Unbalanced? Esidual dimetilgidrazi? N (UDMH "heptyl? L ', 1,1'-dimetilgidrazi? N) — a component of a high boiling (having a boiling point above 0 ° C) of rocket fuel. As the oxidizing agent together with UDMH often used nitrogen tetroxide (AT), or soilless consistency with nitric acid, the introduction of known cases nezapyatannoy acid and hydrous oxygen. To improve the parameters can be used in consistence with hydrazine known as Aerozin. UDMH-dull or slightly yellow liquid having ammonia, corresponding to the "fishy" smell.
Heptyl tested in the Soviet Union began in 1949 as a promising fuel for intercontinental missiles. It is used in the Russian launch vehicle family "Proton", having the advantage in the middle of their foreign counterparts on duty.
Not counting the "Proton", resulting in increased conversion successfully launches of other former "military" PH, just use NDMG AND AT:
1.Dnieper — Russian-Ukrainian launch vehicle (LV), made on the basis for elimination of intercontinental ballistic missile RS-20 (15A18) (a systematization of NATO — SS-18 «Satan»).
Base applets "Dnepr" rocket up more than 150 PC-20, applicable for conversion into boosters.
2. Ro? Cat (Index GUKOS — 14A05) — a three-stage liquid rocket easy class, designed by the Khrunichev Center-based intercontinental ballistic missiles UR-100N UTTH (under START-1 — RS-18B, to systematize the U.S. DoD and NATO — SS-19 mod.2 «Stiletto»).
3.Cyclone — Two-stage ("Cyclone-2" 11K69, "Cyclone-2A") or three-stage ("Cyclone-3" 11K68) single liquid rocket easy class to output gallakticheskih vehicles in low Earth orbit. Its layout is fighting an intercontinental ballistic missile R-36orb.
4.Kosmos-3M (11K65M) — Booster based on 65S3 with a modified second stage (ICBM R-14U)
The oxidation of heptyl strong oxidizing agents based on nitric acid (oxidizer amyl) are produced: dimethylamine, tetrametiltetrazen, NDMA, metilendime-tilgidrazin, methanal, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides and other products okisleniya.Obladaet cumulative qualities, ie accumulates in the body.
When launching rockets "Proton" processed first and second stage with a spare fuel residues dumped over to designated sparsely populated areas — areas falling.
But even with the successful start-up to 1 ton of heptyl remains in the exhaust levels.
Immediately after Singe them go chemists and collect samples of soil for analysis.
Global Health Organization NDMG included in the list of especially unsafe chemical compounds
Heptyl to 6 times more toxic than cyanide.
Prussic acid-chemical warfare veschestvo.V first time in the role of the chemical agent hydrogen cyanide was used by the French army 1 July 1916 on the Somme.
Hydrocyanic acid is the main component of the product "Zyklon B", which was used by the Nazis during the second world war to kill people in concentration camps.
In some U.S. states prussic acid was used in the gas chambers as a toxic substance in the performance penalty of the death penalty, the last time it was manufactured in Arizona in 1999 godu.Pogibel usually occurs within 5-15 minutes.
I class of threat. MPC for the air of populated areas: a very odd 0.001 mg/m3, average — 0,001 mg/m3.
MPC for water reservoirs — 0.02 mg / L (hazard ratio limiting — sanitary and toxicological).
Transformation in the environment:
In the air, including with the assistance of an oxidant on the basis of nitric acid Amil during testing rocket engines, water and soil are formed dimethylamine, tetrametiltetrazen, NDMA, metilendimetilgidrazin, nitrozodimetilgidrazin, methanal, hydrocyanic acid, etc.
