All the last five hundred years, there is a sort of psychological tug of war. The struggle between the passion for light alcohol profit and public health concerns. In the coming years in the Customs Union will be introduced a single excise duty on alcohol — 23 euros (about 900 rubles) per liter. That is a classic bottle of vodka can cost more than four hundred rubles. It is clear that, as always, opinions are split about the measure. Many critics will presage the growth of consumption of surrogates and flourishing brewing. But the fact that vodka can not be the first available product, it is clear to all.
Geopolitics of Prince Vladimir
It just so happens that the most important historic choice Baptizer of Rus chronicler related to alcohol theme. Who has not heard stories of how the Red Sun rejected the offer of Russia to pour into the fold of the Islamic world, explaining his refusal to ban the prophet on alcohol. «Fun in Russia is PITI" — for centuries happily quoted Prince drinkers, as if someone drive Vladimir Svyatoslavich protocol meetings with a visiting preachers. It is clear that legend of choice orthodoxy — pure fairytale, wherewith complete history of every ancient country. Russ just needed the support of a strong geopolitical ally — the Orthodox Byzantine Empire. But it is clear that in the XI-XII centuries, when to write and rewrite the annals, the theme of the butlers was last but not least in the view rusichej era.
It is believed that the first grape spirit called "aquavit" — the water of life — appeared in Russia after the Battle of Kulikovo. Sometime in the late eighties — early nineties XIV century. It is understandable. The famous battle is not allowed "mamaevtsam" block trade from the Crimea, and Genoese merchants, sensitive to new trends in the economy and bring new product ventured to Moscow. However, judging by everything, our ancestors used to the mead, chacha has not made much of an impression.
However, during the second half of the fifteenth century have created their own distilling industry. Moreover, in the absence of grape alcohol were driven out of the grains of rye. So mark "Rye" can be considered the most ancient Russian vodka brand. And that is characteristic: alcohol production almost immediately became a state monopoly. Moreover, in the nineties of the fifteenth century Ivan III denies even the right of monasteries sublimation alcohol. And in 1553 in the capital comes first "tsar's tavern." Sale of vodka was completely concentrated in the hands of the state. Moreover, the governors most remote areas receive the strictest injunction to stop all private trade in vodka in taverns. Poured exclusively kruzhechnye royal courts.
On the one hand, it was only right decision, because the alcohol was administered a single standard, strengthening control over its production and the technology itself. But on the other hand, state officials intensified Russia temptation as much as possible to fill the coffers with money, gave the alcohol.
Cathedral of taverns
The pursuit of a drunk Russian budget always comes out sideways. Someone's "wise" head allowed the emergence of alcoholic leases. This is when the Barkeep in advance makes the agreed amount to the treasury, and then, in contemporary language, begins with a vengeance to beat costs. There are so-called "tavern head" tselovalniks. They are chosen community. And so, holders of such positions shall report on drinking alcohol back to the governor, financial orders. And the tavern heads were required to report annually to raise public revenue from wine trade. Clearly, all these ill-considered steps led to a jump in corruption and abuse. Even then, there was counterfeit vodka.
Faced with a direct threat to stability in the Russian empire, the state for the first time in its history, suddenly. Alexei Mikhailovich quietest prefer to make alcohol subject to the most extensive discussion, resorting perhaps to the very democratic process in Europe at the time — the convening of the Council. This forum and made history as the Cathedral of the pubs. Was the question of reforming the entire alcohol policy. As a result, put an end to pay off, the phenomenon is clearly negative. Prohibited the sale of vodka in credit, leading to enslavement drinking. Finally, it was decided to permanently close private taverns. Fathers of the Church made a series of sermons against drunkenness, replacing him present health education.
But, as often happens in Russia, good laws, their severity offset their own failure. After a while again been introduced in some parts of ransom, and the nobles were entitled to the production of vodka, though, and at a fixed price.
Pavel's vodka deal
Over the next two centuries, the ratio of state and serpents most resembles the wave theory. The state then let go the reins, then again tried to take the reins of the alcohol market in their solid hands. Again, all repeated.
On the one hand, the treasury was always pustovato. Especially during times of war. On the other — all saw huge damage from alcoholism, which is immersed in the whole class. Actually, these two trends so far and are characteristic of our northern country in which alcohol is a set of necessary food, helping to break down fatty food, without which the frost would be extremely difficult.
So Peter first practice extends leases — North war sucked all the juice out of the country — and then draped all distilleries produce a special fee that is calculated on each cube, distilling, with finished products. When Catherine vodka privileges granted to the nobility, which is commonly satisfied distillery in their estates, gradually lead to the fact that vodka private market begins to displace the breech. Something similar happened in the reign of Yegor Gaidar. Drunkenness freezes even the state budget: Private business continues to enrich, and the state had to pay only for the broken shards of a general alcoholism.
Pavel Petrovich, ascended the throne, unlike her mother, with the nobles quarrel was not afraid and began to restore the hard state monopoly. It is possible that one of the motives for his removal was discontent gentry loses huge revenue.
Alexander made his lesson from the circumstances of the murder of his father, but because for a long time in the spirits did not go into the problems and did not intervene. And pay off, and the sublimation of alcohol have become openly engaged not only the nobles, but the merchants who saw burdensome reliable source of profit.
