June evening to Vvedensky convent in Ivanovo modest black car drove up. Got out Abbot Damascene (Orlovsky), secretary of the Synodal Commission for the Causes of the Russian Orthodox Church, who brought the relics of St. Vladimir Lezhnevskaya, died at Solovki in 1931. But neither the nuns nor their confessor, Archimandrite Ambrose, in the evening a special joy at the arrival of the new sanctuary is not experienced. The relics arrived in Moscow together with the papers of the Patriarchate, which prescribes to remove the remains of the monastery of another Confessor — St. Basil Kineshma. The relics are very revered in Ivanovo St. Basil kept in the monastery since its opening in 1993.
The last time the sisters gathered for a prayer service at the relics, served him hastily: Moscow guests obviously in a hurry. Cancer discovered Abbot Damascene with assistant carried the relics of the church and loaded into the trunk of his car. The same evening the machine went back to Moscow. One of the Ivanovo churches managers, Head of Church and Society of the Ivanovo-Voznesensky diocese abbot Vitali (Utkin) just made an entry in his Twitter, which implies that the relics were removed from personal blessing of the Patriarch, and representatives of the Diocese of Ivanovo-Voznesensky at withdrawal were not present.
"Abbot Damascene with the relics of St. Basil left the Ivanovo region, in order to deliver the shrine to the place that will be for her determined Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill " — Ended his record Utkin. Since then, no nuns, no other residents Ivanov about the fate of the shrine is not known.
Three months later, in September, the teacher of the Moscow Theological Academy, the priest Theodore Lyudogovsky bought svezheizdanny calendar of the Moscow Patriarchate in 2013. Father Theodore, a specialist on religious texts, each year, by order of a small publisher does his version of the calendar with the addition of scripture readings for each day. So do many church and fringes of the publishing houses are taking as a basis the official calendar released by the Patriarchate, and make different inserts — sermons, pictures, recipes, meatless dishes. The official calendar — schedule liturgical life of the Russian Orthodox Church for a year.
"I opened the calendar, — says Father Fyodor, — and found that, compared to my last year's net was something missing. There were no names of many new martyrs, but in general in view of the saints of the XX century has been a change for the better. In general alphabetical index of the saints in the annexes to the calendar I missing names also found. "
Father Fyodor wrote about his discovery in the community of "Charter" on the website livejournal.com, which brings together experts in canon law and church services. Since the disappearance of the Russian Orthodox Church calendar several dozen names of saints became known in the art. Employees of the department calendar ORTHODOXY who are also involved in discussions on the "Charter", immediately refuted the assumption of technical failure. According to them, all the details of the new martyrs made to the calendar strictly in accordance with the documents that they passed out of the Synodal Commission for canonization. A few days later on the "Charter" was published a consolidated list of "loss" — 36 names. The most revered and famous of the saints was erased Basil Kineshemsky.
Biography of Bishop Basil (in the world — Benjamin Sergeyevich Transfiguration) initially built pretty typical of the clergy. Born in the family of a priest provincial Kineshma in 1876, he graduated from the seminary there, Kostroma Seminary and the Kiev Academy. Engaged in theology, he taught at the Voronezh Seminary.
Then begins the fun part: in 1910-1911 he lived in England, where he studied modern European languages. There he came to lecture the founder of Scouting, Robert Baden-Powell, who had made on him was so impressed that he returned to Russia, he got a job in high school — first in Mirgorod, then in Moscow — and finished the Pedagogical Institute. In 1914, he again went to England specifically to study scouting, went to summer camp. After this trip, began working on the book "Boy Scouts. Manual self youth system "scouting" Sir Robert Baden-Powell for the conditions of Russian life and nature ", which was released in 1917. "The need for education of the will and moral emotions is particularly acute in the Russian society, and all efforts going in the wrong direction, deserve serious attention, no matter how they are flawed" — written in this book.
Revolution in Moscow, he met and was so impressed by it that he left with a teacher and went to his home Kineshma. There he served in the temple with his old father, and taught the children the law of God. In 1920, at age 45, he became a priest, he was soon tonsured a monk named Basil and a year later was ordained a bishop Kineshma.
Then begins life. Abandon any property, lived in a bath, sleeping on the bare floor, resting head on a log, preached, heard confessions and helped. When the Ivanovo region began to bring children from starving Volga region, said in a sermon: "Soon will come the holidays Easter celebration. When you come from the festive service and sit at the table, then you'll remember the starving children. " According to witnesses, many farmers appeal to the conscience and adopted children to their families.