Amil (registry number CAS 10544-72-6) — Trade title tetrasida nitrogen N2O4. This oxidizer rocket fuel heptyl, a derivative with highly concentrated nitric acid. Has 1st class threat. As a personal matter exists at temperatures below 11oC in the form of white crystals. In the air instantly decomposes with the formation of vapors of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) brown and other nitrogen oxides. When an appeal with Amil needs special protection to skin and eyes of workers. The exposure zone of nitrogen dioxide — 2 mg/m3
Melange — highly toxic oxidant fuel for missiles and medium-range. In the warehouses of the Ministry of Defence this oxidant is listed under the names of the AK-20K, AK-20F, 20I-AK, AK-27And the AK-27P. It is concentrated nitric acid of more than 74%. Highly volatile compound reddish or yellowish color. Even the errant priest's wife-of melange in the atmosphere leads to severe and irreversible consequences for the living organism.
Since its maximum allowable concentration of 0.005 (5000th) mg / l. Total non-vapor how many breaths melange may prove detrimental to the body. For a long stay in the cloud without a suit melange of chemical protection — guaranteed fatal ending.
The combustion products of heptyl and amyl (oxidation) of the test rocket engines or missile launch vehicles
NDMA (chemical title — N-methyl-N-nitrozometanamin). Appears in the oxidation of heptyl Amil. Excellent water-soluble. Joined to oxidation and reduction reactions to form heptyl, dimethylhydrazine, dimethylamine, ammonia, and other substances methanal. Is a highly toxic substance 1st class threat. Carcinogen, has cumulative properties. MAC: in the working area — 0.01 mg/m3, in other words 10 times more terrible in comparison with heptyl, in ambient air of Fri — 0.0001 mg/m3 (average) in water reservoirs — 0.01 mg / l.
Tetrametiltetrazen (4,4,4,4-tetramethyl-2-tetrazene) -decomposition product of heptyl. Sparingly soluble in water. Stable in the abiotic environment, water is very stable. Decomposes to dimethylamine and a number of unidentified substances. On the toxicity of a third class of threat. MPC: in ambient air of Fri — 0.005 mg/m3, water reservoirs — 0.1 mg / l.
Nitrogen dioxide NO2— strong oxidizer, organic compounds in light consistency with it. In normal conditions nitrogen dioxide exists in equilibrium with Amil (tet-raoksidom nitrogen). Irritating to mouth, may be shortness of breath, swelling of the lungs, mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, degeneration and necrosis in the liver, kidneys, brain cheloveka.PDK: in the working area — 2 mg/m3 in air of populated areas — 0,085 mg / m3 (very odd) and 0.04 mg/m3 (average), Class threats — 2.
Carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) — it is a product of incomplete combustion of organic (carbon-containing) fuels. Carbon monoxide can be long (up to 2 months) to stay in the air without any configuration. Carbon monoxide — poison. Binds hemoglobin in the blood carboxyhemoglobin, disrupting the ability to carry oxygen to organs and tissues of man. MAC: in the atmospheric air of populated areas — 5.0 mg/m3 (very odd) and 3.0 mg/m3 (average). In the presence of air immediately carbon monoxide and nitrogen compounds toxic effect of carbon dioxide on people increases.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN). — it is a strong poison. Hydrocyanic acid is very toxic. Absorbed intact skin, has a general toxic effects: headache, nausea, vomiting, respiratory distress, asphyxia, seizures, may be death. In acute poisoning with prussic acid causes suffocation frisky, an increase in pressure, oxygen starvation of tissues. At low concentrations, there is a sense of scraping in the throat, burning bitter taste in the mouth, drooling, loss of conjunctiva eye, muscle weakness, staggering, difficulty speaking, dizziness, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, urge to defecate, a rush of blood to the head, increased palpitations and other symptoms.
Methanal (formic aldehyde)— toxin. Methanal has a strong odor, it is very irritating to the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and throat even at minor concentrations. Provides general toxicity (damage to the central nervous system, eyes, liver, kidneys), irritant, allergenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic action. MPC in the air: the daily average — 0.012 mg/m3, very odd — 0.035 mg/m3.
The saturated space-rocket activity on territory of Russia in recent years has spawned an unlimited number of problems-pollution separable parts of launch vehicles, as toxic components of rocket fuel (heptyl and its derivatives, nitrogen tetroxide, etc.)
