging, 82 and 176 minutes are included in the factory of "STSSS" instead of a "ZTSS", see table. — Ed.).
"Amber" — a large company capable of building ships of rank 2 (BOD "Admiral Chabanenko" Launched in 1992, is a ship of the 1st rank. — Ed.). Now in production are frigates (RF) Project 11356 and BDK "Ivan Gren". Admiralty Shipyards — one of the main producers of non-nuclear submarines (NNS). Mid-Nevsky Shipyard works for export, producing 12418 RCA project for the Navy in Vietnam and Turkmenistan. Inshore minesweepers were also constructed (pmin) Project 10750E. In addition, the shipyard engaged in ship repair. Factory "Red Sormovo", once letting out PLA and diesel-electric submarines (SSKs) are now engaged only civilians orders. Yet technologically plant is ready to resume the creation of diesel-electric submarines of Project 877 in the preparation of such order. North Wharf — a rather massive and modern company with extensive experience in the construction of ships of all ranks, including cruisers (CR), BOD, destroyers (EM), including 1-st rank 956 project, patrol. Now the main activity is the construction of the TFR in the 20380 and 20385, as ship repair.
The famous KMOLZ — the largest repair facility in the region, has stood monetary shocks and it resumed operations in May 2010. SRH number 176 — Arkhangelsk branch of "Star" — makes a dock repair of ships with a displacement of up to 1200 tons. SRH number 82 in Severomorsk only in the European part of the Russian Federation has the ability to dock repair of large vessels directly to the languid aircraft carriers (TAVKR).
Total — four shipyards (plus one inactive) and three ship-repair company. West region is characterized as aimed only at building small ships: TFR, FR, corvettes (EOC), diesel-electric submarines. Yet, having a well-developed infrastructure, capabilities to repair, relative proximity shipyards to economic centers of the country, these companies are able to produce enough sverhtehnologichny ships of the last generation and supply vessels.
Severodvinsk Production Association "Sevmash" (JSC "PO" Sevmash "), of course, the biggest and demanded the company to this day. The only country that continues to build nuclear submarines and ships are also able to create a huge displacement. Has modern equipment and qualified personnel, which allows production including special purpose vehicles, such as research submarines (PLASN) Project 09852. At the moment, building a fourth generation of Russian nuclear submarines of project 885 and 955.
Ship Repair Yard "asterisk" (JSC "CA" asterisk ") in Severodvinsk, also needs no introduction. This naikrupneyshy shipyards in the country, including dealing and refurbishment and modernization of submarines and surface ships (NC) at least some class. Another distinguishing feature of the plant is the utilization of the PLA that the apparent simplicity is a huge problem of. In the end, the company manufactures a very important sub-system of submarines — the screws.
Large branch "Sprockets" — SRH "Nerpa" in Snezhnogorsk also performs repairs and renovations to the PLA.
In the Southern Region branches "Stars" are the 5th SRH Temruk and Astrakhan shipyards, building, namely, the harbor tug at the theoretical level and capable of a rather short time to master the creation of a small fleet.
As we litsezreem, a picture of the region forms the only two supergiant. Such enterprises as the Northern Production Association "Arctic" that do not produce or repair ships specifically, it's not taken into account. Any of the 2— a kind of complex that performs the work of several plants at once. The combination of these companies are even in almost all only a shadow of the former power, has great ability in the future to mast
er the creation of ocean-going ships, including aircraft carriers. In general, the simultaneous creation of such a complex spacecraft and submarines, the fourth generation and beyond the power of Sevmash, at least on this day, much less that of an aircraft carrier (even light — AVL) need special docks enormous size, which is not in the territory of Russia.
In the Far East
Amur Shipyard is known for the creation of the PLA, including MPLATRK 971 project. But after putting the K-152 "Nerpa" in the upcoming 2008 construction stopped. A decision on the manufacture of 2-EOC 20380.
Khabarovsk Shipyard in the past created the RSA Project 1241, and landing craft air cushion (DFA CAP) Project 12061 "Murena". At the present moment is building small boats of the Border Service of the FSB (Federal Security Service of the SS), and civilian hovercraft.
Shipyard in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur broke.
