Guided artillery shells

The actions below occurred during the second half of the 80th. beyond the borders of our country. Fortified enemy in the mountains could not hurt ordinary firepower. For solving the problem in the area was transferred firing squad in the 2-240-mm self-propelled mortar 2S4 "Flower". They turned to the closed position, the goals were at a distance from their 2,5-8,4 km. The results of firing artillery eclipsed all expectations. Seven fortresses were destroyed 10 mines (the scale of destruction was 70-90%). Fifteen shots could damage the 6 entrances to the cave. The same number of minutes spent on the destruction of land long 5 fire facilities. One hundred percent total (three shots — hitting three) was achieved by winding up set behind stone walls DShK and rocket launcher.

Itself of success has been achieved because on the day for the first time in a combat situation was used complex corrected artillery weapons, laser-guided "Daredevil" for the 240-mm mortar with mine corrected in the ordinary gear. It consists of: a shot with the corrected artillery mine (CWA), the synchronization 1A35 and a laser designator rangefinder (LTSD). These devices complement the regular means of an artillery unit with ordinary mortars and controlled by regular artillery calculations.

Scout with advanced command and supervisory Fri (KNP) was found to target (in the case described, they were at a distance of 1,2-5 km from Scouting), defined by their coordinates LTSD and passed information to the calculations mortars. After entering the necessary amendments carried shot, the signal of which walked in communication by means of synchronization LTSD. On the final leg of the flight personnel mines LTSD automatically cut one in emission mode and illuminated target. With all of this invisible eye laser light reflected from the target, the receiving system homing mines, which included the presence of a miss missile system on-board adjustments, which made dovorachivat projectile at the target.

Complex "Daredevil" has a unique combat efficiency at relatively low prices: reduced consumption of ammunition 80-100 times, significantly reduced the time and decreases the outfit raised funds to perform tasks strong hit small targets with indirect fire.

Due to the simplicity of the design correctable mine has the highest operational reliability and safety. Thus, the serial bomb "Daredevil" for a year in the Acceptance and repetitive tests subjected to a test firing in the amount of 92 shots. With all of this failure was not, and the average hit probability was 0.78 with a deviation of 0.8-1.8 m

TWO CONCEPTS

At the current time, "Brave" is the most massive, not having a global set of high-precision analog tube artillery.

It is created based on the concept of Russian impulse adjustments (international designation — RCIC-technology), in accordance with which the management shell is made in a limited area of the flight (homing in the final — 0.02-0.6 km — plot lines ballistic motion). In addition to "daredevil" on the basis of the technology created by the 152-mm package with correctable artillery shells (CAS) "Measuring". Both of them are in service with the Army Forces and successfully used artillery during combat operations in local conflicts.
Work on the creation of high-precision long-range cannon artillery systems based homing underway with the 60-ies. in Russia and a number of zabugornyh countries (U.S., France, Germany, England, Sweden, etc.). But to the true time of only two countries — Our homeland and the U.S. have a high-precision artillery of the first generation of semi-active laser homing.

In technical terms, the first generation of high-precision artillery or based on the Russian concept of pulse adjustments, or on the American concept of aerodynamic control (ACAG). In accordance with the latest management shell is carried out on the entire line of motion (program planning and homing on the target — 3.2 km — part of the flight). ACAG made on the basis adopted by the Army weapons systems with guided artillery shells (UAS) 155-mm "Copperhead" (USA), and 152-mm "Krasnopol" (Our Fatherland).

Important to note that the RCIC-technology makes the basis for the creation of second-generation high-precision artillery to what is provided to implement the principle of "fire and forget". Developments in this area are a number of states, but reliable disk imaging on the adoption of a zabugornyh armies complexes of the second generation is not. Apparently, you can not do under the applicable ACAG dimensions autonomous seeker realizing capture a range of 300-500 m

At the same time, in an artillery projectile correctable RCIC-based technology that employs a small technical dispersion on midcourse flight, running a high-energy pulse missile system adjusting the line of motion, such a decision can be implemented.

