In the twentieth century, the main purpose of mercenaries was Africa. Its veterans have flooded the second World War, the Korean, Vietnam and other wars as an instrument to control the situation in the colonies. Later in the process of decolonization of the continent is awash with blood, and for those in the main were "dogs of war". From the abyss of war, Africa is not going to make it: the slaughter on religious, political, ethnic based in Algeria, Djibouti, Liberia, Cote d'Ivoire, Rwanda, Central African Republic, Chad, Darfur, millions of victims, 10 of millions of refugees. And therefore legitimate (and not so legitimate) modes are left to fight for power, focusing on worthless military. And then it offers some kind of private army.
For example, the South African company EO — Executive Outcomes («Effective execution"). Fame came to her in 1995 in Sierra Leone rebels smashing everything and everyone, occupying new areas, the order of the day or was already finishing massacre — and a cornered government appealed for help to the EO. In the division of the country came from only 160 fighters. Steel hand to re army in two weeks they changed the course of events: the instant the air strikes, attacks by helicopter gunships and tanks — the master defeated the rebels numbering in the hundreds of times greater than themselves, without losing any of 1 person. In 1998, South Africa forbade mercenary, and EO «disappeared».
Mercenaries and worked in Angola, but it did not bring peace, faster, on the contrary. After independence in 1975, there was 30 years plainclothes war, which cost millions of lives. Waged war not share power allies jointly kicked out of here Portugal: the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Alliance for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). And helped them to 80 personal armies, gathered under the banners of "wild geese" from all over the world: Foreign Legion France, South Africa, paratroopers, Ukrainian pilots, Nepalese Gurkhas.
In the Congo, private armies hired all opponents. French Geolink, however, could not prevent the defeat of dictator Mobutu, Kabila defeated his rival and, in turn, enlisted the services of the same EO; mobutovtsy also neighbors Rwanda and Uganda have hired Stabilco and another office of the Republic of South Africa; Avient (USA) bombarded on assignment in Zimbabwe, another pawn of the African war of "all against all."
Later dramatically worsened the situation in Chad rebels supported by Sudanese rebels stormed the capital N'Djamena. And the Sudanese themselves in 2000 in the Darfur war began, when it found a large oil supplies.
Not so long ago, the blood spilled in the World Tourism in Kenya: South American defenders suddenly claimed to revise the results of the presidential election — and the massacre began. Roles true divided: some set fire to the country, while others are sent back wage "firemen".
The reason readiness crisis managers assist — only business enthusiasm. Africa remains one of the most lucrative targets mercenaries, because they serve and multinational companies, interested in local natural resources. Much money is earned on the protection of deposits, sometimes even twice, because the client provides to the same concession to develop. "Soldiers of Fortune" — a special danger for Africa according to the UN, up to 100 private companies offer services in Africa in matters of war.
Europe: instead of a mercenary soldier
After the collapse of the socialist system, the world situation has changed. Freed from the fear before the Russian invasion, the West reduces its military might and main, designed to war against the Eastern Bloc. In all European countries the number of NATO tanks, warplanes and warships major classes of rapidly decreases, but it grows the number of armored vehicles, transport planes, helicopters, landing craft, ie infrastructure for the conduct of local low-intensity conflicts. So real preparing future wars around the world for resources, either by inhibition of potential threats away from their borders.
And here is where the "civilized world" falls into the trap of a full life: go into the army no one wants. For example, in Germany a year of 440 thousand young men of military age in the army (9 months) are 70 thousand, and the alternative service — 60 thousand. The Company rejects the concept of "duty to the fatherland", "man's duty", calling recruits becomes unenforceable in principle. And the motivation is a fighter that doing at least as much as, or severe war is simply unimaginable. And it is natural for the rapid decrease in the properties of the human material.
The accelerated reduction of armies and patsifizatsiya that their remains are inadequate to new tasks, for police operations in third world countries — it is very specific and quite dangerous. Few Europeans want to do it now, and the authorities are left with two options — hiring of foreigners in the armed forces and the transition to a "private" Prof. army.
The first way is by France, England, Spain, evenly transforming their armies in foreign legions, typing in the former colonies of frames for which the hardships and privations of a poor service even better life at home. The possibility of death is considered acceptable risk adverse. This motivation of personnel makes worthless army to the harsh war.
U.S. rate on personal army
USA go the other method. How intensely belligerent power, they are most in need of a mercenary fighting force. Army and the Marine Corps, bearing the brunt of war and loss in Iraq and Afghanistan, the need to replenish, but their number is constantly decreasing. So the Pentagon in Iraq relies on the introduction of entire armies of personal PMF (Private Military Firms). At first they were guarding the different leaders (politicians, businessmen) and convoys, but later switched to direct military action. According to the Brookings Institution, together with the 160 thousandth military contingent here at the moment are at war officially 200,000 civilian officials. Of these 120 000 — Iraqis 21000 — Americans and 59,000 — the rest. The war to them that "the mother is native." Business is business, and politics has nothing to do with it. So here are moving citizens and those states that do not participate in the war. For example, in the ranks of American and British PMF is at war a significant amount of the Germans, although
the official Berlin was and still is one of the main enemies of the war in Iraq.
