Unfortunately creators of ideas, the difficulty of systematization — it is far not the most severe difficulties wheeled tanks. At the level of the own ideology, they have a number of relevant features, which over the years caused considerable debate in military circles, and in the middle of professionals and amateurs of military equipment. In most cases, wheeled tanks compared to the languid tracked armored vehicles, because of what the discussion is very rarely end with the consent of the parties. Try to understand what is decent and what are bad wheel BMTV also try to predict the future with strong armored guns.
First you need to understand the prerequisites for the emergence of the first wheeled tanks and the formation of their kind. If their older counterparts tracked formed to work in the European criteria, which have undergone a major wars of the last century, the wheeled armored vehicles with gun armament in some measure are "a product of" the landscape of other continents. As an example of the first wheel of the tank is often a French armored car Panhard AML, one of which carried a variant of the 90-millimeter gun. Wheel undercarriage of the armored car proved to be excellent in the criteria of Africa during the various wars with the role of France. As for weapons, the gun CN-90FJ was effective against virtually all of the purposes for which the soldiers had to fight the French. But the main impetus to the creation of an armored car with a languid severe gun battle actions were in southern Africa. South African military rather quickly concluded that more effective in those criteria will be wheeled armored vehicle with a minimum of bulletproof protection and anti-tank weapons, such as guns or anti-tank systems. Immediately this appeared first ideas regarding armored systems MRAP.
Wheeled chassis were considered more promising because of their decent resource. During the battles with the Angolan armed militias South African soldiers very often had to take long marches by road. Caterpillars traditional tanks in such a case, the rapidly falling into disrepair, and the vast majority of the latest technology to make steel on wheels. In addition, the impact of production capacity and geographical features of the area. Because of comparable hard soil properties savannah terrain tracked tanks were sverhizbytochnymi, which, however, had virtually no effect on the wear tracks. Such a fascinating approach to the selection of the chassis ultimately affected the South African army as a whole — even real self-propelled artillery carried on a wheeled base.
Practically speaking, specifically, excellent running properties on ordinary roads with the highest resource mover was the main premise that the right of the South African armored vehicles began to appear Ratel FSV90 other cars of similar species. Over time, the number of armored cars with languid cannon armament headed for those sizes at which you can read about a trend. Now widely known French ERC-90 and AMX-10RC, Italian Centauro, South American M1128 MGS and other cars in its class. Russian military and designers is not to determine the need for similar equipment of our armed forces, but have already shown interest in zabugornom developments that may assist to form a general idea of the construction of the wheel of the tank.
It should be noted in the main have enjoyed only design details. The fact that the entire mass of wheeled tanks in a real large-scale hostilities could participate only South African Ratel FSV90. Other machines of this class participated in the battles only in small amounts and only in small local conflicts, where they had to fight a war with poorly kitted opponent. So, in 1992, eight Italian Centauro were sent to Somalia, where he participated in a peacekeeping operation. Almost immediately it became clear that the power of a 105-mm gun LR spare, to deal with the overwhelming majority of the goals encountered by Italian peacekeepers. Because most of the combat missions concerned the observation of the terrain and the issuance of disk imaging patrols, what is very useful the new observation instruments. Armored vehicles, heavy weaponry was used only in certain cases, to self-defense. In all this did not work without prirekany. At first, the fighter did not work for sturdiness tires. The condition of roads in Somalia was, to say the least, unsatisfactory: even the main highway of the country, "Imperial Highway" at the time of arrival of the armored cars "Centaur" is not beheld four years repairmen, and other ways things were even worse. Because of this, the Italian peacekeepers very often had to change the wheel due to constant injuries. Over time, the Centauro are equipped with sturdier tires. The problem was more severe reservations. The case of Italian wheeled tank was made with the expectation of shelling out a small 12.7-millimeter guns, but in some kinds of cases during the ambush, "Centaurs" received severe damage from the DShK. More severe armament, for example RPG-7 could just kill the armored car. For these reasons, the Italians had to urgently book with Engl
and reactive armor kits ROMOR-A. Thanks to the timely enhance the protection, Italy has not lost in Somalia or the 1st wheel of the tank.
Noteworthy that in time fighting in Somalia appeared all of the major shortcomings of the concept of the wheel of the tank. Despite the preliminary calculations, wheeled an engine in practice had huge advantages over the caterpillar. Most of the maximum speed in the real criteria was not possible due to lack of no bad roads and off-road cross-wheeled vehicles was often worse than the track. In addition, the "Centaur" to the first embodiment of wheels, as already stated, were subject to permanent damage to the tires. As for the resource chassis, because of specific loads when driving on rough terrain actual wear was even higher than calculated, just at the level of tank tracks. In the end, all that seemed advantages associated with different qualities of movement, had been "killed" the real situation. In the coming Centauro armored car was a little modified, namely increased resource chassis.