Far East Plant "Zvezda" — a leading shipbuilding and ship repair company, unique in the Far East, exercising, except for the main classes of warships, repair and modernization of strategic submarines (SSBN), and dispose of underwater nuclear-powered ships. Northeastern repair center — another repair plant, operating as an SP and NK. Ship Repair Center "Dalzavod" is able to repair large ships (with a displacement of up to 7,500 tons and a length up to 195 meters) and a diesel-electric submarines. 92nd Order of the Red Banner Shipyard plant, previously engaged in repair of small ships — the IPC, RCA, trawlers, diesel-electric submarines, ships, special mission, in July 2012, the filed for bankruptcy.
So Makarov, in the Far East, there are only two shipyards, while producing only one ship. Yet the ship repair industry is well developed compared four shipyards, most of which have the ability to present work with submarines and surface ships Tofa.
As for this part of shipbuilding, then open a list of active SRI looks followed properly. Part of the institutions of the Soviet Navy was preserved, but changed the name, entered the military educational and scientific center of the Navy, "Naval Academy named after Admiral of the Fleet Russian Union NG Kuznetsov" (VUNTS Navy "BMA"), as part of the reorganized into joint-stock society and transmitted, namely, in OAO "Oboronservis."
In St. Petersburg — Research Institute (shipbuilding and naval weapons) VUNTS Navy "WMA" (past 1st Central Research Institute of the Defense Ministry), SE "23rd Marine Municipal Design Institute of the Ministry of Defence" (JSC "GMPI 23" of " OboronStroy 'last 23 GMPI), the Scientific Research Institute (operational and strategic research Navy construction) VUNTS Navy "WMA" (the last of the 24th Central Scientific Research Institute of the Russian Federation), branches — the former 14th and 34th Research Institute of Communications of the Navy, the last 28 th Research Institute of the Navy weapons (presumably comes in VUNTS Navy "BMA"), the Scientific Research Institute (rescue and subsea) VUNTS Navy "WMA" (last ASD NII and HWR, the 40th State Research Institute in Lomonosov) of "51 TSKTIS "of" Remvooruzhenie "(the last 51 minutes of the Central Design and Technology Institute, ship repair), the last of the 54th Research Institute of sonar equipment (presumably comes in VUNTS Navy" BMA "). Vladivostok — JSC "LIC PF 49" of "OboronStroy" (past the 49th Central Design Institute Tofa).
There are subsequent design offices. CDB ME "Rubin" — a leading and oldest company, designs subs, dress, and NNS. St. Petersburg Marine Engineering Bureau "Malachite" (JSC "SPMBM" Malachite ") — the creator of SSGN and the board (MPLATRK) 2, and third generations, including the famous submarine Project 705" Lira ". JSC "Northern Design Bureau" (JSC "Northern Design Bureau") — the design of surface ships from cruisers to boats (cruisers projects 1144 and 1164 destroyers Project 956, BOD Project 1155 and many others). JSC «Nevsky Design Bureau" (NPKB) — the oldest bureau surface shipbuilding, from which later came out several new companies, including the Northern Design Bureau. Among the awards NPKB includes all Russian TAVKR also BDK and special purpose vehicles. Central Marine CB "Diamond" (JSC "CMDB Diamond") — office specializing in small ships: corvettes, IRAs, RCA, and boats, including diabetic ketoacidosis. CDB Hydrofoil name Alexeev — CB, developed by Russian projects WIG (FL) also has extensive experience in the development of hovercraft and hydrofoils. OAO "Vympel" — a company that develops software and special vessels. This list does not included CB specialized development of components and systems for ships, such as the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "NPO" Aurora "(KB, specializing in the development of automatic control systems), JSC" Bank "Amethyst" (developing artillery weapons), NGO "Vint" (deals with propulsion systems), and others.
Over the decade, can not cope
In general, the Russian Federation has eight operating CVD able to supply the new fleet of ships: water right up to the 2nd rank and underwater all classes. Ship-repair factory, usually, there are practical limits to the reach of the main naval bases and are able to repair all classes of ships that are in service with the Russian Navy. Number of current major shipbuilding Institute — seven (not counting the former 40th State Research Institute and taking into account the association of former 24 th and 34 institutions). CB operating the same number, with almost all respondents had provided experience and successful projects. In other words, at a theoretical level, the shipbuilding industry is able to fully meet the needs of the Navy, at least at today's pace.
