The Su-25 has long been time to change more modern machines
In today's time the year is an act of the State of weapons programs from the 2001-2010 (GPV-2010), in which the main role was played by a very modernize outdated Russian technology. The first step of the LG-2010 (up to 2006) foresaw the modernization of the fleet weapons. Together, it was wrong vserasprostraneno world that the Russian An old cannon has a significant modernization potential. In practice it was the opposite. Current modernization could make a significant contribution to increasing the combat capability of the Russian army since the bulk of Russian arms made in the 70's and 80's of the last century, was intended to wage wars of the past generation. In other words, because of the end of the current cycle of Russian weapons to solve the problem of parity in the technical level with the reference method zabugornom modernization in the period up to 2010-2020, was impossible. This, unfortunately, is also supportive of our ideology of modernization could not.
Timely upgrading should always be to increase the share of modern weapons. But during the act GPV-2010 came a sharp decrease of modern weapons with 20%, which was declared by former Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov, to 10%, found in today's Minister Anatoly Serdyukov. Are these percentages confirming the absence of any concept of modernization with the appropriate pace of its implementation? The answer to this question is a revision of the values of Russian weapons programs after the operation in South Ossetia. According to First Deputy Defense Minister Vladimir Popovkin, the Defense Ministry is very fond of repair and modernization of technology to the detriment of orders for new designs. Because the Ministry of Defense revised the percentage ratio between modernization and purchase of new models in favor of the latter. Commander in Chief of the Army Alexander Postnikov was more categorical: "We have gone from a policy of modernization of military equipment to the purchase of its new models." So Makar, there are severe deficiencies LG-2010, LG-2015 and rezkomenyayuschiesya eyes of the military leaders in the modernization of weapons. Let's try to figure it out.
Impracticable RATE FOR THE CREATION OF NEW AMMUNITION
In 2002, in the journal "The parade» № 1 article appeared chief of the 46th Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense, Colonel, Ph.D. Alexander Skotnikova "New ammunition increases the efficiency of shock and firepower," which is set out in the ideology of modernization, proclaimed institution responsible for the development of the LG 2010, LG 2015. The creator said that the modernization of the carriers of weapons by the configuration of their design-layout circuits are very expensive and is associated with significant labor costs. For this reason, determined the direction of modernization — rearmament (re) new media, including controlled and ammunition. But the article does not take into account the creator of the fact that by 2001, destroyed the ammunition branch, which still is not able to create new standards. But it does not puzzled Skotnikova. He even found that the fraction of modernization by upgrading with new ammunition is 85% of the total retrofit of AME. With all of this article considered the creator of the two directions of modernization:
existing carrier is equipped with the newly developed ammunition, the introduction of which does not ask for his improvements and retrofits;
rearmament in support of guided munitions requires equipping it with new means of reconnaissance, targeting, guidance.
It is easy to imagine that with complete degradation of the ammunition industry exposed areas of modernization actually impractical.
Together with those new ammunition and ordnance should meet the promising methods of warfare in relation to newcomer generation wars. In other words, the new ammunition should be provided on a suitable tactical requirements (TTM), based on the results of special research devoted to the justification of the important tactical and technical characteristics of weapons to be developed. Immediately new ammunition to be integrated into a modern and promising tactical (strategic) system defeat the enemy.
In the last 15 years abroad are intensively working on the creation of optoelectronic systems for combating that, in essence, are the means of protection of ground combat vehicles, aircraft, ships, not only by means of intelligence, and of the means of destruction.
The main opposition zabugornom optoelectronic technologies are:
means and methods of lowering the detection capability of AME Russian intelligence of the enemy;
means of oppression or defeat Russian devices for different purposes (homing missiles, night vision goggles, laser range finders, etc.).
Under the oppression is understood such an impact on the electronics of destruction, in which she loses the ability to work within the required time. And under her defeat meant the impact of, for example, high-performance microwave facilities at which it loses its ability to make the combat puzzle. Do the new TTT for the development of promising Russian ammunition availability zabugornyh optoelectronic technologies counter?
Coupled with the fact there is a lack of results modernization proclaimed Skotnikov, as evidenced by the content of exercises "Vostok-2010", "Caucasus-2009", "West-2009", "Ladoga-2009", which did not show promising methods of warfare with the introduction of new weapons. Immediately causes fluctuation quality newest Applets battle preparation of Russian troops, which should be aimed at the deepest fire damage to the enemy with effective suppression of the radar avionics; communication systems, guidance and control, air defense systems, missiles, automated command and control systems. These teachings are, unfortunately, did not show the use of such new weapons as laser, microwave and infrasound.