But the biggest problem — it's an increased incidence of people living in areas adjacent to the areas falling. This should include violation of bilirubin metabolism, anemia, pregnancy and the birth of the "yellow" kids, the development of immunodeficiency, etc. The experimental research work confirmed that these forms of pathology associated with the toxic effects of heptyl.
Heptyl on the human body general toxicity and skin-irritating. In the body, heptyl moderately distributed, affecting the liver, central nervous, cardiovascular and hematopoietic systems.
Its relevant characteristics: volatile, soluble in water in any ratio, is capable of accumulation in the body, just oxidized, forming with all this over insecure connections.
As the oxidant used in rocket engines nitrogen tetroxide (AT) — Volatile liquid, yellowish or reddish in color with a pungent odor. It reacts violently with many organic solvents and excellent water-soluble.
AT is a substance of Class 1 threat. Inhalation on the human body breaks down first activity of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Remote consequences of acute poisoning ryh and acquired AT may be the development of acquired bronchitis and pulmonary sclerosis.
The whole history of our country's relations with heptyl — is chemical warfare, chemical warfare is not only something that undeclared and unrecognized just us.
Briefly about the military use of heptyl:
There were stage missile defense systems, marine heptyl rocket — launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), gallakticheskie missiles apparently air defense missiles, and tactical missiles (medium range). Total is the latest measure 6 directions.
The Army and the Navy left "heptyl" footprint in Vladivostok and the Far East, Severodvinsk, Kirov region, and a number of circles, Plesetsk and Kapustin Yar cosmodrome, Perm, Bashkiria, etc.
Do not forget that they were transporting rockets, repaired, peresnaryazhali etc., and all this land, in the vicinity of industrial facilities, where the heptyl and produced.
About the tragedy of these highly toxic components, and information about the bodies of civilian authorities, TD (MES), and population-silent. Who was he knows.
It is necessary to keep in mind the place of production and testing of engines, for example, Voronezh, Moscow (Tushino), plant "nefteorgsintez" Salavat (Bashkortostan), etc. , Places the creation of the missile with a heptyl engines.
On duty is about 128 ICBM R-36M UTTH/R-36M2 and UR-100N UTTH (Dombarovsky, Uzhur Kozel'sk, Tatischevo) with heptyl dressing.
Unfortunately, the more difficult given the coordinates of the Air Defense Forces, operated rockets S-75, S-100, S-200.
Every couple of years will be drained from the heptyl rocket is transported in cold storage across the country for processing, to bring back again to fill, etc.. Do not avoid the rail-cars and accidents, it happens somet
imes. The Army will work with heptyl, and all will suffer — not only for yourself missile troops, and the inhabitants of that being said, neither sleep nor spirit.
From operations with heptyl Teikovo in the Ivanovo region affected residents of substantially all Teykovskogo district in 13 districts based strategic missiles on the watery fuel, of course, have already suffered at least 13 inhabitants of the districts in 11 regions of the country (Tver, Kaluga, Saratov, Perm, Ivanovo, Chita, Amur, Orenburg, Chelyabinsk regions, Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories).
According to the professionals of the Global Health Organization, the term neutralization heptyl, which is poisonous threat of class I, in our latitudes is: in the soil — more than 20 years in the bodies of water — 2-3 years, vegetation — 15-20 years.
And if the defense of the country is sacred and in the 50's to 90's, we just had to put up with it (or heptyl, or embodied in reality one of the 10 programs of the U.S. attack on the USSR), now there is a sense and logic, using boosters on UDMH and AT run foreign gallakticheskie phones, receive for their money and for all that poison their own people or people friendly to us in Kazakhstan?
Results of research work:
By polygon "Plesetsk" the greatest concentration were determined in the soil — 268.4 mg / kg (2684 MAC) for unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH heptyl) (RP "coed"), groundwater — 24.0 mg / l (1200 MAC) for UDMH (RP "Naryan-Mar") and 10.5 mg / l (1050 MAC) for asymmetric dimethyl amine (NDMA) (RP "Pechora"), vegetation — 46.6 mg / kg (466 MAC) for UDMH and 7 mg / kg for NDMA. With all of this area of vegetation, muddy component of rocket fuel, 40-60% less than the area of land contamination.
