Most of the people who died of the USSR will agree with the views that Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika was a disaster for the 10-s of millions of people, and the benefit brought only insignificant stratum "new bourgeoisie". Therefore, one should remember the first "reconstruction", which was headed by Khrushchev, and that was to kill the USSR in the 1960s. But then it is not completely gone, Khrushchev could defuse it.
A blow to the future of the USSR
To start force behind Khrushchev (not completely disarmed "fifth column", so called. "Trotskyists", acting in the interests of the U.S. and the UK), removed Stalin and Beria LP. In this case, Khrushchev was based not only on the "Trotskyists", and on many figures "old school" like Malenkov and Mikoyan. They had to go to the honorable rest, replacement were professional and have received education in the USSR, the young staff. Stalin practically personnel reform began when at the XIX Congress of the CPSU in October 1952, he not only suggested the idea to reach the highest positions of the country and committed to the educated youth, and changed Molotov, Mikoyan, Kaganovich and Voroshilov. The process of the frame was just gaining momentum, because the question of what to do with the leader, became the party functionaries edge.
There was one more fundamental reason for the elimination of Stalin and his legacy. On it usually does not remember, even though it is of great importance, because for certain people own pocket is more important than the interests of the country and the people. At the October 1952 Plenum Stalin expressed the view that in about 1962-1965., While maintaining the current rate of development of the national economy, will likely transition from socialism to Soviet communism. And to begin the transition to the liquidation of the Union funds. They will be only for the outdoor trade. It is clear that for a large part of the range it was a heavy blow. By this time it almost formed a special bureaucratic class that had the big sum in rubles. Certainly, many have accumulated significant amounts in the accounts and foreign banks. If after 10-15 years of communism in the USSR comes, what will happen to these funds? Run for the border? Means losing your own highest status, all of the credit, titles will be canceled. The only way — as quickly as possible to get rid of Stalin and his followers.
Get rid of Stalin's "enemies of the people" and was necessary for another fundamental reason — Stalin put forward the idea of the gradual transformation of the Communist Party: it was to lose the role of "manager" of the state, becoming the forge of management training, educational function of the party was to reach the first plan . Naturally, many party officials did not want to lose the levers of government to give real power to the elected bodies of Russian (Soviet Union was on the way to ascertain the true people's power).
These and other activities have been designed for the medium term, but led many senior party figures horrified. That's why none of Lenin's an old guard had tried to suspend liquidation of Stalin and Beria, either themselves to continue their work. They are happy with the situation. It is clear that most of the senior party functionaries had no case to komplotu — they can be conditionally be called the "swamp". Some were aware of it, others have guessed, but their failure to act has promoted active group of conspirators (Khrushchev was the tip of the "iceberg"). It was the first and most important step towards the future of "perestroika" Russian Union. Russian peoples have been deprived of the future, opening a bright future, which allowed people to transfer the land to the next step of development, to open a kind of "golden age" of the planet. USSR under the control of Stalin and his associates could have offered to the population and other land development concept, a more just and humane than Western. This explains the tremendous popularity of the USSR and its development model in the Stalin era. Khrushchev and the people behind it have crossed the opportunity.
The second step, which dealt a terrible blow case of Stalin and the Soviet Union meant the world, was the report of Khrushchev's personality cult of Stalin in February 1956 at the XX Congress of the Communist Party. In practice, this report has become a kind of reference point early anti-socialist, anti-people reforms and tests Khrushchev. This act has been undermined the foundation of all Russian statehood. Millions of people, both in the USSR and abroad, warmly accepted the standards of communism were disappointed. Very fell prestige and authority of the Russian Soviet government. And there was a definite split in the party, many communists, the indignant attacks on Stalin, began to express their outrage. In the hearts of the people was sown distrust of the government. In Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland began a dangerous ferment. Time course Stalin was a "criminal", which remain in the socialist camp? The Western world has got a nice tool for information war with the Soviet Union and sotsblokom, was skillfully heat "reform" liberal sentiments.
Khrushchev, of course, was not the destruction of a genius, but he did a great job for other people. So, very smart move was a violation of the principle of "to each according to his work." Everywhere in the USSR entered egalitarianism. Now and "Stakhanovite", and quitters received prototype. This blow was the long run — the people were equally disappointed in socialism, its utility, began to inquire the price of living in Western countries. Another major blow to socialism in the Soviet Union, Khrushchev struck by the introduction of labor standards increase growth: growth in wage-ration has been frozen (under Stalin, after the liquidation of the consequences of war, yearly salary increases and the prices of the more important products are reduced, which symbolized property level management in the USSR), and the production rate began to rise. Industrial relations under Khrushchev began to remember the camp. It is worth recalling that under Stalin the real, monetary stimulation was held in high esteem. Even on the front of the military paid for downed aircraft or destroyed tank opponent. It is clear that many veterans do not perceive these funds, it is considered unacceptable in such a difficult time, but the system was. Output norms under Stalin podymali in connection with the introduction of new capacity in the production of leading technologies.