Biography is once again becoming more typical: Bishop Basil shared the fate of the majority of the bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1923, he was sent for the first time — in Zyryansky edge for two years. Short return to freedom interspersed with references and stints and were accompanied by new appointments in the diocese (he had visited Vyaznikovsky Bishop, Vicar Vladimir Diocese, and Ivanovo). When the war for freedom was only four Orthodox bishop, and Bishop Basil was not part of them. In exile, he secretly conducted services and even organized underground circles for the Study of the Gospel. During the war was in Yaroslavl prison, Moscow inner prison of the NKVD and Butyrka. He died in 1945 in the village of Birilyussy Krasnoyarsk Territory.
It took 40 years, and in 1985 the young priest Ambrose (Yurasov), who served in the village of Ivanovo Frying diocese received a letter. "One day I was handed a letter — triangle stitched around the perimeter on the machine, that is strictly confidential — from a man who was sub-deacon by Bishop Basil and knew where he was buried, — said Fr Ambrose — and my father and Damascene (Orlovsky) go to Krasnoyarsk, where he died in exile St. Basil. For more than 40 years in the grave grew an enormous Siberian wood and braided back a coffin, it did not give. I had to cut down a tree. Body almost entirely sotlelo but remained blackened bones of the hands, feet and a light skull. The remains we moved first in Moscow and then, when we opened the Monastery of, in Ivanovo. I took a picture of the holy shrine of Thessaloniki, which I liked, and the same carved wooden shrine we did here. I put myself and the power, and the bishop's vestments in this cancer. We had a possessed woman Barbara, so when we put the power, she fell, screaming, and the demon came out of it. It is now still alive. Many people came and asked for the prayers of St. Basil and benefit. "
In the same 1993 Bishop Basil Kineshma recognized locally venerated saints Ivanovo diocese, and in 2000, when he was kanonizovan New Martyrs and Confessors of the Russian, — the Russian saints.
However, some historians doubt as to his holiness. Religious writer and historian Paul Protsenko in 2003 published in the newspaper "NG-Religion" study, which claims that there are four editions of the official Life of St. Basil, signed by one author — Abbot Damascene (Orlovsky). In each new release image of the saint is becoming smoother and less controversial.
So, we know that Bishop Basil was convinced "nepominayuschim," that is an outspoken opponent of the declaration of Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky) 1927 loyalty to the Soviet government. Movement "nepominayuschih" led a very authoritative hierarchy, despite the death of almost all their leaders, lasted until the end of the 1940s. From this environment underground and therefore free communities emerged, for example, the mother and aunt of Archpriest Alexander Men. The first version of the life of St. Basil belongs to the "nepominayuschim" is mentioned, and in the third version says that his community adopted the "Declaration."
But the most controversial story concerns the last arrest in 1943. Protsenko writes: "Of the options IIB (the second version of the Life 1993 — Comm. KL) that he's not just been broken during the investigation, but has stipulated many believers who considered him their spiritual leader. He not only admitted fabrications investigators in his creation of an anti-Soviet organization (then blame would fall on him alone), but also mentioned the names of specific its "members" and the composition of their alleged "crimes". " In defense of Bishop Basil said that "from God not deny demanding" and that he only mentioned the names of those who already knew the result.
In later versions of the life of omitted fact slander people, and self-incrimination because the bishop does not stand "starvation against the infirmities of old age and disease." According to the historian, confirmed by archival documents, the bishop gave to the investigation arrested with him one day Iraida Tikhov — an active supporter of "nepominayuschih", which gave him shelter in his house in a village near Uglich Kotov, where Bishop Basil settled, coming once again to freedom before the war. Iraida Tikhova, to help him in the organization of religious circles, pleaded not guilty, and on the testimony of the bishop received five years imprisonment.
Archimandrite Ambrose still believes that "Saint Basil — Holy. You never know who has what mistakes have been in life. But he repented. There are temples dedicated to him, some took the vows with his name, our mother at the monastery as he prayed and prayed, as he is in the saints. "
Canonization in Russia
The first Russian saints were princes Boris and Gleb. Baptism of Rus' to the abolition of the patriarchate of Peter I was canonized 300 saints. For two hundred years, the synodal period in the Russian Orthodox Church made only five of canonization, but seven other holy Synod glorified under Nicholas II. The most famous Nicholas canonization — honoring St. Seraphim of Sarov in 1903, when the Emperor insisted reckoning elder canonized contrary to the majority of the members of the Synod and of the chief prosecutor Constantine Pobedonostsev.
Under the Soviet regime the appearance of new saints for a long time it was impossible. However, when the Soviet government began to use the Church in international relations, was allowed to canonize "foreign policy" of the saints — Herman and Nicholas of Japan. In 1987 he begins preparations to celebrate the Millennium of the Baptism of Russia, and at the same time created the historical and legal group at the Commission for the anniversary celebration. This group is led by Metropolitan Krutitsa and Kolomna (Poyarkova) produced nine canonized saints, including Andrei Rublev, Maxim the Greek, Theophan the Recluse, Blessed Xenia of Petersburg. After celebrating the group transformed into a permanent Commission on the Causes of Saints of the Holy Synod. Metropolitan Juvenal headed it until 2011.