UPGRADE, respectively generations past wars
Since the inception of articles by Alexander Skotnikova eight years have passed, and the proposed upgrading through the creation of new ammunition for carriers of old times did not come true. Examples of this abound. So, for example, implemented in the near future modernization 152-mm self-propelled howitzer 2S19 "MSTA-S", and the troops began to enter a modernized version -, kitted control system whic
h provides guidance and automation of the recovery hum. Similar upgrades are howitzers 2S3 "Acacia" and 2C1 "Carnation". The main ammunition of these systems consists of high-explosive shells (CFC). To engage targets by OFS require a large expenditure of shells and a significant amount of time to execute fire missions, which dramatically reduces survival on the battlefield artillery units. Available in service of these systems high-precision bombs "Krasnopol", "Measuring", "Kitolov" are used only on observed targets. These munitions are equipped laser seeker and require irradiation target laser designator. On flat terrain gunner can follow and produce illumination targets at ranges of less than 3 km. With such ammunition impossible to fulfill the massive use of artillery systems, which will allow to move to a one-off and guaranteed defeat more fundamental objects in the most effective range.
152-mm self-propelled howitzer 2S19M1
As embodied the ideas of Alexander Skotnikova abroad? An example is the implementation of the programs from the creation of new types of artillery ammunition. Performance of work under this program there has allowed the U.S. to do in Afghanistan and apply new precision-guided 155-mm projectile "Excalibur" with correction of the trajectory according KRNS NAVSTAR. This ammunition is designed to engage protected Fri management, manpower, firepower, air defense systems and other facilities. The projectile "Excalibur" has a long-range shooting (40-50 km) and the highest precision hit with virtually vertical end portion of the line of motion and good dispersion of the fragments. Even during the Russian Union even if there is sufficient funding to our boepripasnikam failed to make artsnaryady stuffed with homing submunitions (such SADARM, SMArt-155, BONUS), and homing mines, munitions like Merlin, Griffin, Strix, to defeat armored vehicles, missile launchers and other purposes.
Skotnikova ideas were never realized when upgrading aircraft with new ammunition. Remembering the death of Russian aircraft (3 Su-25 and Tu-22M3 bombers) in South Ossetia advisable to pay attention to the modernization of these machines. The Su-25 was adopted in 1980 and was tested in Afghanistan, where, during the war was lost 23 attack aircraft in the absence of modern air defense of the enemy. In 2009 it was upgraded to version 12 aircraft Su-25SM. In 2010, the reduction does not provide "pace" of modernization. With upgraded attack aircraft (see "HBO» № 46, 2009) set a new sighting and navigation system PrNK-25SM "Bars". It includes a system for processing and display of disk imaging, electronic intelligence station, a digital to analog instrument control system, a satellite navigation system. With all of this indicates that all this leads to an increase in the accuracy of the introduction of martial unguided weapons and bombing. Increase the accuracy of bombing fine, but it is better not to go into the military zone of enemy air defenses. At the armed attack aircraft, along with old Russian unguided rockets and bombs are guided missiles "air-land" (X-23, X-25, X-29, S-25L) with the greatest range of sighting run 10 km. Included ammunition Su-25SM guided aerial bombs KAB-500 and KAB-1500 owned by introducing a range of 3-9 km and 3-12 km, respectively. Not puts significant configurations not long ago adopted for service KAB-500S-E, correctable with a satellite navigation system. Distance running it is 2-9 km. Together with those in comparison with the regular responsive bombs with laser and TV-guided KAB-500S-E has the advantage of using the old days and NIGHT MODE in adverse weather conditions. Acts with a range of ammunition Su-25SM of 10 km, attack the problem of waiting for a huge army of enemy air defenses. There are huge doubts about the quality of ongoing modernization.
Tu-22M3 adopted by armament in 1983. Prior to 1993, produced 268 of these bombers and ammunition which consists of obsolete Russian missiles and bombs. Air Force Commander Alexander Zelin has in the last year promised to modernize the Tu-22M3. With all of this, he noted that the prospects for its forthcoming modernization associated with the implementation of programs from over severe renew the on-board systems and enhanced armament with guided bombing and missile weapons class "air-surface". Whether this will allow the implementation of programs from gap stretches to avoid the phenomena that occurred in the "breakthrough" of the Georgian air defense? If the U.S. and NATO forces in any military conflict have new instrument, the Tu-22M3 bombers were used in the final step of the war in Afghanistan to bomb attacks by ancient FAB-500, FAB-1500 and FAB-3000. We can assume that the Tu-22M3 did not have new means of destruction that should be tested in combat criteria.