From the analysis of temper ambition of the enemy that destroyed the artillery division with indirect fire, it follows that a significant part of them — 70% — of armored vehicles that are at the range of 0.2-0.3 to 10-15 km from the strip combat Contact. For them to actually defeat a direct hit from one to three rounds of medium-caliber. Because long-range artillery modernization task to effectively destroy armored vehicles with indirect fire without the introduction of laser designation is a priority.

But, given the promising ways komuflirovaniya and a great abundance of uses (except armored vehicles) — the points of contact, forts, caves, boats, bridges, ferries, etc. — remains a topical task of improving and expanding the implementation of modernization means an ordinary field artillery in the based semi-active laser homing target designation.
For a more complete assessment of ACAG and RCIC-tech make out versus some properties and features of KAM "Daredevil," CAS "centimeter" and UAS "Copperhead".

PERFORMANCE Properties

Before loading the CAS instrument following two switch: on-board installation of a mechanical watch the start of homing (1-3 seconds before meeting with a view) and mode switching fuse acts — "one-step" or "Slow". Errors in systems do not lead to a crash.

Before loading the UAS in the instrument are four switch: the same settings as in the CAS (but homing time — 15 seconds), and an additional two switch: installation code homing and programs from the autopilot. Errors in installing 2-the latter can lead to deviations of a few kilometers.

CAS has the least weight and length than the UAS, its body is made one-piece, and the loading is done, as the loading of ordinary ammunition.

Housing UAS is structurally made of 2-piece, which is docked in the charging tray for tools, which reduces the rate of fire, but a violation of the rules can result in docking chambering a barrel to the formation of ad hoc gap between compartments with 2 shell and the tragedy of the shot.

Adjustable artillery shell is moving along a ballistic line of traffic, because in case of failure include the terminal phase of the flight board adjustment system it operates as ordinary artillery shell. UAS in the main used in planning mode, because refusal autopilot homing or jamming lead to significant deviations in distance and direction.

CAS is relatively simple in design, reliable, does not have in its composition gyro, autopilot and usage does not require routine maintenance and servicing.

Guided artillery projectile tracking equip seeker with gyro, autopilot planning, control drives, making it less reliable than the CAS, and repeated requests inspector.

The advantage of CAS performance features and level of reliability is confirmed by the fruits of Acceptance and repeated testing of serial batches of shells. Thus, when routine tests of serial CAS "Centimeter" during the year produced 78 shots, only two refusals, which corresponds to the average value of the probability of neotkaznoy 0.97 (for technical reasons — 0.93), and the mean value of the probability of hit at exactly 0 ,5-0, 9 m was 0.94 (for technical reasons — more than 0.8).

MARTIAL Properties

Consumption of the defeat of the majority of small targets approximately similar and is 1-3 CAS or UAS.

UAS platoon firing a volley (batteries) at the same target in fact excluded from the mutual interference from ruptures caused significant spread of flight time in planning mode, shells, resulting in the need to create one by one to 3 rounds with 15-second laser light is usually from the 1st and the same NPC. With all of this target is illuminated by laser and 45 seconds, making it the highest ability to detect and defeat the CNR or jamming.

When shooting CAS for a reliable and frisky defeats the purpose of creating a volley firing squad (or even the battery) on a single target with its illuminated for 1-3 seconds, which virtually eliminates the possibility of finding an opponent of the laser source.

With cloud height 150-250 m, also at a low visibility firing guided munitions is not possible, because for the effective implementation of the UAS cloudiness should not be less than 700-900 m, and the capture range homing system to 3 thousand meters, at the same time CAS did not actually lose efficiency.

Adjustable artillery shell provides effective fire in the mountain criteria, including the processing of goals for the current ramps, due to steep ballistic missile trajectories, in this case, shooting UAS is virtually impossible.

Guided artillery projectile provides effective shooting ranges across the spectrum on the basis of a complete preparation (without zeroing), but in actual combat the criteria to perform a full training may not always be, and perform sighting with the introduction of UAS into planning mode, you can not.

CAS can fire on the basis of a complete preparation (without zeroing) on the mid-range, while increasing the flow of shells for about a third of — and at maximum range. When zeroing target area from getting a projectile at a target CAS approaches unity.

CAS first-generation offers the highest effective firing range (depending on the gun system) to 12-15 km; UAS — up to 16-17 km. But the CAS can hit targets with excellent direct fire on the smallest distances — least 2 km to 4 km for a guided projectile.

