Adjust or control
In the world there are only two technologies guided artillery guns: South American concept of aerodynamic control ACAG and Russian concept of pulse correction RCIC. Development ACAG, for the first time realized in the South American 155-mm projectile Copperhead, has received wide distribution in the world. Namely, specifically its implementing Russian guided missiles "Krasnopol", "Kitolov" and mine "Fringe" development Tula "Instrument Design Bureau" (CPP), led by the famous Arkadi Shipunov. Pulse correction — a purely Russian development of patented, implemented, for example, in shells, "Measuring" and mine "Daredevil" Company "Ameteh." What is the difference between still and ACAG RCIC? If simple, it is better to use a tool driven by a juicy high-precision shooting, modulating — in clear. If hard, then read on.
A general condition for both types of ammunition is that before the shot to the target at 7 km distance (in practice even closer) must get close spotter with a laser designator-rangefinder (LTSD) on his shoulders. The work is very languid — first modification rangefinder 1D15 for "Krasnopol" weighed 60 kg, modern 1D20M for "daredevil" and "Centimeter" — 18 lbs. (Remember, in the Hollywood films laser rangefinders like light field binoculars.) In rangefinder with a spotter should be an army radio station (also a big box) and a synchronization device (it later). Of these it is clear that the spotter — the most important (and, unfortunately, the most expendable) component of the system, because of its support is usually distinguished from the special forces guys.
Upon arrival (as mentioned above, no further than 7 km from the deadly enemy of unsafe), spotter sets his equipment and with LTSD finds and selects the target. After you select determines their position by reading the azimuth, elevation (do not ask us what actually it is) and range. After that, using the bring-your-laptop Army (vtochnosti it is the same as a civilian, only heavier, more expensive and slower running), the tables firing expects installation to fire, exactly as for the unguided projectiles. A friend of mine who enjoys shooting over long distances, for this purpose, by the way, uses a small handheld receiver with integrated GPS, just fits in the pocket, and he really rangefinder integrated with binoculars. But we digress.
And at this time the position of
After spotter made the necessary calculations, it is radio voice transmits data to the firing position in the rear — for example, on a self-propelled 152mm howitzer "MSTA-S", the pride of the Russian army. Charging takes out a box of high-precision shell "Krasnopol" and pulls out the plug booster motor, then a special key sets the fuse in one of the positions: "S" — slow explosive action, "O" — seconds of shrapnel. Then removed from the pocket screwdriver, and use it to exhibit pulse frequency LTSD (so shell was specifically to their target). A special key to set the time unlock gyro — if you make a shot with a working gyro, it will break from overload.
Not sleeping and spotter. Continuing to look into the eyepiece of the goal, he LTSD exhibits the same frequency pulses as in the projectile, as the time-delay illumination. This is the only naked eyes infantryman infrared laser light seems invisible. Modern equipment (tanks and even more so) are equipped with radiation sensors, and the inclusion of illumination is defined by them as the inclusion of aviation in the spotlight complete darkness. Spotter for miles like states — "Here I am," and it begins the hunt. Usually, captured by spotters (as, in general, and snipers) die of slow and horrible death.
And here it is, a long-awaited shot. Go with him on the radio to the LTSD transmits a coded signal (for this and needed a timing device) and the pointer begins to count down. Expect to have quite a long time — if, for example, "MSTA-S" shoots a maximum range of 20 km, the missile will fly more than a minute.
Immediately after coming out of the barrel "Krasnopol" opens stabilizers. At the highest point of the trajectory cut one booster engine, unlocked and gyroscope spins, produced nasal aerodynamic control surfaces and reset fairing optical seeker. Stage begins inertial guidance projectile.
For 5-12 seconds before the arrival LTSD highlights the purpose, and at a distance of 2.5 km "Krasnopol" begins to run across the homing mode. If the goal is a modern tank, then finding a highlight, he simultaneously shoots opaque to laser aerosol accumulation and tries to flee the fire. If this position is reinforced by militants, in a few seconds with a 90% chance it will end its existence.
