Background of the Great Northern War and the choice of strategy Russia

Causes of the Great Northern War and the choice of strategy Russia

First XVII century, during the Troubles, the Swedes captured the town of Novgorod naikrupneyshie — Ivangorod, yam and Koporie. According Stolbovo 1617 Our homeland has lost the Gulf of Finland. As a result, the Russian government has lost belonged to Russian withdrawal from ancient times to the shore of the Baltic Sea. In addition, Sweden has received a good springboard for the upcoming coming to the Russian land from the north there was a threat of Swedish invasion. Swedish master Gustav II Adolf (1611-1632), speaking in the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament) said: "The Russian — insecure neighbors … and now this enemy without our permission can neither 1st ship to pull on the Baltic Sea."

It was not a good factor not only from the standpoint of strategic military security of the Russian Federation, and the country's economic development. In the Russian Federation there is only one way for maritime trade with Europe — a Snow-white and the Barents Sea. Arkhangelsk was the only port through which we could trade with Western Europe by sea. Its turnover has grown constantly, for navigation in Arkhangelsk came to 100 foreign vessels. But the northern port is removed from the main economic centers of the country, and it stopped the navigation winter.

The economy of in the XVII century, successfully developed, all appeared Manufactory (enterprises, where used in the main manual labor of wage workers or serfs, and which is widely used by the division of labor). So in the suburban, the Upper, the northern districts of developed mining of iron ore, production of metals and metal. Large centers of industry were Serpukhov, Tula, Pavlov, Yaroslavl, Uglich, Moscow. Russian masters fled to the construction of high-performance domain. I must say that on some fronts Our industry has been the birthplace of European favorite. For example, the height of the Swedish domain was in the late 17th century 5-6 meters — they gave 0,58-0,88 tons of pig iron per day. The height of the blast furnace at the Tula factory was 8.5 m, it gave 1.6-1.9 tons of pig iron per day. According to the views of S. Strumilin in this area industry Our homeland ahead of Europe almost a century.

Pivotal role in the economy of the country was played Moscow. It was naikrupneyshy producing, consuming and distribution center of. The capital has been linked by river and land ways with all areas of power, being at once naikrupneyshim market for Russian and foreign products. And other rapidly growing town, developed crafts, came the development of Siberia — where there were large pockets of agriculture (Verhotursky-Tobolsk, Tomsk-Kuznetsk, ilimskogo Angara).

The choice of strategy

Initially, Peter decided to regain access to the Black Sea. This choice is determined by several factors. In-1's, Our homeland has been at war with the Ottoman Empire. In-2, it was at war not alone, she had allies — Poland-Lithuania, Austria, Venice. B-3, the enemy was the major combat actions in Europe, the Northern Black Sea Coast for him was a secondary site, and for us the only one where we can focus all of the main strike force.

The success was on the side of the Russian Federation, the Russian occupied a number of territories in the Dnieper, captured Azov Azov fleet did. But access to the Black Sea as ever there was. It was necessary to continue the war — to capture the Kerch Strait or the entire peninsula. And for this purpose it was necessary to strengthen the alliance with the European powers. Alone to make war with the powerful Ottoman Empire was unsafe. Government of the Western European countries in this period feverishly preparing for the War of Spanish heritage (1701-1714 years). It was a great European conflict, which began after the death of the last Spanish Habsburg king, Charles II. Charles bequeathed all his possessions to Philip, Baron d'Anjou — the grandson of King Louis XIV. In the end, against France and Spain, a coalition of states. Austrian Habsburgs (the dynasty that ruled the Holy Roman Empire) hastened to make peace with Turkey in order to free up forces for a war with France. Britain and the Netherlands were also against the continuation of the war between Austria and the Ottoman Empire, about to make a major inventory of the Habsburg Empire in the war with France.

The British and the Dutch are also encouraged Porto to war with Russia, they did not like the efforts of the Russian Federation on the exit to the Black Sea Fleet and the establishment in Arkhangelsk and Azov. On Karlovitskom Congress (1698-1699 years), which was assembled in the town of Karlovci (Slavonia) to make peace between the members of the "Holy League" (Austria, Venice, Rzeczpospolita, Our homeland), and defeated in the wars of 1683-1699 years Turkey British and Dutch assured the Russian delegation (led by her GP Voznitsyn), to give the Turks. According Karlovitskim peace treaties Habsburgs were a huge part of the countryside of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and a huge part of Slavonia, Venice — handed Morea and the islands of the archipelago, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth — a part of Right-Bank Ukraine (still remained the Turks). With Russian truce was signed for two years. After the talks in 1699 led the E. Ukrainians, British and Dutch also incited against the Turks RF.