There exists a kind of division into classes. Elite bodyguards of the U.S. and the UK provide security for diplomats and Iraqi top, receiving an average of $ 1200 a day. But standing at roadblocks in the non-hazardous "green zone", "laborers" from Peru, Angola, etc. cost the U.S. budget even cheaper, to 7500 dollars per month. But envy "long dollar" mercenaries do not need to: their loss is at least no less than a standing army, but in the official statistics do not uzreesh. According to media reports, only Blackwater in Iraq has lost more than 1,000 people killed and 15,000 wounded. And so intensely recruited "cannon fodder" on the side. In South America, it is engaged in a Latin American subsidiary of Halliburton, in Iraq for more than 10,000 mercenaries from the region. A huge number of Ukrainians in the region.
Mercenaries own special immunity and immunity waived the laws of the country, and they are called "untouchables." They, like a South American GIs, live here on the principle "Every person outside the camp — a possible enemy, so shoot first." Cases with the military stretched, because the same South American army is trying to do business with the local population, and each time after one more shot people "dogs of war" have to do this anew. Besides the military with envy are the highest salaries mercenaries.
XXI century: PMF as a sector of the market
In the process of local wars past 20 years mercenary risen by leaps and bounds. Where the rule of law is crumbling and refuses municipal authority, blooms his "old new" look — the personal army, inexorably gaining momentum, as a sector of the market. In 2006 there were an estimated 3,000 PMF: 55% — of the U.S. (40% of them came after 11.09.2001, the), 27% — of the EU, to 9% — with the Near East and from South Africa. The number of employees is seeking 2 million people, the total market capitalization exceeded $ 20 billion. bucks, and the volume of services provided, according to various sources — from 60 to 180 billion dollars. dollars a year.
Now PMF — a global military business organized with the efficiency of multinational companies, is open to anyone who pays, not only violates the laws as laws against "private warfare" is simply not in fact, the real army in 10's of thousands of people with a new technique, in that h . languid weapons (helicopters, armored vehicles, artillery).
Mercenaries of the XXI century has shared a delicious pie wars, as in Iraq PMF combined in Private Security Company Association of Iraq. At the Pentagon working Military Professional Resources (MPRI), Kellog, Brown & Root (KBR), Special Operations Consulting-Security Management Group (SOC-SMG), DynCorp International, Aegis Defense Services Ltd, Global Risk Strategies, Blackwater Worldwide. Huge demand yuarovtsy: Combat Force, Honey Badger Arms & Ammunition, Shield Security, Longreach Security.
"Internationalists war" omnivores and are willing to take at least some business in at least some part of the world. At the moment, the main trend of the U.S. Army — the transfer of functions hired PMF with their mass spetsuslug. They have built virtually all U.S. military bases abroad. Their bread — direct military action, military management, protection of civilian and military facilities, VIP-persons, recruitment and training of staff, all kinds of logistics, engineering, airfield, transportation security, de-mining, information intelligence. Absolutely brand new service — techno exploration. Thus, firms developers unmanned "Predator» (General Atomics) and "Global Hawk» (Northrop Grumman) are engaged in their maintenance and management directly in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, the military just put them puzzle.
PMF — the fastest growing branch of the U.S. military sector. While working there, the retired army and intelligence services are striking on their own native army, taking away her bread. GI terminates the contract and go to these offices, the number of separations calculated tyschami. So maybe all of these personal office — state harmful pleasure? The country is their gain. In 1-x, PMF do puzzles though by what means, without thinking about the laws. In-2, it is possible to reduce the loss of their own. Unlike the soldiers' graves the bodies of mercenaries vorachivayutsya home anonymously, without spoiling the official reports. B-3, subtly argued that the PMF cost the government less than their own army. In fact contain a mercenary is about 10 times more expensive than a fighter standing army. But it's too late, the process is irreversible, and now without privateers Pentagon can not spend even a limited military operation. Thus, the fuel supply for the troops in Iraq for 100% privatized. Service of this war is worth U.S. forces PMF billion to pay for their services out every fifth dollar economical war.
And specifically, the lack of responsibility for the loss and the atrocities of mercenaries is leading to their wider use in the wars, coupled with regular armies or instead of them. Overhead relegated to the second plan. Personal army pressed by former armed forces. The war "privatized". A PMF are becoming increasingly popular in the middle of the control of many states. Things have gone so far that sometimes employ them even official international organizations.