Ammunition with pulse adjustment ("Daredevil" and "Centimeter") behave differently. RCIC-technology provides for adjustments to the final (20-600 meters) plot line of ballistic motion. To do this, in the central part of the munition in the centroid of the aerodynamic forces (center of pressure), placed perpendicular to the axis of the projectile propellant rocket nozzle engines — two from "daredevil" and four in "Centimeter". Impulse engines — When you turn on one hundred percent burns gunpowder engine, which at the "daredevil" three on the nozzle, while the "Centimeter" — two on the nozzle. Because spinning projectiles in flight, multiple pulses and the line of motion correction is achieved.
Any development has its own pros and cons. Start from the beginning, for simplicity, focusing on the 2-equivalent 152-mm shells "Krasnopol" and "Centimeter".
"Krasnopol" allows shooting at longer distances (20 km to 15 km) — the effect of the presence of the booster rocket motor. But "Centimeter" allows you to shoot point-blank range by 800 meters, "Krasnopol" also has the smallest distance of 4 km. On the other hand, use expensive precision-guided munitions for direct fire is quite silly, if it is possible to do ordinary shells.
In case of failure of the system adjustments "Krasnopol" floating on significant section of the line of motion in the planning, the projectile deviates significantly from the goal. "Measuring" in the same scenario behaves like ordinary unguided projectile.
"Krasnopol" begins to smooth the adjustment of the line of motion of 2.5 km and has a larger selection of maneuver on the differences from the target than the "Measuring", beginning with the adjustme
nt of 600 meters. In other words, artillery system with a "centimeter" is obliged to shoot precisely. If even easier, the shooting "Krasnopole" is without zeroing, and the probability of defeat, "centimeter" 0.9 bezotstupno recommended to release the district goals 1-2 sighting projectile.
These features of both shells have a downside — Spotter "Krasnopol" must illuminate the target from 5 to 12 seconds, "Centimeter" — from one to 3, much to increase their chances of survival. Smooth and continuous steer "Krasnopol" provides him with greater rigor hit than the pulse "Centimeter". At the theoretical level, "Krasnopol" can get to the point.
"Krasnopol" is a complex device with precision mechanics — typical Swiss watches that require manual configuration. In "Centimeter" is in fact no mechanics, the development is designed for robotic creation, making it 2-3 times cheaper.
By the way, a more conventional device makes life easier for the gunners. Acts of charging for the use of "Krasnopol" we have already outlined. In applying the "Centimeter" he needs to do only two actions: to put on-board clock start homing (usually 3 seconds before the arrival at the target) and fuse switch to the "Instantly" ("Slow") established by deflotu.
Another advantage of the "Centimeter" — volley firing. "Krasnopole" due to fly up to the goal of planning is uneven, and the smoke from the explosion of the first shell, usually prevents the laser target designation for the following rounds. Volley 3-6 with guns "in Edition" will succeed almost immediately.
What to do next
As seen from the above, the artillery gun is controlled early in its own way. Time to prepare for the shot is so great that the tank was simply time to go until the spotter will deal with ballistic tables, and charging — act screwdrivers and keys. Even the manufacturers do not recommend shooting at targets, moves faster 30 km / h But counterinsurgency these shells work perfectly: "Measuring" and "Daredevil" a proven track record in Afghanistan and Chechnya they were joined by "Krasnopol."
In general, the mass use of both managed and corrected munitions in the Russian army did not have to read — they are just not there. As recognized by manufacturers, municipal orders come very rarely, so that deploy in-line establishment has no ability. Zabugornye same experts estimate army ammunition supplies such as "negligible."
Yet STC "Ameteh" producing corrected shells, ready to retrofit their own system of tank guns, and modify aircraft systems rockets C-8, C-13, C-24 and bombs OFAB 100-120 correction blocks.
In the same benchmark of such complexes must be one hundred percent automatic: drones searching and illuminate targets, preparatory installation are entered in the computer by the projectiles, and the heroic profession, "spotter" goes into the past. How, for example, the "conductor rear carriage" in suburban trains.