U.S. President Thomas Jefferson
In the second half of the XIX-th century Vietnam became a colony of France. The growth of national consciousness after World War I led to the creation in 1941 in China, the League for the Independence of Vietnam or the Viet Minh — the military-political organization, bringing together all the enemies of the French government.
The main positions were held by supporters of communist views under the control of Ho Chi Minh. During the second World War, he worked extensively with the U.S., which helped the Viet Minh arms and ammunition to fight the Japanese. After the surrender of the Land of the Rising Sun Ho Chi Minh seized Hanoi and other big country town, declaring the formation of independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam. But France did not agree with this and transferred to Indochina Expeditionary Force, beginning in December 1946, the colonial war. Alone cope with the guerrillas French army could not, and since 1950, they came to the aid of the United States. The basic premise of the intervention was the strategic importance of the region, protecting the southwest islands of Japan and the Philippines. Americans felt that to control these areas will be easier if they are under the authority of the French allies.
War went the next four years and by 1954, after the defeat of the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the situation has become virtually hopeless. The United States had already paid more than 80% of the costs of this war. Vice-president Richard Nixon recommended to use tactical nuclear bombing charges. But in July 1954 the Geneva Agreement was signed, according to which the territory was divided Vietnam temporarily at the 17th parallel (where the demilitarized zone) on North Vietnam (under the control of the Viet Minh) and South Vietnam (under French rule, which almost immediately gave her independence) .
In 1960, the United States in the battle for Snow White House attended by John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon. At this time, the struggle against communism was listed as a good tone, and therefore wins the bidder who programm against the "red menace" was decisive. After the adoption of communism in China, the U.S. government was considering any action in Vietnam as part of communist expansion. It was impossible to avoid, and so after the Geneva agreements, the U.S. has decided to completely change France in Vietnam. With the support of the Yankees, Prime Minister of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem appointed himself the first president of the Republic of Vietnam. His reign was a despotism in one of the worst forms. At the municipal offices were appointed only relatives that people could not tolerate more than the president himself. Those who opposed the regime, were hidden in bullpen, freedom of speech is prohibited. It is unlikely that it would prefer America, but that just do not close your eyes for a single ally in Vietnam.
The appearance of the terrain of South Vietnam underground resistance groups, not even supported by the North, it was only a matter of time. But the U.S. around beheld only the machinations of the Communists. The imminent tightening measures resulted only in the fact that in December 1960 the South Vietnamese all the underground factions merged into National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, named the West Viet Cong. Already and North Vietnam began to support the guerrillas. In response, the U.S. increased military aid to Diem. In December 1961, the country came first permanent units of the Armed forces of the United States — two helicopter companies, designed to improve the mobility of the government troops. South American advisors training the South Vietnamese soldier engaged and planning military operations. The administration of John F. Kennedy to Khrushchev wanted to show their commitment to the winding up of the "communist contagion" and the willingness to defend its own allies. The conflict grew and soon became one of the "hottest" cool centers War 2-powers. For the U.S., the loss of South Vietnam led to the loss of Laos, Thailand and Cambodia, which created a risk of Australia. When it became clear that Diem is not able to fight well with the guerrillas, the South American intelligence agencies hands of South Vietnamese generals who organized the coup. November 2, 1963 Ngo Dinh Diem, together with his brother was killed. As for the next 2-years as a result of a power struggle every few months there is another coup, which allowed the guerrillas to expand the occupied areas. At this time, was killed by U.S. President John F. Kennedy, and many fans of the "conspiracy theory" behold the in his desire to end the war in Vietnam through peaceful means that someone did not like it. This version is plausible in light of the fact that the first document signed by Lyndon Johnson as the new president was to send more troops to Vietnam. Although the other day of the presidential elections, he was nominated as a "peace candidate", which impacted on his landslide victory. The number of U.S. soldier in South Vietnam grown from 760 in 1959 to 23,300 in 1964.
August 2, 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin, two American destroyers, Maddox and Turner Joy, were attacked by forces of North Vietnam. After a couple of days, in the midst of the confusion in the command of "Yankee", the destroyer Maddox said the re-firing. Although the crew soon denied, intelligence said the interception of communications in which the North Vietnamese were recognized in the attack. U.S. Congress voted 466 votes "for" and not the 1st "against", took Tonkin resolution, which gives the president the right to respond to this attack though by what means. This marked the beginning of the war. Lyndon Johnson ordered the air strikes on naval targets in North Vietnam (Operation «Pierce Arrow»). What surprisingly, the decision of the U.S. invasion of Vietnam was taken only civilian control: the Congress, the President, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and Secretary of State Dean Rusk. The Pentagon has no interest reacted to the decision "to resolve the conflict" in Southeast Asia.
South american Analyst Michael Desch wrote: "The unconditional obedience to military civilian authorities leads into-1's, the loss of their authority, and in-2, unleashes official Washington for subsequent, similar Vietnam, adventures."
It is not so long ago in the United States was made public a statement self-contained
researcher Matthew Ada, specializing in the history of the State Security Agency (U.S. secret service of electronic intelligence and counter-intelligence) that the main intelligence about the incident in the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964, served as a prerequisite for the U.S. invasion of Vietnam was rigged. The reason was a report regular NSA historian Robert Heynoka, drawn up in 2001 and declassified by the Law on Freedom of disk imaging (passed by Congress in 1966). From the report, the officers allowed the NSA unintentional mistake in translation disk imaging, acquired as a result of intercept. Senior officers, effectively immediately reveal the error, decided to hide it by modifying all the necessary documents so that they point to the validity of the attack on the Yankees. Senior bureaucrats once relied on these incorrect data in their own performances.
And this is not the last NSA controlled fabrication of intelligence. In the framework of the war in Iraq, has laid down the anecdotal evidence on the "uranium dossier." But many historians believe that not even be in the Gulf of Tonkin incident, the United States still would find a reason to take military action. Lyndon Johnson believed that America must defend his honor, our country to impose a new round of the arms race and civilization unite to distract people from their own internal problems.
When in 1969 the United States passed a new presidential election, Richard Nixon said that the foreign policy of the United States will change dramatically. U.S. will no longer claim to be the overseer and try to solve the problem in all corners of the planet. He told about a secret plan to end fights in Vietnam. It was perfectly made South American society, the limp from the war, and Nixon defeated in the elections. But in fact, hidden plan was massive use of air and naval forces. Only for 1970 year South American bombers took off more bombs on Vietnam than in the last 5 years taken together.
And here we should mention one more interested in the war aside — the U.S. company, manufactures weapons and ammunition. During the Vietnam War was bombed more than 14 million tons of explosives, which is several times more than during the second world war in every theater of war. Bombs, including vysokotonnazhnye and now illegal, and fragment, equated to the ground entire villages, and the fire burned out of napalm and phosphorus hectares of forest. Dioxin, which is the most toxic substance ever made by man, was spread over the territory Vietnam of more than 400 kg. Chemists believe that 80 grams added to the water supply system of New York, is quite enough in order to reincarnate him into a dead city. It is a tool for 40 years continues to kill, affecting the present generation of Vietnamese. Profit amounted to U.S. military contractors, many billions of dollars. And they were not at all interested in the victory of the U.S. Army frisky. It is not the case as the most advanced government in the world, using new technologies, huge masses of fighter, winning all of his fights, you still could not win the war.
In 1967, the International Court to investigate war crimes held two meetings, where they heard testimony about the conduct of the war in Vietnam. From their verdict must be that the United States bears full responsibility for the use of force and the sin against the world, infringed the provisions of international law.