December 10, 2012 2:55
The famous statue of the Farnese Atlanta concealed astronomical sensation! Professor of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisiana Bradley Schaefer found that long-lost star catalog of Hipparchus, dated 129 BC present at the Roman statues, name Atlantis Farnese.
Hipparchus, one of the greatest astronomers of antiquity was, admittedly, the most detailed first star catalog, the data which later drew many scholars of antiquity and the Middle Ages. It was believed that the directory has been irrevocably lost in the early Christian period, it is likely in the fire of the Great Library of Alexandria. Apparently not!
Late Roman statue of a kneeling Atlas (Roman marble copy of a Greek original, III c. BC. Oe. Naples, National Museum) — the mythical titan who, according to legend, was holding on his shoulders the celestial sphere — contains the key to the long-lost ancient Star Catalog astronomer Hipparchus, the founder of the astronomy. This statement was made on Tuesday, the American historian of astronomy Bradley Schaefer of Louisiana State University.
Hipparchus' work on developing a detailed star catalog, which he spent in the period roughly from 140 to 125 years BC, many scientists recognized outstanding. Its fame the genius of antiquity must first discovery of a new star, and the phenomenon of precession, the development of the theory of the sun and moon, the qualitative observations of the planets, and of course, drawing the world's first directory of a thousand stars. Unfortunately, only one of the works of Hipparchus survives to this day — a "Comments", which describes in detail the outlines of the constellations. The remaining works of the scientist known only from references in the works of later astronomers, such as Ptolemy (about 85-165 years. BC) in the "Almagest" is described by the star catalog of Hipparchus.
Farnese Atlas — is a Roman statue of the second century AD, established okolo1550, at the villa of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (grandson of Pope Paul III) in Caprarola (Monte Cimini, Q56 KMC north-west of Rome), it portrays the titan Atlas, holding the shoulders the celestial sphere. Now the Farnese Atlas is stored in the Farnese Collection in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples.
As found Schaefer, embossed on the globe of the constellations in great detail displays statues of ancient Greek sky map and the figures of the constellations exactly match the descriptions in the catalog of Hipparchus. On a marble star globe diametrom66 smnarisovany 41 constellation, celestial equator, tropics and ecliptic.
According to Schafer, the accuracy of constellation images suggests that the sculptor was based their work on specific astronomical observations. Previously attributed to many other scientists, but not Hipparchus. And Schaefer just indicates a clear line image directory is compiled by Hipparchus.
Precession, open Hipparchus, is a process in which the stars and constellations move relative figure of the celestial equator and the tropics. Herein lies the key to establishing the date of observation, the results of which are embodied by the sculptor in marble. For a thorough analysis of Professor Schaefer he went to Naples, and made their own pictures of a starry globe. Metering about seventy different positions on the field, the American calculate the most suitable time for the date of the immortalized astronomical observations. This was 125 BC with an error of plus or minus 55 years, ie the period between 180 and 70 years. BC
125 year straight points to Hipparchus (according to available data, the directory was created by him in 129 BC), and all before the supposed author of astronomical observations are beyond the established time limits.
Image detail on the globe also favor Hipparchus as the accuracy of 3.5 degrees can not be achieved by conventional oral description (this is indicated by other potential sources, such as Aratus and Eudoxus) giving only vosmigradusnuyu accuracy. But following a detailed star catalog, as it is known, belongs to Ptolemy, which was already much later — in 128 AD
In addition, it is known that Hipparchus constructed many celestial globe on the basis of its own catalog. For example, there are ancient coins, which Hipparchus shown sitting in front of the sphere, and Ptolemy clearly indicates in his work that Hipparchus made celestial globe. Thus, says Schaefer, we can assume that the Greek sculptor, the statue vayavshy Atlanta, carefully copied the globe, made Hipparchus, and later, when you create a duplicate already Roman sculptor copied the image of the constellations.
In addition, on a globe statue Atlanta Farnese found many specific details that indicate that Hipparchus led independent detailed observations. After these comparisons revealed distinct features that are different from the description of both Ptolemy and other ancient scholars — Aratus, Eratosthenes, Eudoxus, and others.
Now that is more or less proven that previously considered as lost star catalog of Hipparchus did survive, it will be possible to try to answer two important questions: what Hipparchus used as coordinates, and what share of Ptolemy borrowed his catalog to include his "Almagest" . Although, according to Schaefer, the most remarkable thing that happened to mankind to rediscover one of the greatest specimens of ancient scientific thought.