But have not considered the theory and the practice. The realities are the same, so that the Russian shipbuilding industry until now never recovered from the crisis of the 90-ies of XX century. From the above mentioned components of an effective industry (staff, funding, co-operation), not normally resides none. This applies to all the surveyed companies and organizations — Design Bureau (PCB), shipyards (CVD and SRH), NIU Navy. Impaired post-Soviet co-operation of companies, mass emigration from the country of people with higher education, the decline in the prestige of technical education and as a result of the lack of trained staff, low pay in defense enterprises, a strong "sinking" of research in connection with the same significant reduction in the number of scientists — and All this against the background of a very unstable funding, which is now very criminalized and subjected to a rifled. In the end, we have a great backlog and technology, on the basis of which it is possible and necessary to recreate the fleet, but complex problems more than enough, and not everything can be solved even for a decade.
Compare the potentials
How are things going with our eastern neighbor — China, who took the course, according to some experts, by a severe confrontation with the United States? There is a massive campaign for the development of the military industry. According to the views of Pentagon analysts, China's spending on the military only in 2012 amounted to 180 billion dollars. Apparently, this figure will only grow. It is estimated quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to the Chinese Navy until even the Russian Navy. But China's manufacturing capabilities grow very rapidly.
On this day, China's shipbuilding industry on the total price of orders and deadweight strong lead in the international market, overtaking South Korea. As we noted first article, there is no need to explain what they say such successes.
About the battle of: currently
in state Navy (PLA Navy) is one AVL, 27 destroyers, 51 frigates, within 100 amphibious ships and more than 150 landing craft, about 60 missile boats and three SSBNs 5 dresses and 48 diesel-electric submarines. In the end, the number of surface ships of 389 buildings, submarines — 56.
The numbers are more than impressive, but you have to take into account that a significant fraction of warships PLA is hopelessly outdated. For example, the share of diesel-electric submarines of modern (Russian Project 877 EKM and 636) account for only 12. The rest are a little old Russian boats Project 633 (two units), and the project 039/039G its development (up to 16 units).
And realizing this, the management of the Chinese Navy since the 2000s, holds a general upgrading of new types of ships, such as destroyers, 051 and 052 projects, 054 projects frigates, missile boats of Project 022 and Project 094 SSBN. One of the distinguishing features of the PLA Navy, rodnyaschey them with the Russian Navy, is a huge abundance of types of ships inside the 1st class. On this day, the trend remains in force, as the Celestial intensive uses and obsolete, and is comparable to the new types are not going to send them into the reserve.
China's shipbuilding industry is highly centralized and organized a two-state corporation — China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC) and the China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC), which belong to the Northern and Southern regions of the country, respectively. Feature of China's shipbuilding industry is a significant tendency to unite in one large shipyard civilian and military capacities, and shipyards. Yet apart from the giants in the country has a large number of small CVD and SRH, with, in general, very little strategic value.
As part of CSIC are following shipyard. "Dalian" — a large surface shipbuilding center, able to build and repair large ships, presumably right up to the aircraft carriers. "Wuhan" — the largest company in China for the construction of non-nuclear submarines. Besides shipyard produces BDK, minesweepers and support vessels, not so long ago the water was also lowered corvette project 056. "Huludao" — the only shipyard that builds nuclear-powered submarines, torpedoes as well as strategic missile. In addition to CVD, the company consists of 28 research institutes. In fairness, we note that far not all of them work for the military-industrial complex: most of the cases involved a civilian shipbuilding.
Southern Company CSSC also covers the south-east of China. It consists of the following companies. Shanghai regional company directly shipyard "Jiangnan" and "Zhonghua". Last — one of the largest and technologically advanced shipyards. Engaged in the construction of modern ocean-going ships, destroyers, namely type 052D, also spetskorabley tracking the launch of ballistic missiles Yuanwang. In addition, the peninsula of Changqing plan recently to start building your own Chinese aircraft carrier project. "Guangzhou" — on this day, then run the new project 056 corvettes, frigates and Project 054.