November 13, 2012 17:43
The ancient Egyptians believed that magic allows the contact between people and the gods (or demons), and between the worlds of the living and the dead.
Resorts to it as to ensure yourself a comfortable future in the afterlife, and to solve problems on earth.
Mystery of the Sphinx
On faith in the power of ancient magic, evidenced by the inscription on a stone slab placed between the paws of the Sphinx guarding the pyramid of Khafre in El Giza. The inscription reads: once the pharaoh Thutmose IV, who was then still a prince, tired after hunting, asleep at the foot of the Sphinx.
In a dream he was a god-Horem ahet-Khepri-Re-Atum, who represented the Sphinx. He ordered a statue of clean sands, which were brought by the wind from the desert and by the time of Thutmose was almost completely buried the Great Sphinx. As a reward for this service God has promised to make Prince Pharaoh. Waking up, Thutmose ordered to immediately begin execution of the divine will, and soon cleared the Sphinx became pharaoh. Thutmose IV rules around 1397-1388 years BC. e.
Description of one of the sections of magic — art call spirits of the dead or necromancy — is set out in manuals kept in museums in London and Leiden, in the Louvre. There are detailed methods for establishing contacts not only with the gods and spirits of the kingdom of light, but with demonic creatures, and ruined, propane showers. It was believed that necromancy allows you to receive messages, tips and instructions from the other world, and make requests to staying there beings. All these actions are accompanied by certain, often very complex rituals.
The knowledge of the existence of the ancient Egyptians, appearance and occupation demons were much larger and richer than the knowledge of European magicians in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
The main source of information about the underground demons — is the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. From it we learn that the owners of this sad place guarded gates of the underworld kingdom of penetration of "wicked", roamed the underground possessions of Osiris, and the food in this dark world, they were dead bodies, and they quenched their thirst with their blood.
How to communicate with the other world
The main content of the magical rituals were spells. They used to call creatures from another world. Caster subdued demons world of the dead to his will, and then transmitted back to the place of permanent residence. Spell spoken or read with special intonations, accompanied by appropriate gestures and postures. Each mage had its own set of spells, which he kept in the strictest confidence, because we believe that if they know about the "colleague" and, even worse, try to use them, they will lose power.
Here is an example of spells and its implementation, taken from an ancient text, and presented in the famous novel "Pharaoh" Boleslaw Prus (translated E. Troepol'skaya)
"Then the magician raised his hands and said," Heavenly Father, gentle and merciful God, cleanse my soul. Here I am — based on God's help, I — visionary and fearless … I — mighty — and encourage you to conjure. Attend me, obedient — in the name of Aye Sarayah … In the name of the almighty and eternal God … Amorul, Taneha, Rabur, Latisten. I charge you and call. The name of the star, which is the sun. " Suddenly, all was quiet. Before the altar appeared a ghost in the crown, with a staff in his hand, riding on a lion.
— Beroes! Beroes! — Said the specter of a hollow voice. — Why do you love me call? "
Supplies and equipment magic rituals
Special kind of "applied" Witchcraft was the creation of substitute bodies, which were used solely for the purpose of black magic. The ancient Egyptians were convinced that if the mage has molded wax figure of a man and will perform certain rituals on it, then the results will certainly affect the person that served as the prototype figures. On the prevalence of such manipulations with dolls made of wax show, in particular, the inscription on the sarcophagus of the Middle Kingdom (2040-1783 (or 1640) years BC. Oe.), And ancient texts.
In the so-called "Papiruse Lee" is this entry: "Pentiboon who was the manager of the estate, said to him:" Bring me a book that would give me magical powers and authority. " And he brought him a book on magic from the library of Pharaoh Vesermaat Re-Meri-Amun, the great god, his master, and he went down to apply the divine power against his people. His assistant El rem made of wax figures of people, and offer them different charms and spells. And so they both let loose on the people of the disease, pestilence, and other misfortunes. "
And here is a snippet of text from the "Papyrus Rollin ':
"I resorted to witchcraft to cause and bring misfortune. I made a few wax figures of gods and men, then to call these people and tabes necrosis members. I gave these figures Rabbekameo whom divine're not appointed governor of the house. "
In the papyrus tells ministers harem conspiracy against Rameses III, the last pharaoh of the outstanding New Kingdom, who ruled around 1185-1153 years BC. e. Participated in the plot and some sorcerers who practiced black magic and turned his art against Pharaoh and his courtiers. But as the story on the papyrus, the plot revealed. Conspirators, the leaders of which were considered two sorcerer tried.