As a result, when Khrushchev began to take shape "socialist" elitist version of crowd-control model, suitable for Western civilization. People had to serve the party and bureaucratic nomenclature ("elite"), which created a peculiar little world. It is understood that at first it came to the top of the party. Typically, the Soviet Union was considered a socialist, but the basic principles have already been violated. Khrushchev socialism can safely be called state capitalism. One of the main features of capitalist society — is a steady increase in prices, with the first on the essentials. Under Khrushchev, prices crept up.
A blow to the armed forces
Khrushchev caused great damage and defense of the USSR. Under Stalin, immediately after the restoration of war-shattered economy, embarked on the construction of a massive ocean-going fleet. Why the USSR
water navy? Stalin was, of course, that the "peaceful coexistence" between capitalism and socialism impossible in principle. The collision was imminent. Because the Soviet Union needed a powerful navy, not to be afraid of anger majestic sea powers — the United States and England, and be able to defend its interests in at least some point of the World Ocean. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the powerful shipbuilding branch gave thousands of the country, 10 of thousands of jobs. Khrushchev destroyed this great and terrible death for the West project in the bud.
In addition, of strongest blow was inflicted on Russian aircraft, which Stalin has paid tremendous attention. This enemy has argued that since the Soviet Union has excellent ballistic missiles, the Tipo other destinations can seriously reduce costs, including aviation. A significant number of aircraft were scrapped, although they still long to guard their homeland, many promising breakthrough projects had been "slaughtered." So Makar, Khrushchev struck by the Navy and Air Force of the USSR (and of other troops suffered), and at the present time we litsezreem that specifically air force and navy are important tools in ensuring the sovereignty of the country.
The officer corps under Khrushchev just mangled. Hundreds of thousands of experienced military professionals who had experience behind the worst in the history of mankind war, war heroes just sent in his resignation. People simply deprived of land under their feet, firing without retraining, without shelter, without a referral to the latest service. Were disbanded many divisions, regiments and schools. Was put under the knife a huge amount of important military research and development projects that could reincarnate Russian Alliance in military space superpower, power in the 21st century is already the second half of the 20th century. West disarmament initiatives Khrushchev's policy of "detente" is not appreciated, nuclear tests lasted armies and navies are not reduced, the arms race lasted.
The destruction of agriculture and the Russian village
Khrushchev dealt a terrible blow to Russian agriculture Russian village. Food security is one of the foundations of the country. If the government is unable to feed itself, it has to buy food abroad, paying for it with gold, and their resources. Khrushchev's consolidation of farms (the number in 1957-1960. Decreased from 83 thousand to 45 thousand) and was this treacherous blow to Russian agriculture. Thousands of prosperous Russian collective farms, villages were declared unprofitable and in rather short time on the fictional reason destroyed. One of the attack on the village, was the closure of the machine and tractor stations (MTS) in 1958. Now the technique had to buy (and in the cost of the latest), maintain, repair and purchase by the collective farms that fell on their unsupportable burden. In the collective farms was not the usual repair facilities, hangars for storage. Thousands of trained personnel prefer to find another job than to receive lower wages in the collective farms. Destruction of thousands of "unpromising" villages actually was a fatal blow to the Russian countryside. Throughout the Soviet Union, particularly in the areas of the Great-appeared deserted villages, hamlets, almost was a process of "depopulation" of native Russian regions. The policy of eliminating the "unpromising" villages and had a large negative demographic effect, particularly since the Russian village gave the increase of population (also more healthy in terms of mental and physical health than the town).
A number of reforms and tests further exacerbated the situation in the agricultural sector (the result was the purchase of food abroad). Much money and effort has been invested in the development of virgin and fallow lands of the Volga region, southern Siberia, Kazakhstan and the Far East. A more common approach, designed for long-lasting effect, the result could be positive. But how to "storm and stress", the result was abysmal. An ancient agriculture in the European part of the Russian Federation have been abandoned, the young and experienced personnel were transferred to the new lands. Neobmyslenny project has absorbed a lot of money. The development of large areas were converted to salt marshes and deserts, had to rush to invest heavily in projects to restore land to protect it. Losses turned and corn project, and the "meat campaign," and "dairy records." Farming just flooded shaft disconcerting events.
Khrushchev managed to hold and "second collectivization" — by the decision of the December Plenum of the Central Committee in 1959 called for cattle to buy personal and household gardens, farms were forbidden. Frame household prevents farmers are one hundred percent made available in the collective farms. So Makar, hit the well-being of the villagers, who from their own farms could generate additional income. Many rural dwellers, these measures led to move to the city or to go to the new lands, because it was possible to "go to the people."