Northern RP placed in the Arctic and sub-Arctic weather zones, which determines their very weak and feeble ability to cleanse itself. The study of dirty components of rocket fuel of different places falling ago (5 to 23 years) showed that the decrease in the concentration of UDMH to level 1-2 MPC is more than 20 years.
By polygon "Baikonur" for the most part (85%) of the territories of Poland the first stages of the landfill vserasprostraneny land in what UDMH is unstable and is rapidly degraded. Analysis of the presence of UDMH in the plants in the whole of Poland and adjacent areas showed that most plants contain UDMH in the range of 0.1-0.5 mg / kg in the areas associated with the explosion of MCT — 0.5-10 mg / kg, in straits fuel — above 10 mg / kg. The results of the analysis of the environmental situation in the Republic of Poland indicate that more safe for the environment boosters "Proton", "Space", "Cyclone" and "Cyclone-M." In the fall of separating parts of stage 1 of "Cyclone" spilled approximately 16.8 tons of UDMH, 28.7 tons of nitrogen tetroxide and 1.35 tonnes of nitric acid. Contamination is localized within a radius of 60-100 m from the site of the crash.
For separating parts of missiles and rockets (OCHRN) allocated 110 districts fall (RP) with a total area of 20 million hectares, which are located in the Republics of Altai, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia), Tuva, Khakassia, Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territory, Taimyr, Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets autonomous area, Amur, Arkhangelsk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk and Tyumen regions, also in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. In addition, there are 12 marine RP total area of about 9 million hectares.
In the territories falling stage "Proton", "Space", "Cyclone" revealed the vast geochemical anomaly and its metabolites in the plant cover, soil and sediments, groundwater and surface waters with the content, significantly exceeding the MPC. As a result of atmospheric transport of vapors and aerosols from MCT is largely contaminated vegetation. NDMG found in the rear of vegetation, vegetables, meat pets, showing his ability to enter the human body.
For 1996 were 8 launches rocket "Proton", 4 — "Space", 2 — "Cyclone", in which the first stages of the exhaust at the time of separation remained approximately 22t NDMG, 19.1 tons of nitrogen tetroxide and 2.7 tons of nitric acid.
According to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation for 2005 will free up almost 100 thousand tons of fuel, including about 25 thousand tons of UDMH. In addition, in the warehouses of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation have accumulated 10 of thousands of tons of fuel, including thousands of tons of excess pripasov.Pri all this huge amount of UDMH is stored in emergency stationary containers and railway tank cars.
On the tragedies with heptyl in the USSR and the Russian Federation, will be a separate article.
About the clinical research studies of people exposed to gepltila or its derivatives in the rocket or the tests, the article will turn even more.
Our homeland de facto turned into gallakticheskogo US-Chinese taxi driver cab.
Almost as humans in the Novels of Sergei Lukyanenko in "Stars — cool toys":
"For you will never allow to spread across the galaxy. Reservation you will be. Will carry emergency goods — up to such time as the candidates went out and brought jump."
"- And people they call the cabbies. — Reptilians ukazuyusche handed me a small foot. "
"Do these people believe in the future of stellar population of the earth? Does it need them to roll up and transport neuvvyazkami intermittently with heat in the apartments, the planned blackouts and overhead items? What gave them the space — not counting the horror of the alien worlds and tortured pride for land, for her gallakticheskie ships — most frisky in the Galaxy… "
About 700 million dollars once a year, we get from them from only due to launch rockets "Proton", as well (I will not go into the numbers and approximately 30-45% of that amount for the rest of RN and RN joint projects with Ukraine.
JUST a "colossal" denzhischami!
COUNT OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT Harm de facto veroyatnym.Bolshaya is not classified as part of the disk imaging, MO hitherto not provide details of the tragedy, storage, disposal and testing of these components of rocket fuel. But if we add to it the health of Russians, the consequences for future generations, the amount should be amazing.