In 1698, Holland and Great Britain signed an alliance with Sweden. The Swedes tried to use the conflict in Europe, that absolutely establish its dominance in the Baltic Sea. Natural ally of Russia on the Baltic Sea were Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark — Sweden davneshnie enemies. November 11, 1699 in the village of Transfiguration accomplished management meeting of the Russian Federation and the Elector of Saxony. Augustus II in May 1694 led Saxony, with a 1697 master of Polish and Lithuanian noble prince, for his physical strength has been nicknamed the Strong (also called the Saxon Hercules Steel hand). Signed an agreement on mutual assistance in the war against Sweden.

I must say that the Saxon court conducted a double policy and from the beginning was going to use Russia in the war against the Swedes, getting all of the major fruit in their hands. Liflyandskii Teuton I. Patkul in 1698 was the beginning of the 1699 draft contract. According to it, RF going to give only Karelia and Ingria (this is a historical region located on the banks of the Neva River, bounded by the Gulf of Finland, Narva River, Lake Peipus in the west and Lake Ladoga to the adjacent plains in the east). Patkul wrote to the Elector of Saxony: "I must be afraid that this powerful ally we have not pulled out from under the nose is hot, we slide on steep: he needs to substantiate the history and geography, that it should be limited to one Ingermanland and Karelia." And further, the contract needs to "tie the hands" of, so it is not captured Narva, Estland (the historical title of the northern part of Estonia) and Livonia (Livonia, "Earth Liv" — a historical region in the northern Baltic, broadly in line with the modern country of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia ). In addition, Patkul insisted that our homeland has committed to help the Saxon funds, infantry manpower. August 14, 1699 Elector of Saxony in agreement with the Polish magnates said Livonia will be a part of Poland, "as a stronghold against Sweden and Moscow."

The contract has been discussed that the war Our homeland will come only after the conclusion of peace with Turkey.
Moscow was to focus on their own army, and the Karelian Izhorskii directions, in addition, Russian side considered it necessary to move troops to the Narva. Moscow did not communicate for themselves at the expense of future arms southern Baltic.

Long and difficult negotiations were going and with Denmark. As a result, a series of wars with the Swedes, the Danes lost the right to charge a fee to the Swedish merchant ships that came through the Strait Vain (strait between the Danish peninsula Zealand and the Scandinavian peninsula, one of the Danish straits connecting the Baltic and the North Sea). In 1697 Denmark has received more one blow — the Swedes have called his control Holstein, and it connected to Denmark with the rest of Europe. Holstein Baron Frederick IV married the sister of Charles XII Hedwig Sophia. Sweden introduced to Holstein 5 th Corps, began to build fortifications on the border, cutting off the Danes from Europe. The Danish government has to find a strong alliance against the enemy. Back in April 1697, in the Russian embassy was targeted P. Gaines to conclude a defensive alliance against Sweden. In Moscow, he was received positively, but because the governor was away (participated in the "Great Embassy"), had to wait for his return. The governor returned in August 1698 and met with Gaines. The negotiations dragged on, only in April 1699 in Voronezh was approved preparatory contract. It consisted of 11 outdoor and 2 secret papers. In the main article states that in the event of an attack on one country and another for three months was to break the world with the aggressor and go to war. Stipulated that helps side could three months to try to resolve the conflict of the world. In Articles 6 to 10, said about the mutual responsibilities: report to each other useful information, not to enter into contracts harmful to their alliance, the alliance invited the King of Poland, contract is not interrupted in the event of the death of the 1st of the sovereigns, then sign a trade agreement. In secret annexes reportedly because the Russian Federation and Denmark have no common border, they will conduct combat actions in their own borders. It was noted that our homeland will be able to proceed with the implementation of the contract only after the conclusion of peace with the Ottoman Empire.

After the Danish envoy vyznat about an alliance of Russia and Saxony (November 1699), he hastened to approve the contract.

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