In 1942, the NKVD on behalf of the Politburo adopted the "necessary measures to secure the publication of the Moscow Patriarchate of the book-album" The truth about religion in the USSR "in accordance with the submitted plan." It was one of counter-propaganda moves in response to the enactment of the German religious map of the occupied territories. In this edition of the Moscow Patriarchate says: "In the years after the October Revolution in Russia, there have been numerous processes of the clerics. What church leaders tried these? Solely for the fact that they are hiding behind the banner of the robe and the church, were anti-Soviet activities. These were the political process, is not had nothing to do with the purely ecclesiastical life of religious organizations and purely religious work of individual priests. Orthodox church itself loudly and strongly condemned such renegades its changes its open line honest loyalty to the Soviet regime. "
This official position of the Russian Orthodox Church, which received within the same Stalinist counter-propaganda campaign to elect the Patriarch and open schools, followed by all the years of Soviet power: the persecution of believers in the Soviet Union was not. "Nepominayuschie" and many other groups of believers to stay abroad legally, but after the death of Patriarch Sergius much of it is gradually coming out of the underground and visibly merged with the official Church. Confessors who survive interrogation and many years in the camps, shared their experience. Famous old men, which in 1960-1980's were a real pilgrimage both intellectuals and hippies, and completely ordinary people — John (Krestiankin), Paul (milk), Tavrion (Batozsky) — themselves passed through the camps. Many monks lived ruined monasteries in the world and who have worked in the family of the Soviet intelligentsia nurses (very reliable way of a nurse-nuns Vasilisa the "casus Kukotsky" Lyudmila Ulitskaya coincides with the story of the son of Andrei Zolotov music critic of his nanny Tatenke though chronologically Zolotov wrote his memoirs about living in his family Diveevsk nun after the release of the novel), and who — in Soviet research institutes (such as a nun in the world Ignatius (Puzik) from the community of the monastery was Vysokopetrovsky doctor of biological sciences dealing with the research of tuberculosis, and the house secretly writing a book "in the Eldership years of persecution "in order to preserve the memory of his mentor — Ignatius Martyr and unique community, which he has created and nourished in the 1920-1930's). Oral tradition of holiness, shown during the Red Terror and repression, continued in the family of the clergy. Priestly clans had not been destroyed by the roots: Pravdolyubovy, Sokolova, Ambartsumova preserved the memory of the victims grandfathers hoped to learn the circumstances of their death.
Along with the royal family to the holy listed as Aloysius Catholic and Lutheran Troupe Catherine Schneider.
The idea that the dead in the Soviet persecutions may kanonizovany, brought from abroad, along with the "tamizdat." In emigre circles as circulating memories and real evidence, and myths about the persecution of believers. Already in 1925, in Paris, was published the "Black Book (" Storming Heaven "). Collection of documentary data describing the struggle of the Soviet communist regime against all religion, against all faiths and churches, "Alexander Valentine. Fr Michael Polish, from 1921 to 1930 and visited the Solovki Special Purpose Camp, in exile in Zyryansky region, managed not only to escape from prison, but to leave the USSR through the Persian frontier. Once abroad, he joined the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCA) and wrote the work "New Martyrs Russian." This two-volume edition, published in Jordanville in 1949 (the first volume) i1957-m (the second volume), has become one of the bestselling religious tamizdat in the USSR. Polish based removed them from the USSR memories, oral histories and separate publications in international journals has revolutionized the lives of several dozen known to the church people killed mostly in the Civil War and the beginning of repression. Already in 1977, in Paris, published a book of religious dissident Lev Regelson, "The Tragedy of the Russian Church. 1917-1945 year, "annexed a vast chronicle. Regelson's book was written in the Soviet Union, so he and his team not only collected oral histories, but also worked in the available archives (mostly — the archives of the theological academies in Zagorsk and Leningrad).
On the basis of data collected in these books, memoirs, and other disparate data ROCOR in 1981 canonized the royal family, Patriarch Tikhon and New Martyrs. Thus it was not formalized, exactly who was a member of that council. Along with the royal family to the holy have ranked all the victims with her servants, including the Catholic and Lutheran Aloysius Troupe Catherine Schneider, — which is particularly noteworthy given the tough stance antiekumenicheskuyu Orthodox Church. Tough opponent Metropolitan Sergius, the leader of "nepominayuschih" Metropolitan Joseph (Petrov) is mentioned as a holy martyr in the canon of the ROCOR and today, after the union with the Moscow Patriarchate.