One mage brutally executed, while others were forced to commit suicide.
However, the services of the black magic used not only the conspirators, but also the highest Egyptian know before the pharaohs inclusive. After all, they had to fight against their enemies for life and death. In these cases, they certainly benefit was the "Book of the overthrow of Apophis', proposing, for example, a way to destroy enemies:
"Make the wax figures of all living and non-living enemies of Pharaoh, and write on them the names of these people green.
Fold figures in the box, spit on them, and then trample "unclean" left foot … "
Is this not the source of the expression "to stand with the left foot?"
"After that iskoli knife and throw them into the burning straw, which is then put out, the bay urine of adult women."
One of the strongest magic of ancient times was considered as an amulet. Its purpose — to protect the owner from all sorts of trouble.
According to the Roman writer and historian Pliny the Elder, in ancient Egypt, amulets were most common in the New Kingdom (1582-1070 years BC. Oe.). Amulets were made of precious and common stones, metal, glass and wood.
These could be pieces of papyrus or fabric spell or magical drawings of characters. Sometimes amulets in the form of small objects placed inside nodules on the surface of a woven belt.
Most closely Magic in Ancient Egypt was associated with medicine and healing. The greatest of sages, sorcerers and healers in the Egyptian tradition holds Imhotep, the supreme official of Pharaoh Djoser, who reigned about 2630-2611 years BC. e. Name and title of Imhotep — the builder of the first pyramid, stepped tomb of Djoser at Saqqara — remained on the statue of the pharaoh in a memorial church at the pyramid.
But thank healer outweighed all other services Imhotep, and he was later deified as the patron of healing, especially worshiped in Memphis. Since the middle of the first millennium BC. e. Greeks began to identify it with Asclepius, the god of medicine, has the ability, even raise the dead. In ancient Roman mythology, Asclepius Aesculapius matches.
Revenge of the sarcophagus of a looted tomb
One of the most important tasks of magicians in ancient Egypt was to guard the secrets and the rest of their former masters, and patrons after their transition to another world.
And they do an excellent job with this task as in life and after death.
There is abundant evidence that in ancient times the fate of retribution robbers and defilers of tombs of noble Egyptians. It is widely known about the sudden and mysterious death of many of those who took part in the opening and research famous tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. But few know about one more, not less mysterious and sinister stories associated with the opening of the tomb priestess of the god Amon-Ra, which is about 3,600 years ago lived in the city Veset and was buried in the Valley of the Kings near Biban el Muluk. Her grave robbed the 60-ies of the XIX century. The mummy of the priestess is not available, but a sarcophagus depicting a female face demonic beauty intact. They say that all those who have dealt with this sarcophagus, overtook premature and unexplained death. Including all its successive owners. A photographer takes pictures of the sarcophagus, on one of the photos allegedly saw as a living, a person with a beautiful Egyptian sinister smile. The last owner of the relics saved her life that gave it as a gift to the British Museum. But the spell remains in effect. When it became clear that the acquisition of the sarcophagus mortality among museum staff has increased dramatically, it was decided to hide the mummy in the basement, and the room set up.
Meanwhile, the Americans are interested in the sarcophagus, and in 1912 was organized by his secret delivery to the U.S.. Relic packaged in a simple box in the cargo customs declaration, bill of lading and it was recorded as "a box of books." April 10, 1912 in Southampton, it was loaded on the most modern and safest ship Royal Mail. This boat was the "Titanic", is sent to his first working trip. On the night of 14 to 15 April there was that everyone knows: the giant ship collided with a huge iceberg and sank. Of the 2224 passengers were saved only 710.
As it turned out, the path of the "Titanic" was the only fatal iceberg within a few tens of miles.