Second "Somali" the problem was related to the level of protection. In the development of the first wheeled tanks assumed that this technique will take on the role of the main tanks in the conflict, with poorly-armed enemy. Because most of the armored vehicles with languid arms are not equipped with protivosnaryadnym booking. Yet has first usages wheel tanks local conflicts showed at least understood disposition such technical solutions. Machines with bulletproof armor can adequately confront the enemy, armed with only a small cannon. But against artillery or tanks, they are just worthless. Here you can remember sverhizbytochnuyu power tools, as manifested even in Somalia. The result is a rather quixotic machine wheelbase, massive gun and a weak defense. As throughout the history of armored vehicles developed by way of the balance of weapons and defense. Wheeled tanks, in turn, have tried to break this techno "tradition", but did not have gained special of success. Moreover, the installation of a massive gun in the case with some BMTV has conceived a very notable impact. Most wheel tanks is comparable highest center of gravity (higher than the conventional tank circuit) such that rotation of the tower at a large angle from the longitudinal axis may lead to the machine tipping sideways. Tracked MBT such tasks do not have.
As already mentioned, the Italian "Centaurs" while working in Somalia have received additional protection modules. On the same path and went elsewhere. For example, the South American wheel tank M1128 MGS Stryker family is equipped with a whole set of tools to increase the level of protection. All of these armor panels and grilles protivokumulyativnymi increasing the overall weight of the machine, compounding its driving characteristics. At the same time, almost all military wheeled tanks have less weight 20-25 tons, is substantially less than a respective parameter at least some modern MBT. As a consequence, the transfer of wheeled vehicles with a languid arms becomes more commonplace, if transportation tanks.
Tanks for the carriage of wheeled military transport aviation forces more vserasprostranennyh aircraft (C-130, and others like him) is one of the main reasons for the fact that this class of technology continues to evolve and it is not leaving the military "scene." Military conflicts of recent years have led to the formation of the modern concept of introduction of troops, implying a spirited transfer of a war zone. Military some states have developed this idea to the kind of exciting: the first to the site of battles to come easy technique is comparable, such as armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles of the same wheeled tanks. Further, as required, to the front of the strip can be delivered more languid vsepolnotsennyh armored vehicles like tanks or self-propelled artillery. So Makar, light and medium armored vehicles, including tanks and wheel, gives the function main striking force of ground troops, which has the highest mobility.
And yet the introduction of wheeled vehicles with a massive arms asks the right approach to the planning of operations. For example, wheeled tanks shall not meet in battle with crawlers or with artillery, otherwise the result of this encounter is unlikely to be good for art on wheels. In this case, wheeled tanks should fight the lightly armored enemy vehicles, for example, with armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles, without going into the affected area of their guns. It concerns the armed conflicts of the highest intensity. In the case of counterterrorism, counterinsurgency or peacekeeping operations, the use of wheeled tanks also asks the right planning, but with all this, so there is no need "to protect" wheeled armored vehicles to meet with the caterpillar tanks and artillery. At the same time, guerrilla attacks the opponent may claim a corresponding approach to the protection of machines that need to be performed in accordance with the concept of MRAP.
Professionals have long been no secret that the wheel tracked tanks with twin the only word in the title, also informally, as a large caliber gun. But at times, in different contexts pops the question crowding the main tanks wheeled armored vehicles with a weary arms. As is clear from the above facts, the present state of affairs wheel tank not be able to not only do all the functions vsepolnotsenno MBT, and even to come close to last for a number of traits. In this regard, a substitution of tracked vehicles wheel, even partial, yet nowhere is the question. As for the future of wheeled tanks, the future development of this idea is likely to go the way of improved protection while maintaining a comparable small militant mass. Armament should remain the same, because the setting even more massive guns than, for example, in Italian "Centaur" is associated with a number of technical problems that are simply impossible to decide whether to keep the existing advantages of this class of equipment.
But the final say in shaping the future of the form of wheeled tanks still remains with the realities of military conflicts shortly, which participated in this technique. During the practical implementation of all available BMTV large backlog of claims for the design, some of which have already been solved. Yet, a large number of problems remained and correction may significantly change the type of wheeled tanks. But most likely, and in this case they will
not be able to push one hundred percent normal tanks on the tracks.
Nicholas M., Ilyin V. Battle Tank. — Moscow: AST / AST, 2001