In the USSR in the 1960-1980's, as seen in the book Regelson, also secretly gathering information and documents about the believers who were killed and injured during the persecution. Professor of mathematics, one of the first programmers of the Soviet database systems Nikolay Emelyanov searched and process information about the shot and injured on religious articles. In the early 90's, when the church had access to the archives of the KGB and it became possible to formalize the details and get the photos, he created a database of "For Christ suffered", which now includes 34,000 biographies. The so-called "people's reverence for" the New Martyrs, a prerequisite for official recognition of sanctity, also dated back in the late Soviet power. Especially revered royal family — even went on pilgrimage to Sverdlovsk, where else was intact Ipatiev house.
Therefore, in the early 90's, despite the ambiguity still remains the official position of the Patriarchate, the Commission started to prepare for the canonization of the glorification of the New Martyrs and Confessors. His role is played and personal position of Patriarch Alexy II, who grew up in emigre circles, participated in the Russian Student Christian Movement in Estonia and from childhood he knew about the persecution. The first new martyrs were canonized by Patriarch Tikhon and the Grand Duchess Elizabeth.
OGPU — the source of truth
Standard requirements to be met by the candidate in the saints — righteous life, impeccable orthodox belief, popular worship, recorded miracles, and if there is, imperishable power. Most of canonized saints do not pass one or several of these items. But they have other, are difficult to formalize, will take special grace received from God. Catholics this grace is called "charisma of holiness", the Orthodox sometimes speak of "the gift of holiness." Saints are not infallible, but it is close to God, "about? Wives."
After the Synod of Bishops, or the local council approves the canonization of a person on it for the last time a memorial service for the dead as a Christian, then read out the act of canonization and serve as a public prayer. From this point you can access it in prayer. Of course, no commission on canonization and the Council of Bishops decided, holy man or not, although it is believed that the miracles and incorrupt relics prove that man is saved in the next life, and it can serve as an example and help the living. Archimandrite Ambrose admitted: "The canonization of the danger: a person may still be in need of prayer for the repose of the Church, and we, in haste can kanonizovat man and bring him harm. After the canonization of the saint is not needed: it is already holy. This is what we need his prayers. "
Martyrs — Christians who died for Christ — always related to a particular category of saints. In Catholicism, where the canonization process has several steps and extremely formalized, the martyrs — the only category of the saints, for the canonization of which is not necessarily witnessed miracles. Their death itself recognized a miracle. In the Orthodox tradition is called holy martyrs who died for their faith before the fall of Constantinople. Mainly the Christians of the first centuries, fallen in the persecution of the Roman Empire, which began with the cult of martyrdom. The majority of the most famous and revered saints — martyrs: Tatiana, Barbara, Catherine, Faith, Hope, Love and their mother Sophia and so on. Suffered for their faith since 1453 called the New Martyrs. In Greece, thousands of martyrs canonized (known by the names of about two hundred) who were killed by the Turks for centuries.
In Russia, New Martyrs canonized in 2000 by the Council of Bishops, together with the royal family. Then the names were kanonizovano 860 saints whose cases the commission on canonization were ready for this moment. By the end of 2011 in the Orthodox calendar is already to 1774 named the new martyrs.
One of the oldest types of hagiography were "acts of martyrdom" — records of the Roman authorities, where they recorded the behavior of Christians and the words spoken by them before execution. For canonization need not necessarily evidence of fellow believers. Executioners also be witnesses of holiness. Yet the Roman martyrs were known to the people, their punishment was public, and their bodies are usually buried in the catacombs — that is, the location of the relics was precisely defined.
Russian martyrs killed in secret, their remains were buried in pits shootings across the country, and the only direct killers had witnessed their deaths. In the archives of the FSB stored sentences, protocols, operational business development — these papers became the main source of information for the Commission for canonization. When the diocese filed documents to the Commission on the Causes of Saints, in addition to the lives they applied the maximum number of backups: profile prisoner, records of interrogations and confrontations, the indictment, the sentence three, the act of reducing the sentence. The members of the Commission concludes biography alleged martyr, nature and scope of communication, attitude and behavior during the investigation, the papers, released from the pen of staff of the Cheka-GPU-NKVD. Because other sources in most cases, it was not simple.
One of the main criteria — the behavior of the investigation. In reading the lives of the martyrs is a strange feeling: inhuman cruelty and counter resistance, but often the word of faith. In pure form of martyrdom, which can be avoided by denying Christ's death as a consequence of their own choice, worthy one.
Immediately after the revolution and during the Civil War destroyed the clergy for not believing in God, but as one of the exploiting classes, which was to disappear. Landowners killed only for the fact that they landlords, merchants — for what they are merchants, Cossacks — for what they are Cossacks. Intellectuals and officers, not recycled in the service of Soviet power — for what did not. And whether any of them pious or not, the Bolsheviks was not interested.