The ongoing modernization of armored vehicles do not provide the required level of combat options Russian tanks. The traditional scheme of the assembly adopted for T-72, T-80, has exhausted the ability to improve the protection of constructive, especially from the upper hemisphere. Delivered by aircraft, missile systems, artillery, managed cluster munitions the U.S. and NATO countries are firmly hitting our armored vehicles on top of the huge distances from the strip of contact.
Similar examples abound of modernization, but the scope does not permit them to publish a huge part.
Was in service for two decades BMP-3 is a lot of prirekany in Russian military.
Photo from the book "The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation"
Modern military equipment such that there is virtually no branch of science and technology, which could be associated with the development and creation of weapons. This is a physics and chemistry, metallurgy and mechanical engineering, electronics and computer engineering, radio engineering and instrument making. In weapons systems are mixed and reaction units and systems are based on different physical principles. Because in the design to forecast the development of science and technology, which can make its own contribution in the forthcoming modernization has taken into service of systems tools. In other words, led Ph.D., Colonel Oleg Sergeev (see "HBO» № 10, 200
7), it is necessary to create in store modernization, which determines the long-term development of weapons. Unfortunately, the creation of the modernization of stores in sight, for example, for the Russian strategic aviation and the Navy, which leads to premature aging of these weapons.
The forthcoming modernization of strategic bombers T-95MS and Tu-160 is unlikely to close the existing gap will allow the system to Russian Armed Forces associated with the inability to strike a precision instrument in the ordinary gear on distant targets. It should be recalled that at the time (see "HBO» № 8, 2003) modernization of Tu-160 Anticipate "teach" him to bombard. Immediately noted that one Tu-160 can carry as many bombs as squadron of Tu-22M3. With all of this was supposed profound modernization of the machine, where it was planned to master the use of a Tu-160 precision guided bombs. Does not require special evidence that arming the Tu-160 free-fall bombs and responsive to today's criteria of zabugornyh air defense systems do not meet their strategic purpose. The introduction of adjustable bombs going from the heights of 5-8 km and at a distance from the target of about 9-13 km, which asks the storage media in the area of enemy air defenses and leads to a sad end. Whether to risk such expensive carriers, as the Tu-160? Optimally their introduction for its original purpose — to make beats at 3-5 thousand km ALCM in the ordinary and nuclear warheads.
Americans more properly belong to modernize its strategic aviation. Thus, the record of longevity belongs to the South American strategic bomber B-52, which is provided with the modernization of the use of new technologies. B-52H bomber put into service in 1961. At the current time in the armed forces is 76-52H bombers. Design life of the machine — 2030. B-52H bomber is given a priority role of the carrier air-based cruise missiles, acting outside the zone of active air defense. In order to remedy deficiencies identified during the war in Iraq, Yugoslavia and Afghanistan are being modernized B-52H, B-1B, B-2A by improving on-board systems and the expansion of the ammunition guided weapons.
Modernization of weapons provides the LG-2015, to which no attention is paid tribute to the Navy. On this occasion, Vice Admiral, last Chief of Operations, Deputy Chief of the Head of Staff of the Navy Victor Patrushev noted (see "HBO» № 36, 2006), which is in accordance with the LG-2015 we can speak only about the creeping modernization of individual ships . In this case, it is planned for the funds must be received in the second five-year GPV-2015. Having revealed the deficiencies GPV-2015, negative activity MED and Ministry of Finance, he proved the need for the creation of unfunded programs from pervading the modernization and repair of ships and ships with its main sub-program "Modernization of the group of multi-purpose submarines". The main reason of concern modernization of attack submarines would be that the Northern and Pacific fleets have less than 3 serviceable multipurpose nuclear submarines. Modernization and repair of multi-purpose submarines of Project 971 will extend the service life of up to 40 years to ensuring their combat effectiveness to date. According to the views of Victor Patrushev, our naval commanders underestimate the role of multipurpose nuclear submarines in terms of destruction of aircraft carriers, warships and troops of enemy submarines to aircraft lift lines and missile launches by the Russian countryside.
Severe difficulties waiting for the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation in connection with the modernization of weapons purchased abroad. In this case, the trader zabugorny unlikely to give technologies that define modernization in store. Following the laws of the market, it is profitable, so after following the warranty period of purchasing a new model.
Overall pursued modernization does not provide an increase in the level of combat features available weapons. Russian team as before remain invested in this little old instrument created for the fights of the past generation wars.