Set mercenaries strictly organized. Fully open, the Web, the customer offer highly trained experienced staff. Preference is given to a former army soldiers and police special condition: more than 5-8 years of experience. The salaries are 3-4 times more than a standard army, work at a pace "3 months of service — 3 weeks paid vacation." The company provides a fighter weapon, equipment, food, insurance, and his family benefit in case of death or severe injury.
Mercenary thousands of years, but by 1977, the UN agreed on the definition of "mercenary. " It was stated in the Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, Art. 47: "The mercenary — a person recruited for roles in armed conflicts and to take part in it, is the real reward is much greater than the salary of military personnel of the same rank of the army of this country, is not a citizen — participants of the conflict, no other state in the targeted area conflict on official functions. " Effect of international treaties apply to the country, they have signed, unless the contract of mandatory for all recognized. And though many have ignored the Protocol (eg USA), but specifically its article 47 of mandatory for implementation by all countries. Was unambiguous, and the Declaration of the United Nations General Assembly in 1970: "Every government should refrain from the organization of irregular forces or armed bands, including mercenaries, for incursion into the area of another state." International Convention against the Recruitment, implementation, financing and training of mercenaries (UN resolution on 04.12.1987, the) led to that mercenary acts aimed at overthrowing the government, undermining the constitutional order or territorial integrity of the country. International law recognized mercenary international criminal offender and must answer to the tribunal. However, the Convention entered into force barely 12 years later, and signed it only about 30 states, some of which are themselves used mercenaries. Mercenaries are not a military advisers who do not take a direct part in hostilities and serv
ing in a foreign army under the agreement between the countries, as volunteers if they are included in an army at war (V Hague Convention of 1907 "On the Rights and Obligations of Neutral Powers and Persons in the land War ").
But so far not been resolved, fall under the definition of a mercenary fighters PMF. It's true, and there is private army, composed of experts. By internationalist humanitarian law they are not combatants and do not have the status of prisoner of war, ie, risk of becoming a prisoner before the court. And the attitude to them — there is no place worse for humanity is better not to count.
There are national laws prohibiting the use of mercenaries, in Russia this century. 359 of the Criminal Code. Subject of the crime is a person who has attained 16 years of age and acting on purpose, that is, knowing that committing a sin, and wishing that "in order to get the real reward is not a national of a country participating in the armed conflict, as well not a person directed to carry out formal commitment to the conflict zone. " The role of recruitment in armed conflict, shall be punished with imprisonment up to 7 years, the recruitment of mercenaries — to 8 years, and the recruitment of a person in the performance of official position — up to 15 years. However, a similar convictions so far nothing is clear.
And this is the law of other states mercenary activities not considered a crime.
Fighter era of globalization
Now in the middle of "dogs of war" is not the only one who is interested is real. Exactly a new phenomenon — mercenaries on religious grounds. It acts as a shock force terrorist centers for destabilization. Our homeland has already experienced for themselves such an attack. Exclusively in the 2000 war in Chechnya has led to 3,000 foreigners. There have been killed and 1000 foreign mercenaries, including from Palestine, Lebanon, UAE, Egypt, Yemen, Jordan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Tunisia, Turkey, Tajikistan, Algeria, Syria. The massive introduction of mercenaries can read about taking place foreign armed aggression.
Coming troubled times. On the planet less "free" resources, access to them is complicated, so it is not far off the struggle for "fair redistribution":
Countries in the criteria of globalization more shall be removed from their own ancestral natural functions, including and from the conduct of the war. Their place is taken by multinational companies thinking categories benefits, equipment and the right of private armies "to punish and pardon." The consequences of such "privatization of war" may prove very nasty. After all, TNK, having unlimited funds, will advance their goals, always going against the interests of the rest of the population. "Market Approach" to the war — a direct path to the future of the oceans of blood and fire world. View of modern warfare radically changed: the personal army can come at any moment on someone's orders.
True, no one has repealed and traditional war in which the stability criteria of the mercenary army tends to zero. After all, an important drawback mercenaries — motivation, where the goal — to make money, and not die or become crippled.
Although the war that're on the other side of the globe, "someone else's house," in the end can be thin and lose. Just with the defense of the fatherland mercenary army completely worthless, is not suitable in principle. That is very clearly set the example of Kuwait in August 1990: mercenary army, just a tremendous scale of the microscopic country had a real opportunity to fully withstand a couple of days, waiting for assistance from its own allies in the Persian Gulf. But, kitted out with the most modern weapon, the Kuwaiti "pros" showed complete failure against mandatory military service in Iraq. And in fact, simply vanished without putting up resistance. By the way, after the liberation of Kuwait is also defected to the general conscription.
So probably more useful to ordinary fighters willing to die for their country. And specifically for this profession — to defend their homeland — will be in great demand. All this must be taken into account in military construction and in planning for future military operations.
How not to remember it all already: in ancient Rome — the war hands of foreigners in medieval Europe — privatization armies.
And in both cases, a good deal is not completed.