In January this year celebrates 359 years Pereyaslavska Rada — a landmark event, in which the Russian official time was given the title of 'the reunification of Ukraine with Russia ", and before that was called" the reunification of Russia. " Today, this event try to give another interpretation to the bad old color — in the context of "matching the country" by the Galician patterns.
Apparently, the right those wits that they say that we live in a country with an unpredictable past. The political focus, changing the assessment of past events has long been in favor of the current political situation, so can modify the description of the same events that the uninitiated may even seem that deals with quite different historical facts.
Certainly, historians XVIII-XIX centuries. could be a lot of confused, if I found out that instead of the "reunification of Russia" appear "reunion of Ukraine and Russia." A former Communist Party historians and teachers of scientific communism, now struggled on the field, "History of Ukraine", 25 years back, and in a terrible dream would not have appeared to them to today's "historical works" about the "temporary military alliance 2-powers."
Tactical bedding in historical science — something profitable for their makers and heralds successful for politicians and propagandists, but truly deadly for historical truth and adequate representation of reality. After all, even those who give tribute to the world-historical significance Pereyaslavska happy in captivity stereotype that came out in 1654, the Ukraine and Russia, rather than moving troops Zaporizhzhya of citizenship of the Polish king in citizenship Russian tsar (www.alternatio.org) .
With all of this in the public consciousness is understood as the territory of Ukraine Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and its successor — the current Ukrainian state. Meanwhile, if an unbiased look at things, it immediately becomes visible to the failure of such a point of view — in fact Pereyaslavska Rada of the Russian country included only land controlled by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
Seem to have forgotten that at the time of Bogdan Khmelnitsky were subject only to certain parts of the territories of today's Poltava, Sumy, Kyiv and Chernihiv regions, it was 10-12% of the current territory of Ukraine. The rest of its territory — the fruits of victory of Russian weapons, Russian art of diplomacy and … presents the "big brother".
Because celebrating another anniversary Pereyaslavska happy for many centuries determined the fate of Eastern Europe, we must not forget that finding a number of territories of today's Ukrainian powers within it direct and in direct relationship to the Pereyaslavska Rada has not, and it is only a remote consequence.
Suffice it to recall that the right bank of the Dnieper remained within the Commonwealth directly to the second half of the XVIII century., When the reign of Catherine II was released from Polish rule. The same applies to the Northern Black Sea (the historical name — the New Russia) reclaimed from the Turks and Tatars again in the reign of Catherine II.
Casual mention should be made about the rewards of Lenin, which was eliminated in the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Republic (kornilov.name / kniga), resulting in the vast industrial regions Dnieper Donets Basin and became part of Ukraine (for the sake of increasing the percentage of the proletariat in farming Ukraine). Do not forget about the role of Stalin in which the Ukrainian steel Galicia, Volyn, Transcarpathian region, Northern Bukovina and Southern Bessarabia. And it is quite indecorous will forget about the role of Khrushchev, who gave the Crimea.
Kind of home in the list of territorial acquisitions Kharkiv Ukraine is — as the territory of the first gift from Ukraine and from all the lands of today's Ukrainian longer dwells in all part of. At first glance this statement may seem abrupt, even shocking, but if you keep an open mind to face the historical truth and discover little-known pages of history, the facts will help to assure the correctness of the spoken most suspicious (not to be confused with blinders — unable to convince any of these facts, even the most trivial). What is still up these facts?
Unknown to most of them — that the territory of today's Kharkiv legally became part of the Russian country at the very beginning of the XVI century. — In 1503
How it happened? Here we should recall that the disparate Russian principalities were not able to resist the invasion of Batu, while it suffered defeat and ruin, and then become easy prey quickly rising Duchy of Lithuania. Thanks to the immense mastery of places of the former Kievan Rus' (including the Seversky lands, including today's Kharkiv region), Lithuania became naikrupneyshim state in Europe since then. But while staying at a fairly low level of cultural development, Lithuania swallowed a cultural merits of the conquered Russia, so that some historians believe that at some stage there were two of Russia — Capital and Lithuania.