The first of brutally torn priests, one of the most influential bishops of the pre-revolutionary Russia, Metropolitan Vladimir of Kiev and Galicia (Epiphany) was assassinated in 1918 as the representative of the government: the same could they decided the governor or the general. And the other sainted bishop, who was killed in 1922, Metropolitan of Petrograd, Veniamin (Kazan), in contrast, an obvious example of martyrdom for the faith: to oppose obnovlencheskogo split (initiated by the Bolsheviks trying to create an alternative "Soviet church"), guilty in the investigation is not recognized in his last word proved innocent others arrested in the case.
The idea of canonization mass led to the fact that not only the martyrs, but also victims of social violence were glorified as saints.
During the Great Terror of the clergy and laity, "the clerics' judged primarily on Article 58, paragraphs 10 and 11 -" anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda ", perfect alone or a group of persons. Many were convicted of counter-revolutionary and terrorist activities. The task of the investigators was to incriminate the accused political crime, forcing him to admit it and to give as much as possible accomplices. Therefore, the main criterion for canonization served witnessed Soviet investigative authorities refusal to plead guilty and to give other people. Self-incrimination, signed the protocol, a confession — it all becomes an obstacle for canonization.
"Nepominayuschie," that is not recognized by the authorities of Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky) could be kanonizovany, but their cases were checked more thoroughly. Archbishop Seraphim (Samoilovich), who was shot in 1937 as a member of the counter-revolutionary group in the camp in Kemerovo, recognized as a saint. In the early 30's, while in exile in Arkhangelsk, he called a "small catacomb cathedral" — a collection of several exiled bishops who declared Metropolitan Sergius prohibited from serving, and all his activities since 1927 — uncanonical. In his "Letter" published in 1929 in the foreign "Church News," Archbishop Seraphim wrote: "… all the bans imposed and imposed by the so-called Deputy Patriarchal Locum Tenens Metropolitan Sergius and his so-called Provisional Patriarchal Synod, illegal and non-canonical, for Metropolitan Sergius and his followers broke collegiality, gives her "oligarchic colleagues," trampled on the inner freedom of the Church of God, destroyed the very principle of the elective principle of the episcopate. " Approximately the same point of view holy Metropolitan Kirill (Kazan), Bishop Victor (Ostrovidov), calling the faithful to disobey the Soviet authorities as a devil, and a few others.
When the Church Abroad in 1981, spent her canonization Catholic martyrs and confessors of the Russian, was canonized as a saint, and Archbishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky). But the Russian Orthodox Church canonized him refused.
Biography of Archbishop Theodore resonates with the biography of St. Basil Kineshma. They were born in the same 1876, both the families of the priests in the Kostroma province, graduated from the same Kostroma seminary. Likely to have been familiar with. Then the next St. Basil went to study at the Kiev Academy and Archbishop Theodore — in Kazan. Further their ways diverge, although both were associated with the spiritual education. A monk in 1900, Archbishop Theodore teaches in Kaluga Kazan and seminaries, and then became rector of the seminary of Tambov. In 1905 he created the Tambov "Union of Russian people" — anti-revolutionary monarchist organization, which included ten thousand people, mostly — peasants. In 1909 he became rector of the Moscow Theological Seminary and Academy, where he served until the revolution. He continued his conservative-monarchist line denounced Marxism, which carries away many of the students and teachers involved in theology. Entered into a confrontation with liberal-minded part of the professors fired, inviting teachers of monks or priests. In this case, a friend of Paul Florensky (and influenced his choice of priesthood), corresponded with Vasily Rozanov.
In May 1917, Archbishop Theodore was appointed rector of the Danilov Monastery in Moscow. He immediately took a tough stance against the Bolsheviks, Patriarch Tikhon criticized for being too flexible attitude to Soviet power, exclude the possibility of even minimal compromises. So were the bishops, who in 1920 were living with him in the Danilov Monastery in between the links and the arrests, sometimes they used to have 10 people. Informally, the group became known as the bishops' synod Danilov. " Archbishop Theodore of the first arrested v1920-m, he was sitting in the Taganka prison, then three more were arrested at different times, until deported in 1925 to Kazakhstan for espionage.
Five times the Commission denies the canonization of Theodosius Caucasian.
In 1927, all members of the "Danilov Synod" is not adopted the Declaration of Metropolitan Sergius and refused to commemorate the Soviet power in worship. In 1930, Archbishop Theodore link ended, he lived a year in Vladimir, after which he was arrested again and sent to three years in Svirlag. Here he lived in a hut with Alexei Fedorovich Losev, who later in his memoirs, called him a "great man" and "almost the first on my way out of this monk hierarchy." Further it is also released twice and imprisoned until the last time was not arrested in 1937 in Syktyvkar. And here begins the "last investigative file Archbishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky)", as a researcher named Tatiana Petrova his book about the process, released Danilov Monastery in 2010.
