Astrophysicist Mario Livio is divided into five stories of the great scientific mistakes in his new book, "The outstanding gross errors." These stories will first try to prove that even the smartest of us can make mistakes.
1. The concept of heredity Darwin
In 1859, Charles Darwin was founded theory of natural selection. What makes this discovery incredible is the fact that Darwin and many of his colleagues believed in the theory of heredity. Whereas, following this theory, natural selection would have been simply impossible. However, not recognizing the conflict between two opposing theories, Darwin and made this incredible discovery.
2. Kelvin's estimate of the age of the Earth
In the 19th century, Lord Kelvin, the first to use physics to calculate the age of the Earth and the Sun. Despite the fact that the two celestial bodies were about 50 times younger than they really are, self discovery was a scientific breakthrough.
Lord Kelvin believed that the Earth was originally the hot bowl and then slowly cooled. He tried to calculate how long it would take the planet to reach its current temperature. Unfortunately, his calculations were wrong, and later others have pointed out the error, but Calvin chose not to agree with their opinion, as before, he was always right.
3 Triple Helix Pauling
James D. Watson and Francis Crick are known for the discovery of the DNA double helix in 1953., But in the same year, a chemist Linus Pauling proposed a different idea for the structure of DNA.
Pauling was the greatest chemist, and even twice received the Nobel Prize, but at this time the scientist was wrong in his theory. According to him, instead of two strands twisted into a helix, DNA consists of three interrelated strands. As a result of this error has caused considerable damage to his reputation.
4. The Big Bang Theory Hoyle
Astrophysicist Fred Hoyle was one of the authors of the well-known model of the universe, which assumed that the universe is constantly in the same condition. When Hoyle learned about the controversial theory, which suggests that it was the result of some event, he called it the Big Bang theory, and continued to remain true to his theory.
While at first the two theories have the right to exist, the most serious mistake was Hoyle's rejection of new ideas even after the steady state theory collapsed under a huge amount of evidence against her.
5. Einstein's cosmological constant
Albert Einstein is undoubtedly one of the greatest minds in history, however, and he was not immune from mistakes. In his equations that explain gravity in his general theory of relativity, published in 1916, he made a mistake.
Among the members included in the equations of Einstein called the cosmological constant so only because he thought the universe was static. Later, when astronomers discovered that it is actually expanding, Einstein admitted his mistake and deleted it from his equations.
Only after his death, when it was discovered that the universe is not only expanding, but also extends to the ever-growing rate, it appears that this mistake Einstein was just what he took away from this constant equations. Later, she was returned to all the equations of the scientist.