When in 1941 the choicest German divisions invaded Russian Alliance, the victory of Hitler's Nazis seemed inevitable. On the outskirts of Moscow, German troops were stopped. So was the myth of the invincibility of the Third Reich.
In August 1939, Germany finished the preparation of the war in Europe. Not even a war on two fronts, Hitler offered Stalin to sign a non-aggression, which promised Russian Union is not only the world, and the expansion of the boundaries due to the accession of Estonia, Latvia, Poland and the right-bank Moldova (later, and Lithuania). Previously, the Soviet Union was negotiating with Britain and France on the development of the anti-Hitler coalition. At one point in the negotiations were broken off, and August 23, 1939, arrived in Moscow Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany, Joachim von Ribbentrop. On the same day the contract was signed a non-aggression. Nine days later, on September 1, the Germans invaded Poland. Thus began the second global war. October 17, Reddish Army ran across the border and occupied the right bank Poland. In September — October Russian alliance concluded with Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia "mutual aid agreements". In the Baltic countries entered part of the Red Army. During the war in Western Europe in the spring and summer of 1940, the Germans occupied Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, and a huge part of Belgium and France. These criteria Russian administration sought to prevent Germany nor the smallest occasion for the outbreak of hostilities: the USSR even continued deliveries to Germany and grains such important raw materials such as oil and steel ore. Having conquered France, and all the stronger holding almost all of Europe, Hitler ran into resistance of England. It became evident that the planned for 1940 year The British invasion of the island will not take place because the Germans obviously do not have enough manpower and resources for strategic amphibious operations. In this regard, the main forces of the Wehrmacht began planning a war with Russian Union. Already 31 July 1940 Hitler said at a meeting that the resistance of the UK based on the existence of the USSR. "If our homeland is broken, — he stressed — the UK lost the last hope." December 18, 1940, Hitler gave the order to start preparing for the scheduled follow-summer blitzkrieg ("lightning war") against the Russian Union. The embodiment of the plan "Barbarossa", named by the name of the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire Frederick I Barbarossa, who in the Middle Ages, struck East, was to take no longer than 3 months. This required at least 3 million last fighter, about 3,400 tanks and 3,000 aircraft — such a big campaign on land history has never known. In June 1941, almost all pointed to the fact that Germany has launched preparations for a war against the Russian Union. And Stalin, trying to delay its onset, gave the order not to succumb to provocations and abide by the terms of the Contract of non-aggression. About 2-o'clock in the morning June 22, 1941 freight train loaded with Russian grain across the border, heading to Germany. After one hour 15 minutes, not bothering to an official declaration of war, Hitler ordered his troops to cross the border and forced march to move to Moscow. Non-aggression pact was broken. He survived 22 months.
Miscalculation of Hitler
The Nazis despised Russian, called them "Untermensch" — "subhuman." Hitler believed communism fiction Jewish intellectuals and wanted to kill "class Bolsheviks and Jews." By adopting the strategy of unprecedented ruthlessness, Hitler told his generals that in Russia you can not observe the rules of war, as the Soviets did not signed the Geneva Convention. Terror has become a major weapon of war against the people. The Nazi Party and the SS immediately took control of the occupied territories. All Russian commissars and Jews were ordered to be shot on the spot. Above the Russian Union was in mortal danger. July 3, Stalin, for the first time in many years, and long-term self-government directly toward the people, urged people to defend their homeland. Against the Soviet Union were also allies of Germany — Romania, Hungary, Italy, Finland. More powerful group acted on the Minsk-Moscow (Army Group "Center"). By July 3 German troops advanced deep into the Russian countryside more than 500 km and were halfway to Moscow. "In fact, Hitler said, for the next day — you can assume that the enemy lost the campaign." Two weeks later, the Germans seized with a natural corridor leading to Moscow, to the Russian capital was 320 km. It seemed to decisive victory were only a few days are. To prevent the strengthening of Russian groups on Capital and the direction of the German economy to provide raw materials and food to the troops, Hitler sent his armies to the north, to Leningrad, and in the rich industrial, coal and oil areas in the south. He believed that the taking of Leningrad will be a big mental victory, and access to raw materials was of great importance of success for its excellent strategic plans. He pinned his hopes to achieve all 3 goals before the coming winter. First, despite the fear of his military advisers, everything went according to plan. By September 8, 1941 Leningrad was completely blocked from the land to the north of the Finnish troops, and to the west and south — German. The Germans did not even felt the need to take the city on the move, believing that exhausting siege, constant bombing, cold and hunger to break the will encircled Leningrad. In the south, to September 20, the Germans seized with Kiev, and 700,000 prisoners were sent to the camps. For two months of the war, Hitler had lost 409,998 people, including 87,489 killed. More than half of the way he needed tanks were put out of action. The onset of autumn forced the German High Command to rush to implement the goals set in the plan "Barbarossa". The direction of the cerebral stroke remained the same — to Moscow. To realize the decisive operation "Typhoon" Hitler's command in the Army Group "Center" was centered 1.8 million, higher than 14,000 guns and mortars, 1,700 tanks and about 1390 aircraft. Russian army group in this area consisted of about 1.2 million people, 7,600 guns and mortars, 990 tanks and 677 aircraft. So Makarov, Russian troops 1.5-2 times lower than in German as in personnel, and military technology.