In this book, published documents of the case, which is stored in the archives of the FSB Department for the Ivanovo region, and by which Pozdeevsky AF was charged that he "was a leader of the underground counter-revolutionary organization of churchmen." Archbishop Theodore shot in Ivanovo in 1937 (and again Kineshma relationship with Basil, who was for some time the Bishop of Ivanovo and Ivanovo is venerated as a saint — there for 20 years he kept his power). It is these documents, mostly interrogation reports formed the basis on which the Commission refused to worship the canonization of Archbishop Theodore as a saint.
Petrov (and not only that, some other historians of the same opinion) proves that falsified records, and the whole thing was fabricated by the investigators. First, the words attributed to Archbishop Theodore, stylistically and lexically very different from protocol to protocol: the beginning of the investigation, he said normal language monk of the early twentieth century, it gradually becomes more and more replicas of Soviet newspeak for the church and the strange human language until last interrogation he confessed that he was "set up all-union counter-revolutionary organization of the clergy and the clergy." Second, the last minutes of this interview is in three versions, of which the first — hand-written on five sheets, of which only three signed, the second — typewritten, but without the date and signatures, and only the third issued by all the rules, but significantly augmented and edited compared to the first two. One gets the impression that the handwritten sheets filled by the investigator during the interview (they really signed Bishop Theodore or not — do not know), the first typescript — a draft, which is backed up with the latest version of the protocol. Many formulations almost literally flowing from questioning the other priests, who were arrested with him in the same case. On the content of this final examination is very different from the previous ones, where Archbishop Theodore answered all questions evasively, and agreed only with the fact that he was presented with the seized from him and his family correspondence. Here he suddenly begins to "cooperate with the investigation," and lays out in detail confessing others.
One of the most famous accusation Archbishop Theodore — in sympathy with fascism. Quote from the interview: "We affirm that fascism does not resolve all social problems from the point of view of religion. One useful fascism Orthodox Church — is that it will help us to change the Soviet system and restore the monarchy, the church where he again takes a dominant position. " Even if it is the actual words of Archbishop Theodore, which is not a fact, it was said in 1937, long before the war began. However, this fragment is also present in the records of the three options, very different from each other.
Doctor of Church History, Ph.D. Rev. Alexander Mazyrin in the book "Higher hierarchy of succession of power in the Russian Orthodox Church," writes: "It is possible that Archbishop Theodore nothing of the sort mentioned. Quite apparent from the text that most confessions Archbishop Theodore in 1937, the investigator is not just written to him in the right way, and invented them. "
Problems with the passions
Refusal to canonize Archbishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky) — the most famous, but not the only such example. According to the member of the canonization of Fr Georgy Mitrofanov, "up to 90% sometimes prosecuted clergy gave a confession." If this were the only evidence against himself, the canonization tolerated, but if other people have been specified, or the person turned out to be a secret informant for the NKVD, "spies", it is an insurmountable obstacle for the canonization. In this investigative materials did not put the question of whether a person has renounced Christ. The key question — whether he admitted the truth lies, agreed with a contrived political charges. It turns out that the worse a person turns to the investigation than was unbearable torture and long interrogation, the more the NKVD were collected denunciations testimony, letters, and other evidence, the less likely that the deceased priest or lay person will comply with the commission on canonization.
Saint Luke (Vojno-Yasenetsky) could not stand the torture, not only confessed to himself, but has stipulated several people survived and so had the opportunity to repent, even addressed a protest to the investigating authorities. In the end, it was canonized, and many of those who survived in similar circumstances — no. His life includes fragments of memories of torture: "This terrible conveyor proceeded continuously day and night. KGB interrogators had followed each other, and interrogated without sleep, day or night. Again, I started a hunger strike and starved for days. Despite this, I was forced to stand in the corner, but I soon fell from exhaustion. I began to have a pronounced visual and tactile hallucinations. It seemed to me that the room yellow chickens running around, and I caught them. I saw myself standing on the edge of a huge cavity in which the city was located, bright blessed with electric lights. I clearly felt under his shirt on my back moving snake. From me relentlessly demanded recognition of espionage, but in return I only asked to indicate, in favor of what state I was spying. Answer that of course they could not. The interrogation lasted thirteen days conveyor, and more than once I was taken under the tap, out of which poured cold water on my head. "
January 25, 2013 at the Conference on New Martyrs Christ the Savior Cathedral Secretary of the Commission for the Causes of Abbot Damascene answered the question of confessions by torture, "Why do this or that person survived, and the other fell — we do not know for sure, is the mystery of God. But generally, the moral fall of man during interrogation was due to his own fear, with pressure on the person's own thoughts. Based on the study of cases, I find that in most cases, if a person falls, it means that he has problems with his own passions, and not with the NKVD. Scary is not really suffering, and thoughts. It is terrible when a person has in his heart a different ideal than Christ. Then, once in prison, he will try by all means get out of it. And out in such circumstances is usually possible only through moral degradation. "
Most likely, about mysteriously disappeared from the church calendar for 2013 36 martyrs became known that they were giving a confession, that is — "morally fallen," or open any other biographical facts. It is unclear why this is happening right now, in fact about the same Basil Kineshma wrote openly since at least 2003. Then they issued Iraida Tikhova not a barrier to honor the saint, now apparently become. How could uncovered some new evidence, if the church researchers do not have access to the archives? However, members of the commission on canonization on condition of anonymity said that the theme of exclusion of names already canonized saints of the Church calendar has never raised at the meeting, discovered new facts not known, nor what "decanonization" you came even once in the lobby, not yet released a calendar for 2013.