So tight connection of the Russian country and Lithuania, dynastic marriages, to a large extent — a community of cultures, it would seem, could lead to the compound 2-countries. Maybe that's what happened to, but in the process broke vsesuschy Vatican, who managed to send to the top of the Lithuanian Catholic (while most of her subjects — the descendants of the inhabitants of Kiev Russia — were Orthodox).
Due to the expansion of the church at the turn of the XV and XVI centuries. Lithuania intensified persecution of the Orthodox, accompanied by attempts to translate them to Catholicism. "Build a shrine in Latin Russian towns, otymayut wives from husbands, kids and parents are baptized by the power of the Law of the Roman. And can I create flegmantichno oppressed Orthodoxy? "- Wrote the majestic Prince metropolitan Ivan III. In this case, the expansion of the church has touched not only the common people, and the nobility, and its number — the daughter of Ivan III of Lena, who was married to the stately Duke of Lithuania Alexander.
Religious conflicts have become one of the causes deterioration of relations between the Russian government and Lithuania. These criteria Simeon princes of Chernigov, Chernigov owned, Starodub, Gomel and Ljubech Rila and Basil, who owns the Ryl'sk and Novgorod-Seversky (including the lands of today's Kharkiv region), appealed to the majestic Prince Ivan III calling for the release of their town and their subordinate from Lithuanian rule. And as if anticipating what was produced after a half-century Bohdan Khmelnytsky, was asked to take them together with the ancestral lands of the Russian country
Ivan III began the war with Lithuania, which lasted two years and ended in 1503 at the Russian State of Lithuania was conquered a number of land, and in their midst — the Seversky land, which came into the territory of today's Kharkiv region.
So Makar, in today's year marks 510 years since the occurrence of land Kharkiv today to the Russian country.
This happened after only a decade after the discovery of America by Columbus, for half a century before joining the Russian government of Kazan and Astrakhan, eighty years before the conquest of Siberia and 100 for 50 years before Pereyaslavska happy!
Attribution of this locality Russian government for a long time to Pereyaslav confirmed by the "
;Book of Drawings Bolshennomu" — one of the first descriptions of the Russian country, and maps of Guillaume de Boplana — French officer, a military engineer and geographer who in the 30-40s. XVII. resided in the Polish service and left nainteresneyshie material on the then Ukraine.
In the "Book of Drawings Bolshennomu", one of the first geographical descriptions of, compiled by the Metropolitan Digit order in 1627, is a description of the southern areas of the Russian country where indicated Kharkov rivers Lopan, Kharkov, Uda. That is an area specifically the Capital of the country, evidenced by the fact that she never went to the Hetman State, subordinate to the Belgorod governor, embassy of the order, and not made in Moscow in 1663 Malorossiysky order.
Then territory the region was incorporated into the Azov province, and then there were areas made Sloboda and Ukrainian Kharkiv province, whose population differed in their own legal position of the population of other provinces of modern Ukraine. In fact, officially Kharkiv in Ukraine have become relevant only at the turn of 1917-1918., When he moved to Kharkov Ukrainian Congress of Soviets expelled from the Central Rada in Kiev, and then came the invitation of the Central Rada Kaiser's troops, which, in fact, was built segodnyaschy border between Kharkov and Belgorod.
More one contemporary, left us a certificate of border demarcation between the Russian state and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the XVII century., — is Guillaume Levasseur de Boplan. He was one of those who implemented the plans of the Polish government on the construction of fortresses in the south-eastern borders of the Polish country. For 17 years he has built or planned for construction of the fortress and all kinds of barriers, intended for protection against Mongol invasions, and to hold in obedience Cossack freemen.