It was only in 1819, the government of Alexander I introduced strict gosmonopliyu (for the umpteenth time!). In the new state took care of all the vodka and it wholesale. But retail sales remained in the hands of private traders. And, apparently, the first to introduce a single price for the whole empire "water of life" — seven rubles per bucket. So in the country tried to stop any alcohol speculation.
On the introduction of the first Russian Prohibition written entire library. And still tense debate "for" and "against" such drastic measures. Meanwhile, to get involved in a large-scale war in the country have decided to only sober. On June 19, 1914 go dry at the time of mobilization. In August, when the first rumblings burst World until the end of hostilities.
Strong (note) alcohol can be purchased at restaurants. As a result, its per capita consumption dropped by more than ten times. Moreover, the decision of the tsarist government had long-term effects, since only in 1960 per capita alcohol consumption reached the level of 1913, with a performance which is so fond of comparing their achievements communist leaders.
But the most remarkable thing, in my opinion, lies in the fact that much of the so-called dry law was not imposed from above. There is a resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers on 27 September 1914, which effectively delegated the right to ban the sale of alcohol in different regions of the Dumas city and rural communities. Thus, the displacement of vodka from Russian everyday life has become like a common thing, built on a purely democratic basis. And it coming to me much more important than the performance of official statistics, to fix reduce crime by 70 percent, Halving the number of suicides on the basis of alcohol use disorders, etc.
Moreover, a number of deputies of the State Duma introduced a bill colleagues' Approval for ever in the Russian state of sobriety. " Of course, nothing is eternal. But deputies caught the trend era.
I must say that the experience of the imperial government a long time neglected and commissioners. Since Sovnarkom banned in December 1917 and the sale of vodka production in the country. Of course, the parallel flourished moonshine, whom authorities fought with varying success. Suffice it to say that in the early twenties, the authorities have decided to directly stimulate the police, promising five hundred rubles for each confiscated moonshine. And the confiscated cubes went to the tens of thousands.
But for a long time resisted the benefits drunken budget will have new power is not enough. August 26, 1923 and was given the green light to the resumption of official separation. There is the same, according to Mikhail Bulgakov, novoblagoslovennaya, nicknamed after the head of the Council of People's Commissars "Rykovkoy."
Game mineral Secretary
Mikhail Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign has largely become a stumbling block in the evaluation of its public activities. There is little doubt that an alarming that the power received from social scientists and doctors — encouraged her to act. According to Academician Fedor Uglova, capitation alcohol consumption has reached the borderline beyond which actually begins the degeneration of the nation.
The new Secretary General knew his alcohol policy will be supported by the population, and for him it was paramount, given that the Politburo in 1985, remained his secret enemies. "The approval of the rules of sobriety — Gorbachev said in a speech in Tyumen, — any deviation will not be. This task we decide firmly and faithfully. "
The only problem is reduced to the well-known words — like the best …
As recalled next gekachepist Valery Boldin, who at the time worked as the assistant general secretary, Gorbachev ordered to respond to numerous requests to the Central Committee about the drunken frenzy that engulfed all floors of society from top to bottom. Originally intended to reduce the production of cheap fruit wines and gradually reduce the production of vodka. On brandy, dry wine and champagne tough restrictive measures should not have been distributed. Assumed to be quite logical, but not furious anti-alcohol campaign. But during the discussion of the draft resolution at a meeting of the Politburo leaders, setting the stage for each other, began to offer more stringent amendment. The sequence of measures has been replaced by a "cavalry charge". According Boldin fiercest fighters with a green snake on the sidelines of the meetings said that the pace of reform imposed to what little. Such is the paradox of our kitchen politics.
Soon became apparent excesses not only deprived the budget of tens of billions — and emptied the treasury and so on account of a sharp fall in oil prices, then $ 8 worth the proverbial barrel — but struck the economy of socialist countries, the Soviet Union supplied the wine, beer and spirits. They were, as usual, did not bother to warn about the new restrictions. In relations with the brothers in the class, new cracks. It's funny that the first government receptions October 1985 sharply reduced the number of guests. And so on to the next table wine and brandy back. Most policies do not stand this test.
In general, at first showed a significant reduction of injury, domestic, alcohol-fueled crime in pairs. However, excessive radicalism restrictive measures would inevitably lead to the fantastic growth of brewing, consumption surrogates surge of economic crime. By end of the eighties began to move away from the original draconian methods Eradication serpents. To the prestige of the Gorbachev team was dealt a fatal blow.
Consequences of Gaidar's reforms, particularly in the production of alcohol, when the state actually deprived centuries monopoly effect so far, aukayas counterfeiting. And if the Czech Republic is literally "stood up to the ears" of the deaths of two dozen poisoned, we have from alcohol poisoning and alcohol principle to the light year away in secondary cities. No, in recent years, our state does not remain a bystander. Vodka first expelled from the stalls. Then grocery wholesale markets. Introduced strict parameters for the stores with the right to trade in alcohol. Finally, the established minimum price for vodka, brandy and various liqueurs. There is a proposal for the Scandinavian countries to sell liquor only in state specialized stores, which number will be small.
But the main conclusion that the experts do, in many ways is to ensure that as the level of the life cycle and human addiction, including alcohol. And this is the way to solving the overall strategic goal, which is now mulling the society and the government. We hope this decision will be beneficial to all.