The course for the rehabilitation of people. Changes in the territorial-administrative division
February 7, 1957 was restored the Chechen-Ingush Republic (CIR), it is composed of autonomous included some of the right bank of the Terek Cossack areas (they were deprived of autonomy). In addition, from the Stavropol region in favor of CIR cut off from the left bank of the Terek Region 4, which earlier in the Chechen-Ingush republic were not included. And the eastern part of Stavropol — Kizlyar district, populated by Russian, passed Dagestan. During the rehabilitation of repressed peoples, the Chechens prevented vorachivatsya in mountainous areas, were sent to the land of the Cossacks. Another "mine" laid the transfer in 1957 of the RSFSR Crimean Ukrainian SSR in the field.
In 1957-1958. were restored national autonomy "innocent victims" of Stalinist repression of the Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Karachay and Balkar, these people have a right to return to their historic areas, which led to a series of clashes in the state soil and laid the foundation for future conflicts.
Also it should be noted that in the framework of the campaign to promote "national staff" representatives "titular nations" began to receive major posts in the administrations and party organs, the economy, education, health care, cultural institutions. These measures have had very negative consequences for the future USSR. "Frozen" in Stalin's "mine" state republics, autonomous regions, special attention to the "national cadres," the state of the intelligentsia under Gorbachev smash to pieces Russian Alliance.
Leakage of gold. The main foreign policy "achievements"
Moscow, in the course on "proletarian internationalism", launched a large-scale financing of Russian gold 10 s foreign communist parties. It is clear that this was a significant stimulation of "parasites". Cyborg Communist Party began to appear like mushrooms after a rain. Many of them, when Khrushchev was removed from power and cash flow declined, collapsed or fell among the very members. As part of that same year went unprecedented in its scale funding of different regimes in Africa, Asia and Latin America, which was called "friendly." Naturally, many modes are readily perceived support Russian "brothers" to get a little grant funding, assistance from the Russian professionals in the field of economy, defense, education, health, etc. In most cases, this financial and logistical (and of political ) aid does not bring benefits to the Soviet Union. Already in the years of Russian Federation, Moscow wrote off 10's billion debt with a number of states. And these tools, resources,
strength could induce the development of the USSR.
Namely, Moscow quite vain supported Egypt. The United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria) have received from the Soviet Union loan of 100 million dollars for the construction of the Aswan hydropower plants, Russian experts at assist in its construction. Moscow actually rescued Egypt from the combined fury of France, Britain and Israel. The result was disastrous — the mode of Sadat switched to the United States, the country began a persecution of communists. Quite vain supported Iraq and several other Arab and African states.
The big mistake of foreign policy under Khrushchev became the rupture of relations with China. In Stalin's time were for Chinese Russian "elder brothers" under Khrushchev became enemies. USSR had to be created on the border with China, a strong military forces to carry out activities to strengthen the border. Under Khrushchev, Moscow promised to give the people of the country of the rising sun three Kuril Islands (just do not have time). Because of this error (predatelstva!?) In Russia up to this time with Japan strained case. Tokyo gave hope for the transfer of part of the Kuril Islands. And the Japanese elite hopes that during the recent restructuring in Russia, Etorofu and Habomai will pass the Land of the Rising Sun.
In general strike that Khrushchev restructuring caused by demographics, the economy and the defense of the USSR was terrible, but not fatal. Khrushchev was removed from the helm of the Soviet Union and not allowed to finish the destruction of the Union. But particularly since Khrushchev's Soviet Union was doomed to death (it could save only the fundamental measure). In particular, the terrible danger represented a change of consciousness of the Russian people. Khrushchev's reforms, namely egalitarianism and privileged nomenklatura, led to the fact that a large part of the spiritual values of Russian society have changed for the worse. The virus "Westernism", consumerism has become uniformly kill the soul of the USSR. Many Russian citizens, especially the young, have come to believe that the work for the good of society — is a fraud, sassy operation, which impose a means of propaganda. That the dream of communism — is a chimera, a myth that is never realized. And in order to live well, you need to become bureaucrat or party official. As a result, the Soviet authorities began flooding the vertical konyukturschiki, careerists, people have a real public welfare was the highest standard.
That's when the West was able to uniformly change the consciousness of the inhabitants of the Soviet Union, to conduct an underground and an information war against the Russian (Russian) standards. As is known, together with Khrushchev's "thaw", against the Russian people turned strong information campaign. There was a change of values. Spiritual values are substituted for real. Specifically, in the era of Khrushchev's reforms was formed class-middle class inhabitants whose images can behold in Russian films, for which the means and things have become central to their lives. However, in the USSR dominated generation of heroes industrialization of the 1930s, stately Russian war, because its own significant contribution to the destruction of the USSR "commoners" were able to make only under Gorbachev. So, practically was created soil social base for the coming destruction of the Russian Union. Specifically, these people are happy to accept the reforms of Gorbachev and Yeltsin, they did not care about stately power, the blood and sweat of generations. They had hoped that they will live as over the hill, fine and clover. But life is rapidly put everything in its place. People's ownership in the hands of only a few predators.
Do not forget about this most vile factor "restructuring" of Khrushchev — the materialization of consciousness and individualization of the Russian people. Unfortunately, at the current time, this process has just received development. Destructive acts of Khrushchev became the basis for the collapse and death of the Red Empire.