End of X-th century marked the end of an era, which is now usually called Lofty migration of peoples. The bloodthirsty Norsemen settled down, becoming a vassal of the French throne. Invasion of the Hungarians was stopped in the river Lech. Running out of time of continuous clashes and attacks of barbarian tribes, Goths, Huns, Avars, Magyars. Advent 1000-tion, it was announced a year of doom and terrible judgment, and the absolute majority of people believe that it will. The whole crowd went to the monasteries to atone for their sins. Divorced countless blessed and holy fools. Farmers work the land were thrown, which led to famine in almost all areas. The birth rate fell rapidly.
Production and technical merit of antiquity have been forgotten and are not applied. Progress has been omens only in the development of weapons and armor. Funds are actually missing from consumption, all with regular exchange of goods. Europe froze in anticipation of December 25, 1000. And this day has come. And it did not work. For completely understandable wave of joy was the realization of one thing — to live on. It seems to be returned to their communities, but that was not the case.
The sole occupation of the Knights was a war. When the raid ended, Hungarians died down and the Normans, was to protect some. Fighters do not have to die in large numbers, as well as the sons of knights should only be knights, this class has to grow rapidly. Coming soon to all the knights do not miss the land and became farmers.
Past class unity began to give harsh crack. Also in Europe in less than 100 years from the year 1000 there was a real population boom. According to various estimates, the population of the big European powers grown from 30 to 40%. What was needed was a new common enemy, the newcomer brings together people thought that justifies the existence of the knight and the feudal class. Puzzle to prevent public explosion took upon his shoulders the Catholic Church, a powerful force ever since, ranking position between the people and the government.
November 26, 1095 near the small French town of Clermont in Auvergne, came an event that played a role of the first stone that starts an avalanche. A week earlier day or vserasprostranen was a rumor that after the closing of the church council, Pope rumor to the people we are. All week, crowds flocked here. They were led by hope personally see and hear the head of the Apostolic See, so rarely absent from Rome.
On the plain before the city had gathered a large mass of people: knights, lords, monks, priests, commoners. What exactly read Urban II for certain is unclear. Survived several variants of speech, but it is unlikely they are authentic. Old dad heard only the first series, and then during breaks his word with commentaries retold standing behind. Urban II had read about the suffering of Christians in the Holy Land, the oppression of pious pilgrims, the desecration of Christian holy sites. Thousands of people were crying and sent a curse. Next Pope urged to pick up a sword, a spear and free the Holy Sepulchre. Instead, he graciously promised to let go of all sins, free from the torments of purgatory and take the church family protection of pilgrims. The sign of the cross was a reddish substance, sewn on clothes. Oath to go to campaign Jerusalem here uttered thousands of people.
Why are the words of Pope caused such response in the middle of so disparate social strata? In-1's, it's all the same truly tremendous power of the Catholic Church in those days. Fear of the Lord's anger, the desire to atone for sins and to avoid punishment for them in the afterlife was of strongest incentive. But there were other prerequisites. One has only to think of the most horrible disaster XI century. They was hungry. Even in normal years, farmers have lived from hand to mouth, barely holding out until the next time. A unless year advancing lean …
The words of the Pope's flowing with milk and honey, the land of Palestine made a profound recollection. East common people seemed a place where there will be hungry and resentful, where there will be masters and owners. Completely different assumptions hyped chivalry and nobility. In the coming days the usual feudal lord no longer wants to enjoy only that could make him the estate. He lusted to wear comfortable and beautiful odezhki of expensive fabrics, drinking excellent wines, there are only of gold and silver ware. All this required money, and then squeeze-nibudt more of starving farmers was unreal. These criteria call for Urban II to go to the Crusade campaign, meant the opportunity to capture untold treasures and new land. And what it was a nice chance to show off their military prowess and combat skills. So Makar, the Pope's speech, which was built according to the rules of oratory, touched chord in the hearts of representatives of various social strata and groups.
After the cathedral of Clermont, Pope Urban II traveled to France, stopping in every town and castle, repeating its own call to free the Holy Land. On the roads of Europe, like ripples in the water, dispersed thousands of preachers. Their words found a response. Thousands and thousands of farmers, knights, thieves even took the cross and vowed to liberate Jerusalem. The knights were drawn to his sovereign, to have consented to the role in the campaign. Farmers abandoned fields and houses, going to bolshennye along w
ith hordes of landless knights and common criminals. By the spring of 1096 all of Europe was in turmoil, like a giant boiler. Thus began the first The Cross campaign …
It is worth noting that in the XI century Muslim world stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the upper reaches of the Ganges, from the lands of Africa to the Kipchak steppe. On this terrain lived hundreds of people, thousands of towns and villages, millions of people, the followers of the Prophet Muhammad. Their sacred that the Quran is wonderful in everything. But the whole is essentially a product, as a result of the imposition of economic, geographic and cultural differences of the Muslim peoples, has led to its ideological interpretation of the book in various parts of the East, a rare variety of different and even extravagant forms.
A total of East was committed eight Crusades. They all ended unsuccessfully, before reaching its goal (or reaching, but temporarily), and without deciding any of the main problems facing Europe in the Middle Ages, allowing only ease the general tension that contributed to the strengthening of royal power. The war brought great setbacks and suffering peoples of Near East, accompanied by liquidation of cultural and material values. But the Catholic Church has considerably strengthened its financial position and has made new universities — the Order, which played an important role in the upcoming. But the woes and the collapse of hopes and aspirations of Europeans undermined the authority of the church. Participants campaigns closely acquainted with the culture of the East with Muslim characters and customs, religion. The Crusaders have seen people similar to themselves. Own courage and military skill opponent has caused in their honor and recognition. The Crusades introduced the West with Arab and Greek science. Received substantial development of mathematics, medicine, astronomy, linguistics. Spiritual life, culture and art were pulled out of the clutches in which they held the Catholic Church. So Makar, the Crusades have paved the way for the advent of the Renaissance. Italian negotiators from Genoa, Venice and other cities began to lead active trading business with the East, bringing a lot of different things and goods that are not recognized in Europe or very rare. We can say that the Crusades contributed to increase the mobility of Europeans. After all, earlier, for most of their biggest journey was a trip to the adjacent city. Overcoming the fear of the unknown was the basis for the coming period stateliness of Discovery.
Unfortunately, in the Crusades were also negative effects. The long confrontation between East and West led to the emergence of jihad — a response aggressively hostile reaction of the Western world from the eastern states. After strshnogo September 11 terrorist attacks last South American President George W. Bush, randomly or intentionally used the word in his own speech "The Cross campaign. " It was judged that the Muslim world has all the reasons to sulk on the West and today's terrorist attacks have their roots in a bloody and bloody Crusades, who turn to ruins many eastern countries, differing in the middle of the rest of the high culture and tolerance of outsiders. In other words, the current terrorist threat to blame only the Crusaders. Osama bin Laden's own taped speeches constantly called war on terror western states new crusade against Islam.