Looking for a comfortable hold, de Boplan well acquainted with the topography, ethnography, life and situation of Ukraine and nearby places, and left her on this notable notes. In addition, at the request of the Polish King Wladyslaw IV and Crown Hetman Konetspolskogo de Boplan engaged in drawing up detailed maps of South Russia. Returning home, he was still in 1660, issued in France writing about Ukraine Description d'Ukraine and detailed maps of Ukraine and Poland, then repeatedly republished.
According to de Boplana cards, the other day Bohdan Khmelnytsky Uprising boundary between the Russian government and the Commonwealth took place on the river Putivel Teren, the headwaters of the Sula and down the river Vorskla. The territory of today's Kharkiv exactly was in the Russian borders of the country.
This is proven in the works of Ukrainian historian Dmitry Bagalei. Oh, so in their own "Stories of Sloboda Ukraine" (for the first time published in 1918), he describes the creation of the town of Valka (50 km west of Kharkov): "Duzhe Starym Maskovskiy outposts in Slobozhanschinі boule rolls. Kolis there CCB shaft that rіv, yak about Tse Kazhe "Lofty Drawing Book". Voєvoda Turgenєv rotsі in 1636 wrote about the Rolls: "A Ti rolls zvіsnі s starovini." And in 1646 rotsі Maskovskiy Urjadov zbuduvav on to urochischі krіpost rolls, іnakshe Mozhsky ostrozhok. "
In the same D. Bagaley shows that the most populated place to the Khmelnytsky on the ground today Kharkiv was Chuguivs'kyi county — from the Great Russians populated villages Yaruga Stone, Protection, Kochetok, Vvedenskoe, sand, thorn, Pyatnickoe, Vasyshcheve etc. These settlements as Dmitry Bagaley shows, the land was assigned to the metropolitan government as early as 1647
And more than there is evidence of early development of the region by Russian servicemen people. Thus, the history of today's Pechenga district, Kharkiv region preserved charters on the allocation here in 1599 the Belgorod soldier Maslov (www.pechenigi-rda.org.ua) land as payment for state service. More mealy appearance of the town and fortress Tsareborisova (from 1919 — Reddish Oskol), based warlord BJ Belsky's reign as the need of the name, Boris Godunov — in 1599
And quite near Tsareborisova was much more davneshnee settlement — the Church of the monastery, which for the first time mentioned in the product diplomat, traveler and historian of the XVI century. Sigismund Gerberstein "Notes about Muscovy," where he outlined his journey, committed in 1526
It will be recalled that when the terrain today Kharkiv Russian servicemen people built the town and fortress, the future unifier of Russia (or the Ukraine and Russia, as it was accepted in modern historiography) Bohdan Khmelnytsky had just started to walk and was trained read their first words … And it will be many years before the reunification of Russia relay, running the princes of Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky, in the hands of the hetman.
Kharkiv region has experienced two waves of settlement — Russian, when from the beginning of the XVI century., After the war with Lithuania and join Seversky territories to the Russian state on the land of the future Kharkiv Russian servicemen were sent to guard the borders of the people and development of the region, and Ukrainian, when 150 years later, this outskirts of the Russian country to accept refugees from the right bank of the Dnieper (in the middle of their forefathers and the creator of the maternal lines). With the permission of the Russian Tsar Ukrainian refugees settled here, creating a so-called. settlement — settlements, the inhabitants of which were released on a number of obligations.
Since the middle of the XVII century. Slobozhaschina appeared — the Russian region of the country, along with the Great Russians settled by refugees from Ukraine — representatives of the Ukrainian ethnic group (though at the time they were considered units of the 1st of the people). This has led to a unique ethnic alloy, which is at times referred to as "sub-ethnic group Slobozhanskiy"
It is best described Nikolai Gogol in his famous letter of 1844: "What is my soul — or hohlyatsky Russian — I do not know. I only know that does not give any advantages to malorossiyaninu Russian or Russian to malorossiyaninom. Both natures very generously gifted by God, and, as luck would have any of them apart within itself what is not in the other — an obvious sign that they need to make up for one another. To do this, the best stories of their past life they are unlike one another, so that apart mannered different strength of their morals, that later merged together, to make something perfect in a population of the earth … Russian and malorossiyanin — the souls of the twins, which supplement each other, relatives and prototype strong. "
The reader may appear completely legitimate question: why is so energetic creator mentions Kharkiv region — in fact in 1503 it was far not the only area that replaced with Lithuanian citizenship to a Russian. The answer must be found in the following Russian history.