The intervention of the above
By September 30, started another German offensive. A small reddish Army bore the loss. The two armies were "in the bag" encirclement of Bryansk and four — Vyazma. In captivity were still about 660,000 people. The road to Moscow was practically free. But in October, went rains and the pace of the coming of German troops has slowed significantly and amounted to an average of 2-3 km per day, thousands of vehicles stuck in the mud. By the time the Russian managed to strengthen the defense of the capital, throw back 30 Siberian divisions. In addition, Russian troops received new tanks "T-34" and rocket launchers "Katyusha". Up to 100,000 Muscovites in the main ladies were digging anti-tank ditches, build defensive structures, installed barbed wire. About 2 million inhabitants were evacuated to the east of the capital. In the end, the first winter frost bound gryazyuka, and November 15-16 grouping Germans resumed coming to Moscow. In the fields near the newly turned bloody fights. On some sections of the Germans managed to get closer to Moscow on 25-30 km. Strengthened frosts almost tore the Germans: car engines, tanks and machine refuses to work because it used the old grease. First Decemb
er, the temperature fell to minus 40 ° C, and people started to take: 14000 Nazis had to cut off the limb. Russian troops also, in spite of a few thousandths of loss and cold, counter-attacked, preventing the Germans to move to Moscow. Each of days it became increasingly apparent that the pressure of the Nazi forces weakening. In the battle for Moscow in the German High Command was not significant reserves, because coming to a halt.
End of Illusions
— The notion that the enemy forces opposing the Army Group "Center", exhale, is an illusion — reported Dec. 1 a German general. After a day or two began a massive counter-attack Russian troops designed Zhoroj Marshal Zhukov, and the Germans began to retreat. Until the end of this unusually menacing winter Germans failed to take the initiative. They were only 43.5 km from Moscow, but to take it and could not. Leningrad, too, remained unconquered. The Germans continued to detain Ukraine — the main granary of the country — and much of the deposits of coal and iron ore, but the Russian troops did not let the enemy in actual principal oil fields of the Caucasus. Like Napoleon, Hitler failed to take Russia. Sealing the determination of their own generals panicked, he did everything to the army continued to fight. Ordinary men doing the will of the Fuehrer, even when they were obliged to eat the meat of the fallen horses. But the world has already seen that the army of Nazi Germany can be overcome, and this has had a psychological impact of strongest in the United States and England. On the one hand, for the 6 months of the war in 1941, the Red Army irrevocable loss amounted to 3,137,700 persons. On the other hand, about a quarter of the German Army — 830 903 people, were killed, wounded, captured or missing, that disproved Hitler's statements that the reddish Army "Do not know how to fight." The Fuhrer was quick to put the blame on the "scapegoats". Were punished by angry army officers, including 35 commanders of corps and divisions, and Hitler became even more control over the output of military strategy. But his severe mistakes could not be hidden. He underestimated the power of resistance of the opposing side, its morale, the will to win, economic and defense capabilities, the conditions of war (lack of roads, muddy roads, unusual frosts), which made all the mysterious plans of a military campaign. Failure Coming to Moscow was a turning Fri during the second world war. The victory of Russian troops near Moscow has debunked the legend of the invincibility of the Wehrmacht, the accelerated clearance and then to strengthen the anti-Hitler coalition. By the end of 1941 caused the "troika" of the main allies in the war against Germany and its satellites: the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States. First, in 1942 already included the anti-fascist coalition of 26 countries. On the Soviet-German front during the past fights wrecked naikrupneyshie group of German troops, which lowered the Wehrmacht offensive ability. Therefore, preparing new coming summer of 1942, Hitler planned to strike at one southern section of the front to reach the Volga at Stalingrad, and then capture the oil fields of the Caucasus.
Taking advantage of the absence of a second front, the German command had brought to the East several divisions and launched on 28 June at the Donbass and the coming of Stalingrad. By July 17, German troops were at the walls of the town. Hitler's troops were superior Russian forces in manpower by 1.7 times in airplanes half. Russian warriors heroically repelled the enemy head and slowed down his movement, though it had to pay for tyschami lives of soldiers and officers. Russia lost at Stalingrad: 643,800 people, including their 323,800 have been killed and captured, 320 000 — wounded and shell-shocked, 1,426 tanks, 12,137 artillery pieces and mortars, 2,063 aircraft. The losses of the Germans were about 700,000 dead and the wounded, over 2,000 guns and mortars, more than a thousand tanks and aircraft above 1400. It was the biggest fight the second world war. Samples Germans capture the city on the Volga sought by Hitler's command all the new additions and assaults. Each month battle here directed about 250 000 people and most of the military equipment. But all that was burnt in the fire fighting at the walls of the town. In battles on the outskirts of Stalingrad and in the shock group suffered the greatest loss, but the goals did not have gained. In the course of the counter-offensive, which began on November 19, Russian troops surrounded at Stalingrad Hitler's 6th Army. As in 1941, raging cold, and unaccustomed to it, German soldiers were suffering from frostbite, disease and hunger. Hitler vowed that the blockade of the encircled be broken, but the January 31, 1943 the remains of the 300 thousandth army were obliged to surrender. And always at the Battle of Stalingrad, Wehrmacht troops have lost about 1.5 million people. Counteroffensive 3 fronts at Stalingrad was the initial pt for the next drawing the enemy strikes first and turned 1943 into a strategic Russian troops coming almost the entire Soviet-German front. Having exhausted and bled the enemy at the initial stage, Russian troops have made the conditions for the defeat of German forces at Stalingrad, mastering the strategic initiative and implementation of radical change in the course of the war. The times when the Germans head circled success and Red Square in Moscow, it was not a bit was one of the spoils of war, moved to the area legends. The victim a crushing defeat to the Fuhrer could only lament: "God of War turned away from us."