2006 tragedy launched from Baikonur on July 26 missiles RS-20B environmental and economic damage caused by the tragedy of the region with 18 satellites, missiles, was (at the request of professionals Kazakhstan) almost 41 billion tenge (About $ 330 million)
"Plesetsk" Arkhangelsk region, 2006: 60 to 80% of the population living in areas falling debris missiles have signs of liver damage, is 1.5-2 times more than the highest level of endogenous intoxication in almost 7% of children revealed a benign pathology the mouth, which is higher than 200 times the average regional. The propensity to cancer incidence among the inhabitants of the villages and coed Dolgoschelya also significantly higher than in the control villages in the Republic of Komi.
Only in the study from 1997 to 2000 (suspended) was spent 1 million 884 thous
and rubles and 926 rubles in 2006.
And only in the Arkhangelsk region.
Sick leave, the work of doctors, healing, medicine, of early mortality, kids with disabilities, of early disability, travel professionals, commissions, liquidators …. the list goes on.
How much does the solution to this problem of the country in a year?
How much will it cost in the future?
What is the effect the introduction of heptyl on our kids, grandchildren and great-grandchildren?
Is all the commercial launches of?
Do I need to commercial, civilian launches highly toxic fuel long-term storage?
Note: Finland, Lappeenranta region. Drink water directly from the municipal water supply, without any cleaning bottled and sent to Europe and Russia. Same Norway. Nezapyatnannaya.Ponyatie water is contaminated plots of land, lake-no, as a concept.
Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Russian Federation allocate funds for the construction of sewage treatment plants (St. Petersburg project "Unblemished Baltic")
After all, the future is likely such a pessimistic version:
Our homeland, with a population that has a whole bunch of acquired diseases, hardly makes its international obligations to gallakticheskim launches and supply of oil and gas to Europe, China, etc.
We use the proceeds to buy:
-water and milk in Finland;
-grain in America;
-meat in Argentina;
-fruits and vegetables in Spain and Egypt;
Kids and Family of large asset managers and management of the country most of the time in London and Courchevel.
We go to relax and be treated (who can afford for themselves) at …
CHEMISTRY, detoxification heptyl:
The essence of the method is to reduce the toxicity of UDMH in the supply of the fuel tank rockets 20% solution formalin:
(CH3) 2NNH2 + CH2O = (CH3) 2NN = CH2 + H2O + Q
This operation is in excess of formalin results in the complete (100%) of UDMH destruction by its transformation into a dimethylhydrazone methanal one cycle during 1-5 seconds. With all of this avoids the formation dimetilnitrozoamina (CH3) 2NN = O.
The subsequent phase of the process is the destruction dimethylhydrazone Methanal (DMGF) by the addition to the tanks acetic acid, causing dimerization to DMGF glyoxal bis-dimethylhydrazone and polymeric mass
The reaction time — about 1 Minutka (reaction recorded on video)
(CH3) 2NN = CH2 + H +> (CH3) 2NN = CH? NA = NN (CH3) 2 + + Q polymers
The resulting mass is uniformly toxic, perfectly soluble in water.
LOOK FORWARD HANGARS!! At least part of the problems will be charged.
"Angara" — a family of launch vehicles developed a modular type with the oxygen-kerosene engines, which includes four classes of vehicles — from light to heavy — in the range of load capacities from 1.5 ("Angara 1.1") to 35 ("Angara A7") tons in low-Earth orbit (at the start from the cosmodrome "Plesetsk"). The lead developer and manufacturer of PH family "Angara" The Municipal gallaktichesky Research and Production Center Khrunichev.
But, as they say in the NPC, to discontinue the "Proton" no one is going. On the contrary, is the profound modernization of electronics, UPS, composite materials (for the growth of the payload). The country needs a powerful media that "a cheap" cost starts.
"The difficulties of environmental threats Implementation heptyl — highly toxic rocket fuel. CHRONICLE OF EVENTS"
Perm City Branch of the Union "for chemical safety" in 2008
Rocket fuel as an environmental hazard from municipal report 1995 Post UCS-INFO.97, December 17, 1996