A century later, during the Troubles, sweeping Rus (these actions strongly associated with short-term kings of Boris Godunov and SHUISKI, the council of seven, both Falsdmitry, Polish intervention and liberation of Moscow militia of Minin and Pozharsky), virtually all the gains of 1503 have been lost — and Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky again became Polish. And only the territory of the future Kharkiv remained in the country and then the Russian sheltered thousands of refugees from the right bank of the Dnieper, fleeing the repression of the Polish troops after the defeat of the Cossacks Berestechko.
The rapid development of the region, the establishment of the Institute, the reincarnation of Kharkov in the large commercial and industrial center, and then to the transport hub in the Kharkiv region attracted many professional and enterprising people. Serbs and Wallachians, Germans and Jews, Greeks, Poles, Armenians,
Georgians, and of course, the Russian and Ukrainians have brought their own contribution to the development of not only the Kharkiv region — their discoveries and achievements have enriched the world of science and culture. But as is typical, the representatives of different nations were able to fully realize themselves and become majestic specifically in the bosom of the Russian culture and it is completely natural — the only culture makes world-class facilities and provides the ability for full disclosure of creativity bestowed on man by nature.
Over the past 500 years, three times (not counting the Mongol invasions) samples taken from the Russian tear Kharkiv region of the world, to drive out of here Russian language and culture, and always such acts were carried out under the patronage of foreign Kharkiv and plunged into the abyss of disaster and hardship. And what joy — always ended in failure rather remember the collapse of attempts by the Kaiser in 1918 and fuhrer in 1941-43. You can be sure that today's plans and the 'Washington Regional Committee "for the separation and opposition between our peoples is not destiny realized — the question is only how long this will last and how it attempts to turn back the development of the region.
And it's not the opposition that have "de-Russification" (to be exact — cropping own roots) Kharkov. On our side of the logic of historical development, the need for economic survival, understanding civilizational ties and just similar: about a third of Kharkov and Belgorod above 40% have relatives on the other side not so long ago made the Russian-Ukrainian border.
And that proved to anyone, perhaps even nasty, but objectively existing reality: the vast Slobozhanshchina (Kharkov, Belgorod and Voronezh, and in part Sumy region) lives one people. People, which equally favorably applies to Russian and Ukrainian culture, including their native prototype. At least not as esteeming their story. Suffice it to recall that the yearly celebration of the anniversary Pereyaslav conducted in Kharkiv for many years, and now runs — even after the authorities expelled him from the list of activities and completed the financing, all of this is provided by the public.
And if indeed a policy for the benefit of our peoples and not overseas puppeteers who in Ukraine and Russia only behold the only figure on the world chessboard, then the future of our country should not build from the top of an erected between Kharkov and Belgorod modern Berlin wall.
And the example, which would cost to borrow — in which the coexistence of our states and settling their border, the effectiveness of which has come from the European Union, the same U.S. and Canada. Taking into account in all this their experience — in the benefits offered by the partnership, for example, in the format of European regions, in this case — the Euroregion Sloboda, whose ability in this step should be used more actively for at least a partial restoration of broken relationships between perennial border areas.
And of course, one can not ignore the dignity and the direct economic benefits that will give Ukraine a membership in the Customs Union. That is not only instead of begging enslaving loans allow Ukraine to earn itself the right tools, and bring to life the precepts of Taras Shevchenko: "let them zhitom-wheat, yak gold pokrita, nerozmezhovanoyu ostanetsja navіki one i sea to sea — slov'yanska land." Itself, which in Slobozhanschyna it has been for the last five hundred years.