The Russian Orthodox Church is just one example decanonization. Kashinskaya St. Anne, who lived in the XIV century, became a victim of XVII century struggle with the dissenters. Her worship was suspended at the Patriarch Joachim, because with finding the relics was found that the hand is folded dvuperstno holy, that is — in the Old Rite. The decision was taken by the Council in 1678. But her husband — Prince Michael Yaroslavich decanonization has not. Local veneration of Saint Anne in the Tver diocese never stopped in Moscow is overlooked, and in 1908 its name was restored in the calendar. No clear rules or procedures decanonization exists.
It is logical to assume that if the decision of the glorification of the saints, or the Council of Bishops Synod, it was only in the same way this decision can be reversed. In this case it would be necessary to prepare the case for decanonization, but the commission on canonization has not received any orders. We only know that, as if two of its members, one of which — the abbot of Damascus, requested and reviewed some documents. Deacon Andrei Kuraev, wrote in his blog that the mystery which surrounded deletion of names from the calendar, due to the fact that "The prospect of doubt on all calendar is clear, and she could not bother and the authors of the decision of the local decanonization. Therefore, the decision was taken without discussion, non-public, and was not announced. "
Synodal Commission for the Causes of Saints in limbo for several years. Since the early 90 hgodov headed Metropolitan Juvenal been building its rigid scheme of canonization, which does not allow dioceses "drag" in the calendar questionable characters. Today, this procedure is much more bureaucratic, which can not be avoided, given the mass of canonization. The accompanying documents to be attached to the case, to be an ascetic life, evidence of veneration, of miracles, and in the case of the martyr — copies of investigations. Gradually, in many dioceses had their own commission on canonization, but the materials will still flock to the church-wide synodal commission which made a submission to the patriarch or synod. If there are no objections, and the canonization of locally, it is the order of the Patriarch. If you intend to church-wide celebration, the last word and the Synod Council.
Because of this rigidity of bureaucratic requirements for such a delicate matter, as the people worship saints or miracle workers, the commission caused smoldering discontent of those who prepare and serve papers on canonization. Requirement of clear documentary evidence and the ultimate rationalization of the commission was due to the need to confront a variety of faiths and mercantile interests.
Five times the Commission denies the canonization because Theodosius Caucasian lives, full of ambiguities and inconsistencies, in which a mixture of stories about several people. But Metropolitan Stavropol Gideon, was denied by the commission, self proclaimed Theodosius mestochtimym saint. Now the remains of the old man as the relics on display in the church in the mineral waters, attracting pilgrims traveling for essential miracle from across the country and bought "zemelku and maslitse of graves." A similar thing happened with the famous Moscow Matron: her life is full of pious cliches and myths, and there was no other evidence that would confirm or deny the righteousness of a man who died after the war, that is relatively recent. So the main reason for her canonization — national honor. Patriarch Alexy II was personally involved in the decision in favor of the canonization of St. Matrona. Despite these exceptions, most of the Commission's opinion on the canonization been questioned. Therefore were not canonized soldiers killed in Chechnya Yevgeny Rodionov, questionable biography hieroschemamonk Sampson (Sievers) and many others.
Tabout whether Paul was a monk, or he was not.