Operational characteristic

Guided missile filled with high-precision systems that are used in its construction of durable materials, the highest precision machining, high volume adjusting operations. Machining, assembly, adjustment, control and verbovaniya tests require highly skilled personnel.
Proofread the projectile due to simple construction has about 3-4 times the least labor-intensive, does not require the use of scarce materials and highly skilled professionals, creating CAS aims to run on a deserted technology.
The future development of UAS and CAS in "Copperhead 2" and "Falcon-2" will provide for increased rate of increase in the range of fire, noise, autonomy, and other tactical and operational parameters. At the same time, these characteristics are not much of an impact on the comparative evaluation of CAS, UAS and ordinary artillery projectile firing rates solutions puzzles.

"Cost-effectiveness"

Comparison of adjustable-driven and everyday artsnaryadov on an aspect of "cost-effectiveness" was carried out on the basis of the results of solving problems with the use of fire CAS "centimeter" in combat criteria. For the estimate of 155 mm attracted UAS "Copperhead" and 152-mm (SLA) high-explosive shell "Grief."

Fire Problem — kill the manpower and firepower, located in a mountainous area in the fortresses, for Duvalov etc. A total of 16 targets of different size and strength, and range — 5,4-6,6 km distance laser designation — 3.2 km.

Table 1 shows the actual consumption of 16 rounds to defeat the purposes of the results of the introduction of martial CAS "centimeter", and estimates of the UAS "Copperhead" and SLA "Grief." With all of this opportunity to hit the target UAS "Copperhead" was assumed to be 1, and the SLA "Grif" — regardless of the firing range and puzzles — 0.01-0.03.

Measured by the flow of shells for the solution of fire missions in accordance with Table 1 and the data on labor-intensive production of shells can be assessed conditional price solving the problem as a whole and to compare these characteristics by CAS "Centimeter" UAS "Copperhead" and SLA "Grief" (Table 2) .
The intended target with the introduction of CAS "Centimeter" (UAS "Copperhead") was solved one battery (6 guns). While solving the problem UAS "Copperhead" is 5-7 times lower than CCA "Grief."
CAS "Centimeter" by the firing volleys spends 3-5 times less time to solve puzzles firepower than UAS "Copperhead".

According to the results of the comparative analysis of tactical and technical data, operational and combat features, as technology and efficiency parameters, divided by the price of fire missions solutions, we can come to a conclusion about the prospect of upgrading everyday barreled artillery weapons on the basis of the concept of Russian impulse correction in comparison with the American concept of aerodynamic management.
The true conclusion is proved coup serial production and military use, and the fruits of the highest combat use of artillery systems "Daredevil" and "Centimeter".

TABLE === ===
Table 1.
The results of the fire missions
Problem Number of shots / hits
"Centimeter" (actual) "Copperhead" (raschet.) "Grief" (raschet.)
Suppress three pillboxes
(Objectives) in the fortresses of Duvalov 3/3 single. 3/3 single. 387/3
Crush the 5 fire points
(Targets) in the fortresses of Duvalov 7/5 single. 5/5 single. 1395/5
Quell two emplacements
(Objectives) in the fortresses 7/4 single. 4/4 single. 468/4
Suppress manpower and fire
means a 2-forts
(Two goals) 6/6 volley wav. 4/4 single. 468/4
Injure four
Fortress (target) 26/24 Agricultural Labourers volley. 22/22 single. 2340/20
Total shots: 49 * / 42 ** 38/38 *** 5526/36
* Consumption of shells in solving problems in the military criteria, including expenditure on sighting — 4 shots.
** The estimated rate shells.
*** The estimated rate shells, including control of zeroing — 18 shots.
Table 2.
Comparison of CAS, UAS and SLA on an aspect of "cost-effectiveness"
Shell Labor-intensive production of consumption shells on Conventional solutions Comparative price conditional
1st shell in labor hours solution puzzles, pieces. puzzles in the price of labor hours solving the problem
CAS "Centimeter" 240 49 11 760 1.0
UAS "Copperhead" 800 38 30 400 2.59
CCA "Grif" June 26 33,156 2.82

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