Remarkable story Hieromonk Paul (Trinity), the worship of which happened in the circle of church intellectuals, spiritual children of Archpriest Vsevolod Spiller. Among them the most authoritative Moscow priests — the rector of St. Tikhon's University Archpriest Vladimir Vorobyov, chairman of the Synodal Department for Relations with the Armed Forces Dmitry Smirnov, rector of the church of the Resurrection in Kadashi Archpriest Alexander Saltykov and chairman of the Synodal Department for Charity Bishop Panteleimon of Smolensk (Shatov). In the late 1960's — early 1970's Father Vsevolod Spiller, and behind it — a group of young people of the church, entered into correspondence with the priest-monk who lived in seclusion somewhere in the 101 kilometer. Letters delivered woman who is with his father Paul for many years, went with him a link. In those days, no one was surprised: for many elders cared nuns who settled near the camps, where they were serving sentences, accompanied by a link. So did the pious lay women to help their spiritual fathers. Letters from Father Paul visited regularly until his death in 1991. Today's venerable Archpriests and bishops say these letters almost guided their lives for decades: far confessor advised them what kind of house to buy, who to marry, when to become priests divined their doubts and supported the difficulties are even turning to their children and delved to children's issues. Loyalty and reverence for him they carried through their entire life as valuable store letters, many of which have been published. But no one ever saw him again. The documents Gulag last mention of his father Paul in 1944 — is a certificate of death. Bishop Panteleimon (Shatov) reported that soon after the news of his father's death in 1991, Paul and his father Vladimir Vorobiev went to the village, where the old man, the stories, lived. And there was nothing — no home, no entries in the registry office, no grave, no person who would remember anything: whether Paul was a monk, or not, or whether the other person is hiding under his name, or, on the contrary, he escaped from the camp, giving his name to obscure the deceased. The Commission considered the case for the Causes of Father Paul, and despite the fact that it contains one of his correspondents, Archpriest Vladimir Vorobiev, recognized canonization impossible.
Criticism of the Commission could be heard from various dioceses often. The practice of canonization mass led to the fact that everyone wanted to have their saints. To request that the diocese was "on the level", were mixed and mercantile interests: the memory of the holy places of pilgrimage organized, sale icons, brochures and souvenirs — all to earn income. With the new martyrs, this practice is difficult, because the lack of relics — a serious obstacle to the commercialization of religion. Known cases of spontaneously created shootings digs ditches without the help of archaeologists and religious scholars, even without the prosecutor's office, to find the alleged relics of saints were shot. Found in the pits relatively intact skulls were presented as evidence of holiness believers were executed that were impossible to compensate for collecting the instrument.
Once access to the archives of the FSB has become almost impossible, and the canonization of almost vanished, and the Synodal Commission for the Causes of steel in the voice of reproach in making excessive demands to the presented documents. Then in 2011 the Metropolitan Juvenal submitted his resignation, which Patriarch Kirill upheld. New chairman was appointed bishop Pankraty, vicar of Holy Transfiguration Valaam Monastery, where the activity stopped altogether.
During 20 years of work to prepare and conduct a roll-canonization Mass Commission came to a standstill: In recent years, the government actually shut down access to the archives, but even if they were available, it would have only intensified contradictions. The original idea that the majority of the new martyrs no information other than the investigation of cases, proved vulnerable. Criteria, who is a martyr, and who — a victim of the political regime, could be reached. Also, do not achieve the main goal — a feat not happen reception Martyrs in mind of the Church, not the number of canonized into quality of their veneration. Only a few of the names of the new saints at the hearing, only some truly revered by the people. For most non-church people in general news that Russia is holy — victims of terror and repression, and of these more than a thousand saints.
In Moscow, the main place of memory of the Great Terror — Butovo. In the temple of the Holy New Martyrs and Confessors Russian built near the ground around the perimeter of the walls hangs a 51 icon — the number of days that are executed 300 people, of which the Church recognized saints. Inscribed on each icon and shows the number of martyrs who were killed that day. Four Saints Butovo was not on the calendar for 2013. Before the appearance of an official explanation is not slow to recognize their dekanonizirovannymi, talking about rewriting the icons is not going. Still come to the site by bus pilgrims from Podolsk near Moscow, where five churches, including Trinity Church Podolsk, associated with the name and biography of St. Peter Crow, although now he is in a calendar list does not appear. Recently, the Butovo tour guides asked the woman who ordered the family icon, which shows its two holy grandfather. One of them in the calendar is no more, and the icon is ready, and her two great-grandfather with a halo. In Kursk died in January Metropolitan Juvenal (Tarasov), one of the most authoritative bishops Soviet times, a member of the circle of Metropolitan Nicodemus (Rotova). Shortly before his death, he was tonsured into the schema in honor of Iuvenaliya (Maslovskoye), but it probably was the first and the last monk, named in honor of the saint, also disappeared from the calendar. In the Monastery of Ivanovo sisters continue to worry that if Basil Kineshemsky no longer sacred, then what to do with his relics? And if a saint, then why should they be taken away?
"RUSSIAN LIFE", February 18, 2013
In the photo: Ivan Vladimirov. Questioning in committee poor